Comment-AMCC-II.c-Passengers
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Comment-AMCC-II.c-Passengers

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File: < http://www.secureav.com/Comment-AMCC-II.c-Passengers.pdf >Last Updated: July 22, 2005THE AVIATORS’MODEL CODE OF CONDUCT (AMCC), available at < http://www.secureav.com >.©2005 Terms of Use, available at < http://www.secureav.com/terms.pdf >.About the Commentary: The Commentary addresses selected issues within the Code of Conduct toelaborate on their meaning, provide interpretive guidance, and suggest ways of adopting the Code ofConduct. It is intended primarily for implementers, policy administrators, aviation associationmanagement, and pilots who wish to explore the Code in greater depth, and will be updated from time totime. Please send your edits, errata, and comments to . Terms of Use are availableat .COMMENTARY TOAMCC II.c - PASSENGERS AND PEOPLE ON THE SURFACEc. Brief Passengers on Planned Flight Procedures, and Inform Them of AnySignificant or Unusual Risks Associated with the Intended Flight,1GA culture tends to downplay risk disclosure, not only to passengers but even to pilots.Consider this quote from John King:Right now we are in denial. We must quit lying to pilots. We must tell pilots thataviation is risky. Other industries do a pretty good job of this already. If you gohorseback riding or take scuba lessons you will be given a form to sign that says thatthere are risks involved, you may be seriously injured or killed, and if it happens toyou, we told you so. . . . Yet when new ...

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ODEL
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ODEOF
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ONDUCT
(AMCC),
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©2005TermsofUse,
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AbouttheCommentary
:
TheCommentaryaddressesselectedissueswithintheCodeofConductto
elaborateontheirmeaning,provideinterpretiveguidance,andsuggestwaysofadoptingtheCodeof
Conduct.Itisintendedprimarilyforimplementers,policyadministrators,aviationassociation
management,andpilotswhowishtoexploretheCodeingreaterdepth,andwillbeupdatedfromtimeto
time.Pleasesendyouredits,errata,andcommentsto<
PEB@secureav.com
>.TermsofUseareavailable
at<
http://secureav.com/terms.pdf
>.

C
OMMENTARYTO
AMCCII.c-
P
ASSENGERSAND
P
EOPLEONTHE
S
URFACE

c.BriefPassengersonPlannedFlightProcedures,andInformThemofAny
SignificantorUnusualRisksAssociatedwiththeIntendedFlight,

GAculturetendstodownplayriskdisclosure,notonlytopassengersbuteventopilots.
1
ConsiderthisquotefromJohnKing:
Rightnowweareindenial.Wemustquitlyingtopilots.Wemusttellpilotsthat
aviationisrisky.Otherindustriesdoaprettygoodjobofthisalready.Ifyougo
horsebackridingortakescubalessonsyouwillbegivenaformtosignthatsaysthat
therearerisksinvolved,youmaybeseriouslyinjuredorkilled,andifithappensto
you,wetoldyouso....Yetwhennewpilotsshowupattheairporttotakeflying
lessons,wetellthem
flyingisperfectlysafe
.
2
Notsurprisingly,formanyGApilots,disclosingriskstopassengersisanythingbutapriority.As
oneaviationexpertputit:Pilotsshouldinformpassengersofwhattheycandotohelp
themselvesandthepilotintheeventofanemergency.[But]thereisnoobligationofinformed
consentwhenitcomestoridinginaplane.Thefactthatthey[passengers]areincapableof
makinganinformeddecisionisnotmy[thepilots]problem.Ifyouwanttolearntherisksof
flight,gotoflightschool.
3
And,indeed,becausenon-commercialGApassengersarenot
necessarilyconsumersunderthelaw(atleastwithregardtoconsumerdisclosureregulations),a
4GApilotsfailuretodisclosematerialrisksmaynotnecessarilyprovidespecialremedies.
Suchviewsnotwithstanding,theAMCCstressesthatrecommendedpracticesforPart91
operationswouldbenefitbyvoluntarilyexceedingconformancetoairlineandcharterdisclosure
requirements,inpartbecausemostPart91operationscanberiskierthanairlineorcharter
operations.Asoneaviationtrainingexpertasserts,notonlyisitmorehonesttotellpassengers
thattherearerisksinvolvedinflyinginsmallplanes,butsuchdisclosureisalsomorecredible
andthereforemorecomforting.
5
Also,apilotsaifluretoensurethathis...passengerwas
advisedofaknownhazardisindicativeofanundisciplinedapproachtoriskmanagement.
6
Therearelegitimateexceptionstotheresponsibilitytodisclose,ofcourse,includingwhere
disclosuremayimperilflightsafety(suchaswhenapilotreasonablydeterminesthatapassenger
7isirrationalandmaybecomeunrulyorotherwisedisruptive)orwhenapassengeris
incapacitatedoraninfant.Butforthemajorityofpassengers,theAMCCrecommendsalevelof
riskdisclosureinGAthatmayexceedcustomarypractices.
AssumptionofRiskbyPassengers
Passengersshouldnotberequiredtoassumeundue
riskinparticipatinginGAactivities.Apassengeroughttoberequiredonlytoassumetheusual
andordinary(exceptwhereadefectinconstructionoradjustmentofaircraftisobvious)perilsof

