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School resources, culture and connections
NZCER National Survey Thematic Report
Sandie Schagen and Cathy Wylie
NEW ZEALAND COUNCIL FOR EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH TE RÜNANGA O AOTEAROA MÖ TE RANGAHAU I TE MÄTAURANGA
WELLINGTON 2009
New Zealand Council for Educational Research
P O Box 3237 Wellington New Zealand © NZCER, 2009
ISBN 978-1-877293-69-6 (Print version)
ISBN 978-1-877293-70-2 (Web version)
Distributed by NZCER Distribution Services
P O Box 3237 Wellington New Zealand
Acknowledgements
We would like to express our grateful thanks to the principals, teachers, trustees and parents who gave their valuable and often very limited time to answer our lengthy and wide-ranging questionnaires. Without them, there would be nothing to report.
Thanks are also due to New Zealand Council for Educational Research (NZCER) colleagues who helped in various ways with the survey and reporting. Ben Gardiner was responsible for survey administration; Edith Hodgen managed the data entry and undertook the analysis; Magdalene Lin and Sally Robertson helped with the data analysis and reporting;Christine Williams formatted the report.
Finally, this research was funded through the Ministry of Education’s purchase agreement with NZCER.
i
ii
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements
Executive summary
Resources School funding School staffing School culture School governance
Relations with the BOT
Parents and their child’s school
Links with other schools
Relations with government and other agencies
Issues facing schools
1.Introduction 1.1The structure of the report
2.Methodology 2.1The national survey sample Secondary schools Primary schools 2.2Analysis of data 2.3Reporting to respondents
3.Funding 3.1Funding in primary schools Sources of new or increased costs Increasing local income Trustees’ views 3.2Funding in secondary schools Sources of new or increased costs Increasing local income International students Parent donations Trustees’ views
iii
i
xiiixiiixiiixiiixivxvxvxvixviixviixviii
11
333445
77101112131616161617
3.3
Summary
4. Staffing in primary schools The primary principal’s role Principal turnover Teaching undertaken by primary principals Support from the MOE Hours worked Morale and stress Workload and job satisfaction Coping strategies Desire for change Career plans Recent achievements The primary teacher’s role Classroom-release time Workload and job satisfaction Morale and stress Desire for change Recent achievements Professional development Career plans Staffing issues in primary schools Turnover of teaching staff Summary
4.14.24.34.4
5.Staffing in secondary schools 5.1The secondary principal’s role Principal turnover Hours worked Morale Workload and job satisfaction Coping strategies Desire for change Career plans Recent achievements 5.2The secondary teacher’s role Classroom-release time Morale Workload and job satisfaction Desire for change Recent achievements Professional development Career plans Staffing issues
iv
18
2121232425262627313234353638404144464849535557
59596060606162636465676870707375767677
5.3
Help provided by support staff Summary
6.School culture 6.1The culture of primary schools Primary principals’ views Primary teachers’ views Industrial relations 6.2The culture of secondary schools Secondary principals’ views Secondary teachers’ views Industrial relations 6.3Summary
7.School governance 7.1The governance role 7.2Why serve on a school board? 7.3The trustee’s role and responsibility 7.4Principal appointments and appraisals How appointments were made 7.5Progress of school boards 7.6Experience and skills 7.7Formal training and support 7.8Summary
8.Relations with the BOT 8.1Board–principal relationships Information received by trustees 8.2Board–school staff relations Trustee contact with teachers at their school 8.3Parent–board contact The parent perspective on contact with their school’s board Issues raised by parents with their school board 8.4Community consultation Consultations with the Mäori community 8.5Summary
9.Parents and their child’s school 9.1Parents and primary schools School choice Parents’ contact with their child’s teacher Raising issues or concerns with the school
v
8183
85858591100100100104109109
111111112115117118122125130132
135135137139139141143144147149151
153153153155156
9.2
9.3
