World War II refugees in Lithuania 1939 – 1940 ; Antrojo pasaulinio karo pabėgėliai Lietuvoje 1939-1940 metais
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World War II refugees in Lithuania 1939 – 1940 ; Antrojo pasaulinio karo pabėgėliai Lietuvoje 1939-1940 metais

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VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF HISTORY Simonas STRELCOVAS THE WORLD WAR II REFUGEES IN LITHUANIA IN 1939 – 1940 Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Humanities, History (05H) Kaunas, 2007 Dissertation was prepared in the period of 2003 - 2007 at Vytautas Magnus University. The doctoral study license is granted to Vytautas Magnus University together with the Lithuanian Institute of History by resolution No. 926 of the Government of the Republic thof Lithuania on the 15 of July, 2003. Scientific supervisor: doc. dr. Saulius Pivoras (Vytautas Magnus University, Humanities, History -05H) The dissertation is defended at Vytautas Magnus University at the Council of Scientific Field of history of Vytautas Magnus University and Institute of Lithuanian History. Chairman: doc. dr. Algirdas Jakub čionis (Vilnius University, Humanities, History - 05H) Members: prof. dr. Bronislovas Genzelis (Vytautas Magnus University, Humanities, History - 05H) doc. dr. Arvydas Anušauskas (Genocide and Resistance research Centre of Lithuania, Humanities, History - 05H) dr. Algimantas Kasparavi čius (Lithuanian Institute of History, Humanities - 05H) dr. Česlovas Laurinavi čanian Institute of History, Hum Opponents: dr. Ar ūnas Bubnys (Genocide and Resistance research Centre of Lithuania, Humanities, History - 05H) doc. dr.

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Published 01 January 2007
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VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF HISTORY
Simonas STRELCOVAS
THE WORLD WAR II REFUGEES IN LITHUANIA IN 1939  1940
Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Humanities, History (05H)        Kaunas, 2007  
 Dissertation was prepared in the period of 2003 - 2007 at Vytautas Magnus University.  The doctoral study license is granted to Vytautas Magnus University together with the Lithuanian Institute of History by resolution No. 926 of the Government of the Republic of Lithuania on the 15thof July, 2003.  Scientific supervisor: doc. dr. Saulius Pivoras (Vytautas Magnus University, Humanities, History -05H)  The dissertation is defended at Vytautas Magnus University at the Council of Scientific Field of history of Vytautas Magnus University and Institute of Lithuanian History.   Chairman: doc. dr. Algirdas Jakubčionis (Vilnius University, Humanities, History - 05H)  Members: prof. dr. Bronislovas Genzelis (Vytautas Magnus University, Humanities, History -05H) doc. dr. Arvydas Anuauskas (Genocide and Resistance research Centre of Lithuania, Humanities, History - 05H) dr. Algimantas Kasparavičius (Lithuanian Institute of History, Humanities - 05H) dr.Česlovas Laurinavičius (Lithuanian Institute of History, Humanities - 05H)  Opponents: dr. Arūnas Bubnys (Genocide and Resistance research Centre of Lithuania, Humanities, History - 05H) doc. dr. Jonas Vaičenonis (Vytautas Magnus University, Humanities, History - 05H)    The official defense of the dissertation will be held at 10 a.m. on December 14, 2007 at a public sitting of the defense Board in the A.apoka auditorium at Vytautas Magnus University     Address: K.Donelaičio g. 52 - 508, LT  44249 Kaunas, Lietuva Phone: 8 37 32 78 39 Summary of the doctoral dissertation was sent out on November , 2007. The dissertation is available at the National M. Mavydas library, library of Vytautas Magnus University and library of The Lithuanian Institute of History.   