1

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airtransport,relyinguponairworthinessofmachines,fullcompetencyofpersonnel,andthelike
[particularlysinceit]islargelytherepresentationsofthe[airplanes]ownerandoperatorwhich
induce[thepassenger]togoupinthefirstplace.
8
Asoneaviationexpertexplains,The
importantthingisthatwelearntothinkthroughtherisks,andifwedecidetotakeonethatisa
tadabovenorm,totakeitwithfullknowledgeand
explainittopassengerssotheycantakethe
nextbusiftheydontliketheris
.
k

9
Assumptionofriskbyminorsisparticularlyvexingand
tenuousbecauseoflimitationsontheirlegalcapacitytoconsent.
10
PassengerBriefing

FARPart91generallyrequireslittlemorethanthatpassenger
briefingsaddresssafetybelts,shoulderharnesses,childrestraintsystems,useofportable
electronicdevices
11
andemergencydooroperation.Flightswithcertainhigher-riskprofiles,such
asthoseathigheraltitudes
12
oroverwaterbeyondglidingrangetoshore,
13
mayrequirefurther
briefing.Additionalbriefingisalsorequiredforlargeandturbine-poweredmultiengineaircraft
andseaplanes.
14
AprintedcardcontainingapassengerbriefingisrequiredforParts121and135butnotPart91
operations.
15
Allpreflightbriefingsrequiredbylawdonotprovidepassengerswithaflightrisk
analysis,noraretheyintendedto.
16
Nonetheless,theAMCCpositsthatapilotsobligationsto
71briefpassengerstranscendsuchlimitationstoinclude(atleast)a
moral
obligation.Thisstance
isreflectedintheideathatriskdisclosureisapassengerright.Forexample,considerthe
followingpublicationbytheAlaskanAviationSafetyFoundation.
PassengersBillofRights
Asapassengeryou
ARE
entitledtoaskyourpilot:

haveyoucheckedtheweightandbalanceoftheaircraft?

haveyoucheckedthetakeoffandlandingperformancechartsfortheaircraft
atthisweightandfortheairfieldsconcerned?

haveyouobtainedaweatherforecast?

haveyousubmittedaflightplan?

areyoucorrectlylicensed,ratedandcurrentforthisflight?e.g.areyou
qualifiedtoflyinclouds?

istheaircraftfullyserviceable?

areyoufullyserviceableandwithindutytimelimits?

areyoucarryinganEmergencyLocatorTransmitterandsurvivalequipment?

shouldImakealternativetransportationarrangementsordelaycommitments
toallowforweatherproblems?
Source:AlaskanAviationSafetyFoundation
18
AdequateDisclosure
-
Adequate
disclosure

sufficienttohelppassengersmake
meaningfuldecisions
19
aboutwhethertoparticipateinaparticularflight

mayrequiredisclosing
therelativerisksassociatedwith:
20
i.over-wateroperations(especiallyifthereisnotapprovedflotationgearavailableforeach
occupant),
21
night-timeoperations,
22
andflightsoverruggedterrain,
23
ii.apilotslimitedflighttimeorexperience(relativetotheintendedflightandflight
conditions),
24
andpersonal(physical,mentalorlegal)limitations,
25
iii.inoperativeinstrumentsandequipment,
26
iv.inclementweather,
27