Parents’ satisfaction with information about their child’s progress Parents’ satisfaction with their child’s schooling Parents’ involvement in their child’s school Information parents receive about their child’s school The cost to parents of primary schooling Parents and secondary schools School choice Parents’ contact with their child’s secondary-level teachers Raising issues or concerns with the school Parents’ satisfaction with information about their child’s progress Parents’ satisfaction with their child’s secondary schooling Parents’ involvement in their child’s secondary school Information parents would like about their child’s school The cost to parents of secondary schooling Summary
10.Links with other schools
10.110.210.3
Primary school links with other schools Secondary school links with other schools Summary
11.Relations with government and other agencies 11.1Primary school links with government agencies Contacts with the MOE Could the MOE do more to support primary schools? Experiences of ERO Methods of accountability Changes to the current model 11.2Secondary school links with government agencies Contacts with MOE Could the MOE do more to support secondary schools? 11.3Summary
12.The overall picture 12.1The primary school picture Issues facing primary schools Summary of primary school survey findings Differences between schools 12.2The secondary school picture Issues facing secondary schools Summary of secondary school survey findings Differences between schools 12.3Changes since 2003 Common trends
vi
157157159159160162162164165166166168168169171
173173176180
183183185187190191193194197199202
205205205207209210210213215215216
12.4
Varying trends Other changes Conclusion
References
Tables
Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Table 3.3 Table 3.4
Table 3.5 Table 3.6 Table 3.7 Table 3.8 Table 3.9 Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Table 4.3 Table 4.4 Table 4.5
Table 4.6 Table 4.7 Table 4.8 Table 4.9 Table 4.10 Table 4.11 Table 4.12 Table 4.13 Table 4.14 Table 4.15 Table 4.16 Table 4.17 Table 4.18 Table 4.19
Likely financial position in primary schools at the end of 2007 and 2008 Primary school finances, compared with previous year Pressure points on primary schools’ spending Actions taken by primary school trustees to address financial problems Likely financial position of secondary schools at the end of 2006 and 2007
Secondary school finances, compared with previous year
Pressure points on secondary schools’ spending Number of international students in secondary schools Action taken by secondary school trustees to address financial problems
Primary principals’ career histories Primary principals’ years at their school Primary principals’ positions between principalships
Number of principals per primary school in the last 10 years Teaching undertaken by primary principals Number of hours primary principals worked in a week
Primary school principals’ morale
Primary principals’ typical stress level
Primary principals’ workload and job satisfaction
Primary principals’ workload and job satisfaction, by morale Primary principals’ workload and job satisfaction, by stress level How primary principals manage their workload Desired changes to work as a primary principal Primary principals’ career plans for the next five years
Main achievements as a primary principal in the last three years
Primary teachers’ career histories How primary teachers spend their nonteaching/classroom-release time Primary school teachers’ workload and job satisfaction
Morale as a primary school teacher
vii
216217217
219
8 9 10 13 14 14 15 16 18
21 22 23 23 24 26 26
27 28 30 31 32 33 34 35 37 39 40 41
Table 4.20 Table 4.21 Table 4.22 Table 4.23 Table 4.24 Table 4.25 Table 4.26 Table 4.27 Table 4.28 Table 4.29
Table 4.30 Table 4.31 Table 5.1 Table 5.2 Table 5.3 Table 5.4
Table 5.5 Table 5.6 Table 5.7 Table 5.8 Table 5.9 Table 5.10 Table 5.11 Table 5.12 Table 5.13
Table 5.14 Table 5.15 Table 5.16
Table 5.17 Table 5.18 Table 5.19 Table 5.20
Table 5.21 Table 6.1 Table 6.2 Table 6.3 Table 6.4 Table 6.5
Workload and job satisfaction, by morale
Workload and job satisfaction, by manageable work-related stress
Desired changes to work as a primary teacher Main achievements as a primary teacher in the last three years Professional learning by primary teachers over the last two to three years
Primary teachers’ positions of responsibility
Primary teachers’ career plans for the next five years
Career plans for the next five years, by morale
Career plans for the next five years, by manageable work-related stress