                             
 VYTAUTO DIDIOJO UNIVERSITETAS LIETUVOS ISTORIJOS INSTITUTAS        Simonas STRELCOVAS
ANTROJO PASAULINIO KARO PABĖGĖLIAI LIETUVOJE 1939  1940 METAIS
Daktaro disertacijos santrauka Humanitariniai mokslai, istorija (05 H)
Kaunas, 2007
   Disertacija rengta 2003  2007 metais Vytauto Didiojo universitete.  Doktorantūros teisėVytauto Didiojo universitetui kartu su Lietuvos istorijos  suteikta institutu 2003 m. liepos 15 d. Lietuvos Respublikos Vyriausybės nutarimu Nr. 926.  Mokslinis vadovas:  doc. dr. Saulius Pivoras (Vytauto Didiojo universitetas. Humanitariniai mokslai, istorija  05 H)    Disertacija bus ginama Vytauto Didiojo universiteto ir Lietuvos istorijos instituto Humanitariniųmokslųsrities istorijos krypties taryboje.  Pirmininkas doc. dr. Algirdas Jakubčionis (Vilniaus universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, istorija - 05 H).  Nariai: prof. habil. dr. Bronislovas Genzelis (Vytauto Didiojo universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, istorija - 05 H). doc. dr. Arvydas Anuauskas (Lietuvos gyventojųgenocido ir rezistencijos tyrimo centras, humanitariniai mokslai, istorija - 05 H). dr. Algimantas Kasparavičius (Lietuvos istorijos institutas, humanitariniai mokslai, istorija - 05 H). dr.Česlovas Laurinavičius (Lietuvos istorijos institutas, humanitariniai mokslai, istorija - 05 H).   Oponentai: dr. Arūnas Bubnys (Lietuvos gyventojų ir rezistencijos tyrimo centras, genocido humanitariniai mokslai, istorija - 05 H). doc. dr. Jonas Vaičenonis (Vytauto Didiojo universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, istorija - 05 H).   Disertacija bus ginama vieame Humanitariniųmokslųsrities istorijos krypties tarybos posėdyje, kuris vyks 2007 m. gruodio 14 d. 10 val. Vytauto Didiojo universiteto A.apokos auditorijoje.  Adresas: K.Donelaičio g. 52 - 508, LT  44249 Kaunas, Lietuva Tel. 8 37 32 78 39 Disertacijos santrauka isiuntinėta 2007 m. lapkričio ....d. Disertaciją peri galimaūrėti Lietuvos nacionalinėje M.Mavydo, Vytauto Didiojo universiteto ir Lietuvos istorijos instituto bibliotekose.  
  The World War II refugees in Lithuania in 1939  1940
  In the troubled 20th humanity experienced two World Wars and many century small regional wars and conflicts. Many of them are characterized as very cruel. The war refugees were an important subject all the time both for countries involved in war and for the rest of the world opinion as well. It looks the same even today. Poorly discussed, often lacking objective view (sometimes it looks as a rule), the facts therefore are tendentiously delivered by one of the conflict sides. Sometimes it seems as usual as daily news, very similar to hundreds of world news in present news media resources. Everyone living in action zone becomes the victim of every single war as a natural disaster. After September 1st1939, when World War II began, the fatality of war touched the citizens of West Poland, and later, after September 17, we can talk about all the citizens of Poland, who against their own will were involved into the nightmares of war. During the first weeks while German  Polish front line was moving to the East, thousands of people were moving towards unoccupied regions. The refugees might be described as different, motley by all meanings huge mass, where Polish and Jewish refugees were in the absolute majority. It seems that for the most Polish it was a spontaneous action, as soon big part of them came back to their native regions. In 1939, Lithuanian legalese language described foreigners who came to Lithuania because of war as war refugees (karo atbėgėliai). In 1951 Geneva convention of refugees status of refugee was adjusted to persons who were described as refugees according to agreements of May 12th 1926 and June 30th 1928 as well as according to conventions of October 28th and September 14 1933th The entry for refugee in 1939. Lithuanian encyclopedia says that the refugee is person who is persecuted and has to leave his home because of his race, nationality or political creed. As time already passed the termkaro atbėgėlishas been changed tokaro pabėgėlis. Since the work has been written and the termkaro pabėgėlisis used in everyday language, we will use that term too. In archival sources such as correspondence between institutions and officials, legislation, 1939  1940 Lithuanian press and quotation the termkaro atbėgėliaiwill