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v.
flyingathigheraltitudes,forpassengerswithheightenedsensitivitytohypoxia(even
wheretheplannedmaximumaltitudedoesnotrequiretheprovisionofoxygento
passengers),
28
vi.flyingwithchildren,theinfirm,andpregnantwomen,
29
vii.unreasonablelimitationsonorabsenceofinsurancecoveringpassengers,
30
viii.faili
3
n
1
gtomakeavailableorrequiringtheuseofheadsetstominimizepassengerhearing
lossandimprovepassengersabilitytohearpilotinstructions,
ix.preparingforemergencysituations,
32
includingincapacitationofthepilot,
33
x.forcedlandings,
34
xi.experimentalaircraft,
35
xii.aerobaticoperations,
36
and
xiii.groundoperations.
37
ASamplePassengerBriefing
-
ASamplePassengerBriefingandFlightRules
(SPB)is
availableat<
http://www.secureav.com
>
.
38
TheSPBmayprovidemanybenefits,including:

enhancingflightsafetybyfamiliarizingpassengerswithproperproceduresandpilot
expectationsofpassengerconduct,

satisfying(orexceeding)FAAandotherdisclosurerequirementsforpassengerbriefings,

makingpassengersfeelbetterpreparedandmoreincontrol,

reasonablylimitingpassengerexpectations,

preparingpassengerstomakeapersonalgo/nogodecision(and,correspondingly,to
assumecertainrisks)bydisclosingmaterialflightrisks,and

possibly
helpingtomanagepilotexposuretoliabilityintheeventofanaccident.
D
RAFTING
C
ONSIDERATIONS
:

Material
Risks:Somereviewersmaintainedthatitisinfeasibleandunnecessaryto
informpassengersof
anysignificantorunusualrisks
ofanintendedflightbecause
thereareaninfinitenumberofpotentialrisksand,theyargue,passengersare
incapableofappreciatingallrisks.OtherreviewersarguedthatbecausetheAMCC
isintendedtobeinterpretedreasonably,
39
qualifyingthetexttorequireonlythe
disclosureof
material
risksisunnecessaryandthatthesubjectrisksshouldinstead
bedesignatedas
commonandusual
.

**1
Iwillalwayswonderatwhatpointonepilotismorallyobligatedtopreventanotherpilotfromkilling
himselfandhispassengers.Isthereapointatwhichyoutellthepassengerswhattheyareriskingifthey
climbintothatairplane?JohnathanJavitt,
RestoftheStory
,A
VIATION
S
AFETY
3,Sept.2003,
availableat
<http://www.aviationsafetymagazine.com>(reflectingonwhentodiscloseknownsevereriskstothepilot
andpassengers
ofanotheraircraft).
2
JohnKing,
ItsTimetoStopTellingtheBigLi
,
e
T

HE
F
LYER
(Oct.2000),
availableat
<http://www.kingschools.com/kingStaffArticles.asp#>.

3

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3
InterviewwithWilliamWimsatt,Esq.,Past-Pres.,Lawyer-PilotsBarAssn,inLosAngeles,Cal.(June
13,2003).
Compare
Am.BarAssn,M
ODEL
C
ODEOF
P
ROF

