Validity and Reliability of Experiment Planning in Education ; Edukologinio eksperimento tinkamumo ir patikimumo planavimas

Validity and Reliability of Experiment Planning in Education ; Edukologinio eksperimento tinkamumo ir patikimumo planavimas

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VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY Aušra Rutkienė VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF EXPERIMENT PLANNING IN EDUCATION (In Doctoral Dissertations in Education) Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Social Sciences, Education (07 S) Kaunas, 2008 1 The dissertation was prepared at Vytautas Magnus University in 2004-2008. Scientific supervisor Prof. habil. dr. Margarita Teresevičienė (Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Education – 07 S) Dissertation will be defended at the Council of Social sciences, Education, at Vytautas Magnus University: Chairman Prof. habil. dr. Kęstutis Pukelis (Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Education – 07 S) Members: Doc. dr. (HP) Genutė Gedvilienė (Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Education – 07 S) Doc. dr. Aušra Kazlauskienė (Siauliai University, Social sciences, Education – 07 S) Prof. dr. (HP) Jonas Ruškus (Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Education – 07 S) Prof. habil. dr. Mifodijus Sapagovas (Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Physical sciences - 01 P) Opponents: Prof. habil. dr. Kęstutis Kardelis (Lithuanian Academy of Agriculture, Social sciences, Education – 07 S) Prof. dr.

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VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY Aušra RutkienVALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF EXPERIMENT PLANNING IN EDUCATION (In Doctoral Dissertations in Education)Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Social Sciences, Education (07 S) Kaunas, 2008
The dissertation was prepared at Vytautas Magnus University in 2004-2008. Scientific supervisor Prof. habil. dr. Margarita Tereseviien(Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Education – 07 S) Dissertation will be defended at the Council of Social sciences, Education, at Vytautas Magnus University: ChairmanProf. habil. dr. Kstutis Pukelis (Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Education – 07 S) Members: Doc. dr. (HP) GenutGedvilien(Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Education – 07 S) Doc. dr. Aušra Kazlauskien(Siauliai University, Social sciences, Education – 07 S) Prof. dr. (HP) Jonas Ruškus (Vytautas Magnus University, Social sciences, Education – 07 S) Prof. habil. dr. Mifodijus Sapagovas (Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Physical sciences - 01 P) Opponents: Prof. habil. dr. Kstutis Kardelis (Lithuanian Academy of Agriculture, Social sciences, Education – 07 S) Prof. dr.(HP) Vilma Žydžinait(Kaunas University of Technology, Social sciences, Education – 07 S) The dissertation will be defended during the public session at the Council of Social sciences, Education, at 15:00, on June 30, 2008, at Vytautas Magnus University. Venue –Vytautas Magnus University, K. Donelaicio 52-422, LT-44244, Kaunas, Lithuania.The summary of the dissertation was distributed on May 28, 2008. Dissertation can be reviewed at the Library of Vytautas Magnus University and Lithuanian National M.Mažvydas library.
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 VYTAUTO DIDŽIOJO UNIVERSITETASAušra RUTKIEN
EDUKOLOGINIO EKSPERIMENTO TINKAMUMO IR PATIKIMUMO PLANAVIMAS (Edukologijos moksldaktaro disertacijose)Daktaro disertacija Socialiniai mokslai, edukologija (07 S) Kaunas, 2008
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Disertacija rengta Vytauto Didžiojo universitete 2004-2008 metais. Mokslinis vadovas: Prof. habil. dr. Margarita Tereseviien (Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija – 07 S). Disertacija ginama Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto Socialinimokslkoloedusgijo krypties taryboje: Pirmininkas: Prof. habil. dr. Kstutis Pukelis (Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija – 07 S) Nariai: Doc. dr. (HP) Genut Gedvilien Didžiojo universitetas, (Vytauto socialiniai mokslai, edukologija – 07 S) Doc. dr. Aušra Kazlauskien (Šiauli socialiniai mokslai, universitetas, edukologija – 07 S) Prof. dr. (HP) Jonas Ruškus (Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija – 07 S) Prof. habil. dr. Mifodijus Sapagovas (Matematikos i r informatikos institutas, fiziniai mokslai, matematika - 01 P) Oponentai: Prof. habil. dr. Kstutis Kardelis (Lietuvos kno kultros akademija, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija – 07 S) Prof. dr. (HP) Vilma Žydžinait (Kauno technologijos universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija – 07 S) Disertacija bus ginama viešame Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto Socialini moksledukologijos krypties tarybos posdyje 2008 m. birželio 30 d. 15 val. Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto 422 auditorijoje. Adresas: K.Donelaiio 52-422, LT-44244, Kaunas, Lietuva. Disertacijos santrauka išsista 2008 m. gegužs mn. 28 d. Disertacij galima peržirti Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto bibliotekoje ir Lietuvos nacionalinje M.Mažvydo bibliotekoje.