not be changed and is left as in original. The term war refugees will be used for the whole entity of war refugees, who made their way to Lithuania. In this way, writing about specific groups as civil refugees and internees will allow us to notice their differences. In dissertation we will discuss not only about civil refugees, but a big part of it is assigned to Polish internee soldiers who were in internee camps in Lithuania during 1939  1940. The civil refugees and internees came to Lithuania escaping from war and there was no free will for such a decision, except a natural survival instinct. The objectII refugee in Lithuania, their coming,of this research covers World War staying and leaving Lithuania in 1939  1940. The aimof the present work is to reconstruct the circumstances of refugees life in Lithuania. Their communication with Lithuanian officials, society and international organizations. The followinggoalshave been set to develop in this work: 1. to present the coming of refugees to Lithuania according to international and domestic law; 2. to represent the establishing of internee camps in Lithuania and their functioning; 3. to review the activity of responsible institutions, such as Lithuanian Red Cross and Commissariat for refugee affairs; 4. to discuss the relations between war refugees and natives; 5. to present the activity of Polish underground organizations, their links with foreign missions in Lithuania; 6. characterize the aspects of citizenship and integration of war refugees;to 7. to represent the process of leaving Lithuania in Summer of 1940 by Jewish and Polish refugees; 8. image of war refugee in Lithuanian press.to define the Chronological framesof the work are indicated in the title of dissertation. The first chronological margin relates to the beginning of World War II, when the thousands of refugees left their homes and fled to Lithuania. The chronological limits coincide with the collapse of Lithuanian Republic in 1940, when the soviets occupied Lithuania. As in 1939 the former citizens of Poland in Western Byelorussia and Western Ukraine received the citizenship of Soviet Union, same process happened in Lithuania. In
August 1940 the last internee camps in Lithuania were closed and more then 4000 Polish internees were departed to Soviet Union. As Lithuania became a Soviet Republic all foreign embassies and consulates were closed and their functioning was stopped. The World War II refugees in Lithuania became an object of history. The above mentioned aim and task determine thestructureof this work. The work is comprised of introduction, three chapters, conclusions and 8 appendixes. The first chapter of dissertation The World War II refugees in Lithuania according to inner legislationdiscusses similarities and differences of termsforeigner and refugeeaccording to domestic legislation. Furthermore, the peculiarities offoreignersin pre war Lithuania and World War IIrefugeesare analyzed and the features of refugee integration are depicted. The following aspects have been under discussion as well: the circumstances of war refugee legislation, the situation of Lithuanian legislation according to international conventions. The second chapter The Polish internee soldiers in Lithuania 1939  1940 analyses the life of Polish internees in Lithuania. Organizational work of establishing internee camps, the changes of camps network and its liquidation are discussed there. Separate subchapters analyze the subordination of internee soldiers to army units, the everyday life of internees in camps as well as internees repatriation to the territories occupied by Soviet Union and Germany. The third chapterCivil war refugees in Lithuania 1939  1940concentrates on the civil refugees. The first subchapter analyses the aspects of refugee administration in Lithuania by Lithuanian Red Cross and Commissariat for refugee affairs. As it was noticed earlier, the absolute majority of refugees in Lithuania were Jewish and Polish. Looking at refugees not only through their nationality but much wider the differences between them are even greater as it seemed to be from the first look. Due to that, the third chapter is divided into subchapters by refugees nationalities. Subchapters analyzing Polish refugees present the status of Polish refugees and newcomers in Lithuania and the aspects of their citizenship. The connections between Polish underground and foreign embassies and consulates are discussed as well. Subchapters representing Jewish refugees analyze the social status of Jewish refugees, their staying in Lithuania and attempts to leave. The influence and contribution of World Jewish organizations to refugee charity were discussed as well.