Work by teachers funded over entitlement in primary schools Stability of primary school teaching staff over the last two years Reasons for difficulty in finding suitable teachers for management roles
Secondary principals’ career histories Number of hours secondary principals worked in a week Morale as a secondary school principal
Secondary principals’ workload and job satisfaction How secondary principals manage their workload Secondary principals’ desire for changes to their work
Secondary principals’ career plans for the next five years
Main achievements as a secondary principal in the last three years Secondary teachers’ career histories Secondary teachers’ roles
How secondary teachers spend their timetabled nonteaching time
Morale as a secondary school teacher
Secondary school teachers’ workload and job satisfaction
Workload and job satisfaction, by morale
Desired changes to work as a secondary school teacher Main achievements as a secondary school teacher in the last three years Secondary school teachers’ career plans for the next five years
Work by teachers funded over entitlement in secondary schools
Subject areas where principals had trouble attracting suitable applicants
Reasons why secondary schools have difficulty finding teachers for middle
management Forms of help for secondary school teachers
43 44 45 47 48 49 51 52 53 54 55 56
59 60 61 62 63 64 65
66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 75 77 79 80
81 82
The ways in which primary principals monitor the quality of teaching in the school 88 The ways in which primary schools review student achievement 89 The ways in which primary schools review school policies 90 The ways in which primary schools survey their students and staff 90 Secondary schools’ reviews of student-achievement results and school policies 101
viii
Table 6.6 Table 6.7
Table 7.1 Table 7.2
Table 7.3 Table 7.4 Table 7.5 Table 7.6 Table 7.7 Table 7.8 Table 7.9 Table 7.10 Table 7.11 Table 7.12 Table 7.13 Table 7.14 Table 7.15
Table 7.16 Table 7.17 Table 7.18
Table 7.19 Table 8.1
Table 8.2 Table 8.3 Table 8.4
Table 8.5 Table 8.6 Table 8.7
Table 8.8 Table 8.9 Table 8.10
Table 8.11 Table 8.12 Table 8.13 Table 8.14 Table 8.15
Secondary schools’ surveys of students and staff Teachers describing the quality of school culture as good/very good
Trustees’ reasons for going on their school board
Trustees’ views of their gains from their role
Views of the key element(s) in the role of trustees (primary)
Views of the key element(s) in the role of trustees (secondary)
Views of the overall responsibility asked of school trustees (primary)
Views of the overall responsibility asked of school trustees (secondary) How decisions were made on principal appointments Usefulness of primary principal’s appraisal Usefulness of secondary school principal’s appraisal Views of the primary school board
Views of the secondary school board
Trustee views of their board’s main achievements over the past 12 months
Areas that primary trustees have experience and skill in
Areas that secondary trustees have experience and skill in
Skill needs of primary trustees
Skill needs of secondary trustees Features of their role that trustees would change Training/support for work as trustee Trustees’ sources of advice and support for their role
Primary trustees’ and principals’ views of board–principal relationship Secondary trustees’ and principals’ views of board–principal relationship
Principals’ experiences of problems in their relationship with trustees
Trustees’ views of the quality of information from their principal
Areas reported regularly by principal to school board
Contact between teachers and their staff representative on the board
Trustees’ contact with teachers at the school Primary trustees’ contact with parents at their school Contact between parents and the school’s BOT
Issues raised with school boards by parents in 2006 and 2007
The ways issues raised with school boards by parents were dealt with Methods used by the board to consult with its community Topics of school board community consultation in 2006 and 2007
Methods used by the board to consult with the school’s Mäori community
Topics of consultation with the school’s Mäori community in 2006 and 2007
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102 106
113 114 115 116 116 117 119 119
120 123 123 124 125 126 127
128 129 130 131
136 136 137 138 138 139 140 142 144 145 146
147 148 149 150