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CONTENTINTRODUCTION1. AN EXPERIMENT AS A RESEARCH METHOD IN EDUCATION1.1. Experimental Research in Education1.2. Variety of Experiments1.3. Planning an Experiment1.3.1. The main principles1.3.2. Experiment planning1.4. Reliability and Validity of an Experiment1.4.1. Reliability1.4.2. Validity1.5. Validity and reliability planning in experiment2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN2.1. Research Methodology2.2. Research Organization2.2.1. Methodology and organization of analysis of doctoral dissertations defended in Education2.2.2. Methodollogy and organization of survey with doctoral students in Education 2.2.2.1. Respondents of the first survey2.2.2.2. Respondents of the second survey2.2.2.3. Respondents of the third survey2.2.3. Organization and respondents of interview 2.2.4. One case research 3. THE USE OF EXPERIMENT IN DISSERTATION RESEARCH 3.1. Research Sample and Methodology Varienty in Doctoral Dissertations Defended in Education (1995-2005) 3.1.1. Interrelation between problem of the research and the use of an experiment3.1.2. The methods of research and data analysis used in dissertations 3.2. The variety of methods of research and data analysis used by doctoral students and their dynamics during studies 3.2.1. Results of the first survey with doctoral students 3.2.2. Results of the second survey with doctoral students 3.2.3. Results of the third survey with doctoral students 3.2.4. Dynamics in the shift of attitudes among doctoral students in all research phases 3.3. Planning experimental research ensuring internal and external validity and reliability 3.3.1. Application of experiment planning in practice 3.3.1.1. Arguments for the choice of experiment as a research method3.3.1.2. Organization of experiment planning3.3.1.3. Internal and external validity assurance3.3.2. Analysis of experimental research internal and external validity and reliability: case study 3.3.2.1. Internal and external validity assurance in experimental research3.3.2.2. Experimental research reliability assurance
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DISCUSSIONCONCLUSIONSLITERATUREANNEXES
The Scope of the Dissertation The dissertation consists of the introduction, thre e chapters and subchapters,
conclusions, and literature list of 154 literature resources. The work consists of 176
pages and 5 annexes, 58 figures and 38 tables.
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INTRODUCTION Doctoral studies are completed by preparation and defence of a doctoral dissertation, when a doctoral student must demonstrate wide scope of competences and skills presenting results of the research in dissertation. During assessment of the research, the competences and abilities to reveal the complexity of the problem, to prepare research project and to implement selected research methodology, as well as to analyse, present and interpret research results preparing proper conclusions and further dissemination and application of the results are taken into account. As the results of the research (Tereseviciene, Zuzeviciute, Rutkiene, 2006) show, doctoral students use different research methods. Almost one third of the doctoral students use an experiment in their research. Experimental research is a well known research method in biomedicine, technical and physical sciences. Different definitions of an experiment depend on the science where an experiment is used, on the goals of an experiment, how it is organized, etc. One of the urgentobprmsleis thelack of information on planning an experimental research in education. Wide use of an experiment in education nowadays formulated the researchobject of this dissertation which isplanning experiment in education, as only properly planned preparation for the research could result into successful research. The aimof the research is to prepare and to test the model of planning an experiment in education, which would help to ensure internal and external validity and reliability of experimental research. Tasks of the research 1.To define the place of an experiment among research in education. 2.To design the model of validity and reliability of an experiment in education. 3.To identify the sample of dissertation research and to analyse the variety of research and data analysis methods in prepared and defended dissertations in education in the last decade (1996-2005). 4.To reveal preparedness of doctoral students for res planning, earch implementation and statistical data analysis during study period. 5.To test experiment planning model.
