Uses and gratifications of online advertising [Elektronische Ressource] / Abd El-Basit Mahmoud. Paul Klimsa. Philip Auter. jeffrey Wimmer

Uses and gratifications of online advertising [Elektronische Ressource] / Abd El-Basit Mahmoud. Paul Klimsa. Philip Auter. jeffrey Wimmer

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Fakultät für Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften Institute für Medien und Kommunikationswissenschaft Fachgebiet Kommunikationswissenschaft USES AND GRATIFICATIONS OF ONLINE ADVERTISING A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN GERMANY AND EGYPT A dissertation submitted to the technical university of Ilmenau (Germany) for the degree of Doctor of philosophy (PhD) in mass communication Presented by Abd El-Basit Ahmed Hashem Mahmoud Abdullah Shaheen (M.A.) The examination committee members Prof. Dr. Paul Klimsa (Technical University Ilmenau, Germany) Prof. Dr. Philip Auter (University of Louisiana, USA) Jun. Prof. Dr. Jeffery Wimmer (Technical University Ilmenau, Germany) Submitted May 18, 2010 urn:nbn:de:gbv:ilm1-2010000327 Declaration This is my original work and it has not been presented to any other university for a degree award or anywhere else for academic purposes. Signature: Date: Name: Abd El-Basit Ahmed Hashem Mahmoud Registration number: III Dedication To my daughter/ Fatema Al – Zahraa Shaheen. To my father/Sheikh Ahmed Hashem Mahmoud Abdullah Shaheen who passed away during my work in this dissertation, may Allah bless him and forgive all his sins. To my friend/ Sheikh Montaser Mahmoud Alrabab who passed away during my work in this dissertation, may Allah bless him and forgive all his sins. To my uncles who passed away during my work in this dissertation: • Mr.

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Fakultät für Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften
Institute für Medien und Kommunikationswissenschaft
Fachgebiet Kommunikationswissenschaft


USES AND GRATIFICATIONS OF ONLINE
ADVERTISING
A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN GERMANY AND EGYPT



A dissertation submitted to the technical university of Ilmenau (Germany) for the
degree of Doctor of philosophy (PhD) in mass communication



Presented by
Abd El-Basit Ahmed Hashem Mahmoud Abdullah Shaheen (M.A.)
The examination committee members
Prof. Dr. Paul Klimsa (Technical University Ilmenau, Germany)
Prof. Dr. Philip Auter (University of Louisiana, USA)
Jun. Prof. Dr. Jeffery Wimmer (Technical University Ilmenau, Germany)


Submitted May 18, 2010
urn:nbn:de:gbv:ilm1-2010000327

Declaration
This is my original work and it has not been presented to any other university for a degree
award or anywhere else for academic purposes.
Signature:
Date:
Name: Abd El-Basit Ahmed Hashem Mahmoud
Registration number:


III
Dedication

To my daughter/ Fatema Al – Zahraa Shaheen.

To my father/Sheikh Ahmed Hashem Mahmoud Abdullah Shaheen
who passed away during my work in this dissertation, may Allah
bless him and forgive all his sins.

To my friend/ Sheikh Montaser Mahmoud Alrabab who passed away
during my work in this dissertation, may Allah bless him and forgive
all his sins.

To my uncles who passed away during my work in this dissertation:
• Mr. Abd Elkareem Saadeek Shaheen
• Mr. Adel Elwardani Shaheen
• Mr. Ahmed Elwardani Shaheen
• Mr. Kamal Eldeen Hamdoon Kenawi
• Mr. Nashat Kenawi
May Allah bless all of them and forgive all their sins.

To the soul of my mother and the soul of my grandmother, may
Allah bless them and forgive all their sins.


V
Acknowledgement
My greatest debt of gratitude goes to my supervisor, Prof. Paul Klimsa, whose
insightful comments, scholarly guidance and cooperation encouraged and saw me through this
project. He was always patient and read every draft of the project.
Greatest thanks go to all my respondents for sparing their precious time, for being
cooperative and giving appropriate responses.
Special thanks go to my colleagues; Gunther Kreuzberger, Anja Beyer and Marion
Irmer, whose assistance made my academic life comfortable during my studies at technical
university of Ilmenau.
While it is not possible to give acknowledgements to all those who assisted me, I have
to give special thanks to my family and my friends whose prayers and moral support enabled
me to successfully pursue my study.
However, all errors and omissions, views and interpretations remain mine and should
not be attributed to any one of the above mentioned persons.


VII
Abstract
This study attempted to clarify the motives, attitudes, and obtained gratifications from
commercial websites as the most important format of online advertising, and to examine the
relationships among these elements. The present research has demonstrated that the
intersection of uses and gratifications theory and online marketing can lead to a deeper
understanding of the marketing constraints and utilities offered by interactive computer-
mediated communication technology.
An online survey was conducted with Egyptian and German users who visited
commercial websites. A total of 648 people responded to the survey, 352 of them to the
German version and 296 to the Arabic version of survey that questioned the reasons they use
commercial websites as well as what gratifications they obtain from this experience.
With more and more businesses worldwide establishing web presences, it is also
important to understand how an organization’s commercial website may affect a customer’s
perception of the organization. However, customers from different cultures would most likely
perceive different website characteristics as providing a value-added experience. Therefore, it
is important to understand how commercial websites vary in their approach not only across
businesses but across cultures, so content analysis of the sites, which were visited by sample,
was employed to better understand the nature of the content being consumed. A total of 252
visited commercial websites by the sample of German and Egyptian users were content
analyzed. Four websites had to be removed from the study due to technical errors involved in
coding the sites. Coders looked at quantity and type of ads displayed; format and features of
the ads, as well as the characteristics of the commercial websites as a whole.
The results of survey study indicated that respondents generally were positive about
their experience of using commercial websites, German respondents were slightly more
positive about using shopping utility of commercial websites than Egyptian counterparts. This
study also presented a theoretical model describing the relationships between the uses and
gratifications elements (motives, attitudes, usages, and gratifications) in the context of online
advertising particularly commercial websites. All the hypotheses of this study have been fully
supported except hypothesis 1; since it was partially supported.
Both of age and educational level of respondents have a significant effect on their
overall motives for using commercial websites, overall motives of using commercial websites
have a significant effect on the average time spent on these websites, motives of using
commercial websites and gratifications obtained from using these websites were both
positively and significantly related to positive attitudes toward using these sites, there is a
strong relationship between overall motives for using commercial websites and overall
obtained gratifications from using these sites, positive attitudes have a significant effect on the
average time spent on these websites, the consumers’ time spent on commercial websites had
a strong effect on consumers' gratifications obtained from these websites, and vice versa,
consumers' gratifications obtained from these websites had a strong effect on consumers’ time

IX
spent on these sites, and finally there is a significant difference between Egyptian and German
consumer’s attitudes toward using commercial websites.
Findings of content analysis study found that the websites that were visited by German
users used the basic and contact information more than did the sites that were visited by
Egyptian users. The study found that the websites that were visited by German users used
interactive features and offered ads more than did the sites that were visited by Egyptian
users.