Who said what ... and how? [Elektronische Ressource] : on the influence of pronunciation on social categorization / von Tamara Rakić
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Who said what ... and how? [Elektronische Ressource] : on the influence of pronunciation on social categorization / von Tamara Rakić

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Published 01 January 2009
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Dissertation

Tamara Rakić




































Who Said What… and How?

On the Influence of Pronunciation on Social
Categorization




Dissertation

zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades


doctor philosophiae (Dr. phil.)








vorgelegt dem Rat der Fakultät für Sozial- und Verhaltenswissenschaften

der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

von Dipl. -Psych. Tamara Rakić

geboren am 05.06.1980 in Split, Kroatien






















Gutachter

1. Prof. Dr. Melanie C. Steffens, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

2. Prof. Dr. Amélie Mummendey, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

________________________________

Tag des Kolloquiums: 18.02.2009

III

Acknowledgments
First of all I would like to thank my supervisors Melanie Steffens and Amélie
Mummendey for believing in my idea and for giving me the possibility to do so many different
and challenging experiments. Also, I would like to express my gratitude to the Deutsche
Forschungsgemeinschaft for their financial support, and offering me possibility for visiting and
presenting at diverse congresses and workshops.
Very special thanks goes to my Master Thesis supervisor and dear friend Anne Maass,
for passing on to me such enthusiasm for research and always being so inspiring, encouraging
and knowing always to say the right thing. Grazie mille!
Furthermore I would like to thank my colleagues at the International Graduate College
for sharing this study/work experience with me for the past three years. Specially I would like to
thank: Daniel for listening and helping me with many German corrections, Christopher not only
for his statistical advices but what is more for his friendship; Beatrice for her kindness and
understanding, Friederike for sharing the passion for languages and films without forgetting the
last-minute help, encouragement and opportunities to always learn something new also about
myself, Janine first for being a great research student and later dear colleague. Danke!
My dear friends from Jena: Katharina for her friendship and patience, Gerhard for his
good mood and helping me when needed, Anne for supporting me in moments of need, Irena for
her help and understanding, Most of all thank you for so many nice moments passed together.
Vielen Vielen Dank!
In Italy I left some of the most important people in my life: Loris for being there, even if
sometimes in rush, but caring and sustaining me throughout the last ten years like a older
brother; Elena, for her very precious friendship and for making me part of her family; Marco for
being my very dear friend and for always being able to count on him no matter what especially in
these last three years. Grazie, vi voglio tanto bene!
Many thanks go to my friends in far Split: Mare for always giving me that feeling as if I
never left, Jelena for many challenging discussions and fun moments; Ante for ordering a signed
copy of my thesis before I even started writing it, but moreover for his friendship in all these
years. Hvala!
I’m very grateful to two most important people in my life: my Mom and brother Toni for
encouraging me throughout these years, for hearing me out, for being there for me even if I’m
always so far from home. Volim vas puno!
Grazie! Hvala! Thank you! Danke!
IV

Table of Contents
List of Tables ............................................................................................................................... VII
List of Figures .............................................................................................................................VIII
1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Language and ethnicity .................................................................................................... 2
1.2 Social perception and categorization................................................................................ 5
1.3 Outline of the Dissertation ............................................................................................... 7
2 Influence of Accents and Gender on Job Interview Outcome ................................................ 9
2.1 Potential influence factors in a job interview ................................................................... 9
2.1.1 Perceived attractiveness ............................................................................................ 9
2.1.2 Language and person perception ............................................................................ 10
2.2 Research questions ......................................................................................................... 11
2.3 Method ........................................................................................................................... 12
2.4 Overall analyses ............................................................................................................. 15
2.5 Research question 1: Foreign Accent vs. Dialect Accent & Gender ............................. 16
2.5.2 Results ..................................................................................................................... 16
2.5.3 Discussion ............................................................................................................... 17
2.6 Research question 2: German dialect accents ................................................................ 20
2.6.2 Results ..................................................................................................................... 20
2.6.3 Discussion ............................................................................................................... 21
2.7 General Discussion ......................................................................................................... 22
2.8 Conclusions .................................................................................................................... 24
3 Influence of Accents on Social Categorization ..................................................................... 26
3.1 Cross categorization and audiovisual person perception ............................................... 26
3.2 Who said what paradigm ................................................................................................ 28
3.3 Overview of present studies ........................................................................................... 30
3.3.1 Materials selection .................................................................................................. 31
3.4 Experiment 1 .................................................................................................................. 32
3.4.1 Method .................................................................................................................... 33
3.4.2 Results & Discussion .............................................................................................. 35
3.5 Experiment 2 .................................................................................................................. 37
3.5.1 Method .................................................................................................................... 38 V