The first appendix is the Treaty of mutual assistance between Lithuanian Republic and Soviet Union. According to this Treaty the Vilnius district was returned to Lithuania, and more than forty thousand Soviet troops crossed Lithuanian borders. Although it was called security insurances, in reality it was the first steps to Lithuanian occupation. The second appendix is The leading into administration of Vilnius city and Vilnius district. It was the first legislation after Vilnius returned to Lithuania. The third appendix is the legislation of Trial and punishment of internee soldiers. It was the main rules for punishment of internee soldiers created according to international conventions. The fourth appendix is the legislative enactment The changes of passport regulations, which enlightens situation after Vilnius incorporation into Lithuania in October, 1939. The changes of passport regulations declared an opportunities of Vilnius inhabitants to get Lithuanian citizenship. The fifth appendix is the Law for regulation of war refugees. It was the first and most important piece of legislation for administration of World War II refugees in Lithuania. All the other legislations were prepared according to that basis. The sixth appendix is the July 27th1929, Geneva Convention of regulation of war prisoners. The administration of war refugees especially Polish internee soldiers in Lithuania was based according to that convention. The seventh appendix is the Rules of inner order of internee camps. The eighth appendix presents an example of transit visa provided by Ch. Sugihara and J.Zwartendijk to refugee leaving Lithuania. When preparing the work, the followingmethodswere used: descriptive, comparative, text analyses, statistical analyses. Review of historiography.The problem of war refugees in Lithuania from September 1939 till June 1940 was not popular among Lithuanian historians. Such situation could be explained because of the one and only political party and one truth domination until 1990. In contrast, the world historiography, especially that which relates to military history, is full of studies and articles about refugees and internees. Some of researches have close ties to World War II refugees. Because the chosen period of 1939  1940 has direct connections with the beginning of World War II and specific
geographical place, Lithuania, Polish refugees were not a very popular subject among military historians. There was not a single serious scientific research among Lithuanian historical papers, which relate to Polish internees and refugees from Poland until recently. Now we have studies by Gintautas Surgailis and Regina epkaitė.1 Several years ago Gintautas Surgailis published the research paper World War II refugees and Polish internee soldiers in Lithuania.2 most important researches about Polish The internees and refugees in Lithuania in 1939  1940 were made by polish historians. An exceptional source of knowledge are works of Liongin Tomaszewski, Wanda Kristina Roman, PiotrŁossowski, Andzej Bogusławski.3  Sources Review. It should be noticed that despite the fact that the most important researches were made by Polish historians the main information was collected in Lithuania. The reason is very simple. In spite of the fact, that the main acting persons of researches mostly were from Poland, the whole period from 1939 until 1940 they lived and worked in Lithuania, and had relations with Lithuanian institutions. Thats why the material about refugees and internees, and the main sources used in dissertation have been found in LCSA (Lithuanian central state archive). The funds of Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Head quarters of Lithuanian Army, Intelligence Service and Commissariat for refugee affairs were used. The special thanks goes to Sugihara foundation Diplomats for Life for possibility to use Foundations collection and
                                                 1Surgailis G.ydai  Antrojo Pasaulinio karo pabėgėliai Lietuvoje (1939 09  1941 06)//Lietuvos Istorijos metratis. Vilnius,1991; epkaitėR.Vilniaus istorijos atkarpa. 1939 spalio 27 d.  1940 birelio 15 d.Vilnius, 1990 2Surgailis G.Antrojo pasaulinio karo pabėgėliai ir internuotieji Lenkijos kariai Lietuvoje (1939 09  1940),Vilnius, 2005 3Tomaszewski L.Wilenszczyzna lat wojny i okupacji 1939  1945.Warszawa 2001; Roman W.K.W obozach i w konspiracji. Działalnośćniepodległościowaźołnierzy polskich na Litwie i Wilenszczyźnie, wrziesień1939 r.  czierwiec 1941 r.,Toruń, 2004; Pięta J., Roman W.K., Szczurowski M. Polacy internowani na Litwie 1939  1940. Warszawa, 1997; Roman W.K.Obozy dla internowanychźołnierzy polskich na Litwie IX 1939  VII 1940 (wświetleźródełlitewskich).//Łambinowicki Rozcnik Muzealny. 1996, t.19;Roman W.K.Internowanie Polaków na Litwie w biuletynach Departamentu Bezpieczeństwa MSW Litwy (1939  1940)//Łambinowicki Rozcnik Muzealny. 1998, t.21; Roman W.K.Okoloczności internowania źołnierzy polskich na Litwie we wrześniu 1939 roku.//Polski wrzesień1939 r.  wojna na dwa fronty: materiały z Międzynarodowej Konferencji Naukowej. Piotrków Trybunalski, 2000; Roman W.K.Konspiracja polska na Litwie i Wileńszczyznie wrzesień1939  czerwiec 1941. Lista aresztowanych. Toruń, 2002.;ŹarońP.Agresja Związku Radzieckiego na Polskę17 września 1939 r. Los jeńców polskich, Toruń, 2001;Łossowski P.Litwa a sprawy polskie 1939  1940.Warszawa, 1982; Bogusławski A.W znak pogoni. Internowanie Polaków na Litwie wrzesień1939  lipiec 1940. Toruń, 2004