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Defended statements: 1. Doctoral students in education use different empirical methods applying quantitative and qualitative research methods, however, qualitative research methods are used more often. Students use limited number of statistical analysis methods, thus they do not explore all data analysis possibilities. 2. Doctoral students planning an experiment do not pay sufficient attention to planning and validity and reliability assurance, but concentrate more on research process and presentation of the results. 3. The model of planning of an experiment helps to design an optimal plan for an experiment, ensuring its validity and reliability. The following research methods were applied during the research: analysis of scientific literature; document analysis; analysis of dissertations; expert evaluation; teinw;ierv content analysis; one case study. Research data analysed using SPSS 12.01 and MS Excel programs.
1. AN EXPERIMENT AS A RESEARCH METHOD IN EDUCATION This part of the dissertation covers scientific research and document analysis that helps to emphasize the place of an experiment among other research methods, to present the variety of experiments, the phases of an experiment, to define the validity and reliablity factors of an experiment, and to construct the model of planning of an experiment evaluating validity and reliability. 1.1. Experimental Research in Education G. Merkys (1996) emphasizes the following features that might characterize research as an experiment (the features of deterministic experiment): causal hypothesis; at least two different measurements; comparison procedure. Measurements received before experimental influx and after it are compared; experimental influx. Researcher can freely manipula with independent te variable;external influence factor control. Target sample sh ould be isolated from external factor influence that could have influence on independent variable; inductive thinking; principle possibility to repeat an experimental situation at any time. If a statistical statement is being measured empirically, such experiment is called stochastic and it has additional requirements. It can be: 1.Random sample. 2.Arguments for external and internal experimental reliability. 3.Possibility to identify (operationalize) variables meeting research problem. Thus summarizing experience of different scientists it can be stated thatenterimexp in education and-effectis an empirical research that helps to test causal-relationships‘ hypotheses by carefully planning and controlling education process or phenomenon conditions.An experiment can be placed besides such research a s correlation, causal comparative action research.
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Summarizing Creswell (2005), Fraenkel, Wallen (2006), Bitinas (2006), and Merkys (1996), characteristics and their allocation to other research methods are presented inTable 1. Table 1 Comparison of an experiment and other research methods EXPERIMENT ACTIONCORRELATION CAUSAL AL RESEARCH COMPARATIV RESEARCH EEARCRESHRandom assignment -+/- +/-External influx factor control+/- +/- -Manipulation of the independent variable- - + Comparison necessity+ + -Outcomes measures ++ + Validity and reliability assurance -+ + Structure of an experiment consists of (Merkys, 1996): independent variable(s); dependent variable(s); extraneous variables.The plan of an experiment provides a possibility to determine causal relations among variables. However, there are two problems that limit application of an experiment in social research. The first is practical applicability. An experiment cannot be possible applied in research in a great number of interesting cases. Another problem is ethics. Often certain questions significant for the research are not available for different ethical reasons.
1.2. Variety of Experiments Literature, namely Merkys (1996, 1999a), Kardelis(1997), Luobikiene et al. (1997), Cohen, Manion (1987), Bailey (1987), Bitinas (2006), Shadish et al.(2002), and Kempbell (1980) suggest very different ways of classification of the types of experiment according to various features.
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EXPERIMENT
PASSIVE (researcher is a passive participant, experimental situation is designed on the basis of samples)
LABORATORY (action takes place in an artificially created environment)
ONE GROUP DESIGN One target – sample group
ONE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
FORMATIVE (researcher influences the situation by independent variable functional view)
NATURAL (natural or actively directed) (action takes place in a natural environment)
TWO OR MORE GROUP DESIGNS Several different groups
FACTOR EXPERIMENT DESIGN
DATA ANALYSIS BASED ON DATA ANALYSIS BASED ON VARIANCE CORRELATION/REGRESSION Fig. 1. Variety of classification of experiments. Classification of experiments is presented in a scheme in Figure 1. 1.3.Planning an Experiment As the aim of an experiment is usually to determine correlation among initial parameters and the results, these measurements are the core factors to optimize planning of an experiment. The plan of an experiment is determination of initial parameter conjunction, experimental meanings and their combination, according to which an experiment is implemented. The main planning principles are (by Dean et al., 1999): n;icplioater blocking; and randomization. To summarize the planning process of an experiment, we can state that standard planning (according to Dean, Voss, 1999, Eidukas, 2002, 2004, Martinenas, 2004) can
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