3.5.2 Results & Discussion .............................................................................................. 39
3.6 Experiment 3 .................................................................................................................. 41
3.6.1 Multinomial model.................................................................................................. 42
3.6.2 Method .................................................................................................................... 44
3.6.3 Results & Discussion .............................................................................................. 46
3.7 Experiment 4 .................................................................................................................. 48
3.7.1 Method .................................................................................................................... 50
3.7.2 Results & Discussion .............................................................................................. 51
3.8 Experiment 5 .................................................................................................................. 54
3.8.1 Multinomial model.................................................................................................. 54
3.8.2 Method .................................................................................................................... 56
3.8.3 Results & Discussion .............................................................................................. 57
3.9 General Discussion ......................................................................................................... 62
3.10 Conclusions ................................................................................................................ 65
4 The Influence of Presentation Modality on Cross Categorization Based on Gender and
Ethnicity ........................................................................................................................................ 66
4.1 Gender in studies on cross categorization ...................................................................... 67
4.2 Experiment 1a ................................................................................................................ 71
4.2.1 Method .................................................................................................................... 71
4.2.2 Results & Discussion .............................................................................................. 73
4.3 Experiment 1b ................................................................................................................ 79
4.3.1 Method .................................................................................................................... 79
4.3.2 Results & Discussion .............................................................................................. 81
4.4 Experiment 1c ................................................................................................................ 82
4.4.1 Method .................................................................................................................... 83
4.4.2 Results & Discussion .............................................................................................. 84
4.5 Direct comparison all three conditions........................................................................... 86
4.6 General Discussion ......................................................................................................... 87
5 General Discussion ............................................................................................................... 89
5.1 Summary of findings ...................................................................................................... 89
5.2 Methodological issues .................................................................................................... 94
5.3 Practical implications and future directions ................................................................... 96 VI

6 Conclusions ........................................................................................................................... 98
7 References ............................................................................................................................. 99
Appendix ..................................................................................................................................... 108
Appendix 1: Stimulus material used in a job interview: 3 questions and answers as heard by
participants .............................................................................................................................. 108
Appendix 2: SDAS original and translated 12 item bipolar scale. ......................................... 110
Appendix 3a: Pre-Test of Faces for Experiments 1-5 Chapter 3; Means (Standard Deviations)
and t-Test for Respective Tested Characteristic ..................................................................... 111
Appendix 3b: Pre-Test of Voices for Experiments 1-5 Chapter 3; Means (Standard Deviations)
and t-Test for Respective Tested Characteristic ..................................................................... 112
Appendix 4a: Source/Assignment frequencies for Face Condition in Experiment 3 Chapter 3
................................................................................................................................................. 113
Appendix 4b: Source/Assignment frequencies for Voice Condition in Experiment 3 Chapter 3
................................................................................................................................................. 113
Appendix 5: Source/Assignment frequencies for Experiment 5 Chapter 3 ............................ 114
Appendix 6a: Pre-Test of Faces for Experiments 1a-1c Chapter 4; Means (Standard
Deviations) and t-Test for Respective Tested Characteristic .................................................. 115
Appendix 6b: Pre-Test of Voices for Experiments 1a-1c Chapter 4; Means (Standard
Deviations) and t-Test for Respective Tested Characteristic .................................................. 116
Appendix 7a: Source/Assignment frequencies for Experiment 1a Chapter 4 ........................ 117
Appendix 7b: Source/Assignment frequencies for Experiment 1b Chapter 4 ........................ 117
Appendix 7c: Source/Assignment frequencies for Experiment 1c Chapter 4 ........................ 118
Summary ..................................................................................................................................... 119
Zusammenfassung....................................................................................................................... 121
Ehrenwörtliche Erklärung ........................................................................................................... 125
VII

List of Tables

Table 1 Means (standard deviations) for Ratings of Competence, Hirability and Socio-
Intellectual Status Given Different Accents .................................................................................. 19
Table 2 Parameter Estimation and 90% Confidence Intervals (CIs) for Base Model Including
Both Conditions (Only Face and Only Voice) in Experiment 3. ................................................... 47
Table 3: Parameter Estimates (PE) and 90% Confidence Intervals (CIs) for Experiment 5 ....... 58
Table 4 Parameter Estimates (PE) and 90% Confidence Intervals (CIs) for Experiments 1a, 1b
and 1c ............................................................................................................................................ 76
VIII

List of Figures

Figure 1. Intra vs. Inter Category Confusions for Two Experimental Conditions (Neutral Accents
vs. Transcription) in Experiment 1 ............................................................................................... 36
Figure 2. Intra vs. Inter Category Confusions for Two Experimental Conditions (Neutral Faces
vs. Outlines) in Experiment 2 ....................................................................................................... 40
Figure 3. The multinomial model of social categorization in the modified ‘‘who said what?’’
paradigm; the partial tree for statements made by a member from the subcategory of Italian
looking man. ................................................................................................................................. 43
Figure 4. Amount of the four error types in Experiment 4. Indicating predominance for
subtyping (Intra Face Intra Voice category errors) and for categorization based on the voice of
targets (Inter Face Intra Voice category errors) ............................................................................ 53
Figure 5. The multinomial model of crossed social categorization in the modified ‘‘Who said
what?’’ paradigm; the partial tree applies for statements made by a member of the subcategory of
Italian looking Italian speaking. .................................................................................................... 56
Figure 6.Experiment 5: Person Memory for targets speaking accent free German and German
with Italian accent independently of their looks. .......................................................................... 61
Figure 7. Direct comparison of Exclusive Face and Exclusive Voice memory in Experiment 5 62
Figure 8. Direct comparison of the different presentation modalities on outcome of
categorization indicated by 4 error types. ..................................................................................... 87