Vadim Altskan, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum for possibility to use archival material collected in Archive of foreign policy of Russian federation. When preparing the dissertation not only archival material was used. Group of resources  published documents were very useful. By that we mean the Lithuanian periodicals and newspapers: Lietuvos Aidas, XX amius, Lietuvosūkininkas, Kardas, Lietuvos inios. The information about war refugees in Lithuania was rare and therefore to fill this gap, the main Lithuanian newspapers were used. The useful resources for the research were encyclopedias of refugees history as well.4The important group of resources was recently in Poland and Lithuania published archival documents.5  Novelty and the relevance of the subject.The study is one of the first complexional analyses of World War II refugees in Lithuanian historiography, where a new viewpoint and new available archival sources have been used. It provides a better understanding of refugees and internee soldiers everyday cultural and social life and possible integration into Lithuanian society. There is a hope that this work will expand the knowledge about refugee life in Lithuania 1939  1940.                                                              4 Encyclopedia of Genocide and crimes against humanity.vol. I-III. New York, 2005;Encyclopedia of population.New York, 2003;Collection of international instruments and legal texts concerning refugees and others of concern to UNHCR.Turin, 2007 5 Polskie podziemie na terenach Zachodniej Ukrainy i Zachodniej Białorusi w latach 1939  1941.  Warszawa  Moskwa, 2001;Katyń. Dokumenty zbrodny. T.1. Jeńcy nie wypowiedzianej wojny. Sierpień 1939  marzec 1940.Warszawa, 1995;Deportacje obywateli polskich z Zachodniej Ukrainy i Zachodniej Białorusi w 1940 roku.Warszawa  Moskwa, 2003;СССР и Литва в годы второй мировой войны. Т.1.СССР и Литовская республика(март1939 -август1940). Vilnius, 2006
 BRIEF CONTENT OF THE DISSERTATION I. The World War II refugees in Lithuania according to inner legislation War refugees despite the circumstances they have to leave homeland and seek for asylum in other countries might be cold foreigners. It means that foreign visitors as tourists and war refugees have something common. And first of all  they have not citizenship of country they came in. Such presumption is validated according to Lithuanian legislation. In 1933 published Decree of foreigners living,everyone who has not citizenship of Lithuania was named foreigner. In 1939, after six years, all the refugees who crossed the Lithuanian border, according toLaw for regulation of war refugeeswell. In autumn 1939, after Vilnius was returned towere named foreigners as Lithuania, the problem of citizenship was very serious. During the whole staying in Lithuania war refugees were equated to status of foreigners. The similarity between foreigners and war refugees had more common points. War refugees same as foreign visitors have not a right to participate in political life. Both might be deported from Lithuania. Without special permissions it was forbidden to work for foreign visitors and war refugees. According to what was mentioned we may do a presumption or actually to make a finding that legislation of war refugee was not made spontaneous as a factor of circumstances. It was made as a complements on existed legislation basis.  II. The Polish internee soldiers in Lithuania 1939  1940  According to archival sources, the officials of Lithuania in those days had grouped refugees into three categories: a) internee Polish soldiers; b) war refugees; c) newcomers. The internee soldiers were only those soldiers who retreated into the Republic of Lithuania. The war refugees were the people who came mostly from former Poland parts occupied by soviets seeking for asylum. And at last by newcomers the administration and officials meant the inhabitants of Vilnius district which after October 1939 became a part of the Republic of Lithuania. The newcomers had not satisfied requirements for Lithuanian citizenship. .