L
R
ESPONSIBILITY
,
Preamble,
atR.1.0(1980),
availableat
<http://www.abanet.org/cpr/ethics/mcpr.pdf>(
InformedConsent
denotestheagreementbya
persontoaproposedcourseofconductafter[]adequateinformationandexplanationaboutthematerial
risksofavailablealternativestotheproposedcourseofconduct[havebeencommunicated].)
4
ConsiderthatinsomerespectsdisclosureregardingairlinefaresisfarmorerigorousthanforPart91
passengerbriefings.
See,e.g.,
14C.F.R.§399.84(failuretostatefullairfarechargedconstitutesanunfair
anddeceptivetradepracticeinviolationof49U.S.C.§41712;TheWendellH.FordAviationInvestment
ReformActforthe21
st
Century(Pub.L.No.105-181,49U.S.C._40101note(Apr.5,2000),
availableat
<http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-
bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=106_cong_public_laws&docid=f:publ181.106>(increasingpenaltiesforvarious
consumerprotectionprovisionviolationsoftheFederalAviationAct,49U.S.C.§222).
Cf.
FAR91.23(a)
Truth-in-leasingclauserequirementsinleasesandconditionalsalescontracts
requiresawrittentruth-in-
leasingclauseinlargeprint.
5
EmailfromJohnKing,KingSchools(May30,2002).RichardStowellurgesthatpassenger
empowermentcanbeadvancedbyreviewingtheflightplanwiththepassenger(s),makingpassengerspart
ofthesafetyprocessandunderscoringthatpassengerareempoweredtopulltheplug(toterminatethe
flight)intheirdiscretion.InterviewwithRichStowell,inSantaPaula,Cal.(Jan.2,2003).
6
T
ONY
K
ERN
,R
EDEFINING
A
IRMANSHIP
339(McGraw-HillProfessional1997).
7
See
FAR91.11
Prohibitionagainstinterferencewithcrewmembers,availableat
<
http://risingup.com/fars/info/part91-11-FAR.shtml>;AMCCII.d
SeektoPreventUnsafeConductby
Passengers.
8
H
AROLD
L
INCOLN
B
ROWN
,A
IRCRAFTANDTHE
L
AW
152(1933).Considertheliabilityofaircraftowners
topassengersforthenegligententrustmentofanaircrafttoapilot.Woulddisclosurehavemadea
difference?
SeeWhitev.InboundAviation
,82Cal.Rptr.2d71(Cal.Ct.App.1999)(pilotincompetentto
completeintendedtriphavingflownonlytwicesincelicensuretwoyearsprior).
9R
ICHARD
L.C
OLLINS
&P
ATRICK
E.B
RADLEY
,C
ONFIDENT
F
LYING
viiviii(AviationSuppliesand
Academics2
nd
ed.2001)(emphasisadded).
Cf
.FAAAdmin.MarionC.Blakey
quotedin
JohnSchwartz,
RocketShipWins$10MillionPrizeAsPrivateVenture
,N.Y.Times,Oct.5,2004,atA1,A18(Thegoal
ofgovernmentwillbetominimizetherisksforpeopleonthegroundwhoarenotinvolvedinspaceflight
anddidnotagreetotakeanyrisk,andtomakesurethatthe
risksforpassengersarefullyandaccurately
described
.)(emphasisadded);PressRelease,U.S.Dept.ofTransp.,
SecretaryMinetaAnnounces
ProposedGuidelinesforCommercialSpaceTravel
(Feb.10,2005),
availableat
<http://www.dot.gov/affairs/dot2505.htm>(Peoplewhowanttotravelintospace...wouldneedtosign
consentformsstatingtheyunderstandtherisksassociatedwithlaunchingintospace,accordingtonew
proposedfederalguidelinesforcommercialspacetravel....).Query:Iftheacuterisksofspacetravelare
moreobvioustothegeneralpublicthantherisksofGA,istheFAAspolicyemphasismisplaced?
10
Thelimitationsonparental/guardianwaiversonbehalfofminorsaresoberinglyilluminatedwhen
reviewingthehistoryofthe(unsuccessful)introductionoftheChildPilotSafetyAct,H.R.3267(1997)
(precipitatedbythehighly-publicizedApr.11,1996accidentthatkilled7yearoldJessicaDubroffandher
father).NTSBBriefofAccident,
availableat
<http://ntsb.gov/ntsb/GenPDF.asp?id=SEA96MA079&rpt=fi>(accidentcausesincludedPICimproper
decisionmakingandoverlyambitiousitineraryarguablyanoverzealousfather/PIC).Congressional
testimonyinthiscasestatedthatNTSBdataindicatesthatsince1964therewhere178accidentsand
incidentsinvolvingpilots16yearsofageandyounger.TransportationCommittee,U.S.Houseof
Representatives,
availableat
<http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/Trans/hpw104-58.000/hpw104-
58_0.htm>.
11
FAR91.21
Portableelectronicdevices,availableat
<http://www.risingup.com/fars/info/part91-21-
FAR.shtml>.

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12
FAR91.519(a)(6)
Passengerbriefing
(re:oxygenequipmentanduse),
availableat
<http://www.risingup.com/fars/info/part91-519-FAR.shtml>;
see
FAR91.211(a)(3)
Supplementaloxygen,
availableat
<http://www.risingup.com/fars/info/part91-211-FAR.shtml>.
13
FAR91.519(a)(4)
Passengerbriefing
,
availableat
<http://www.risingup.com/fars/info/part91-519-
FAR.shtml>.
14
See,e.g.,
FAR519(a)(5)
Ditchingprocedures;
FAA,AC121-24A
PassengerSafetyInformationBriefing
andBriefingCards
(Feb.1,1999).
15
See
FAR135.117(e)
BriefingofPassengersBeforeFlight,availableat
<http://risingup.com/fars/info/part135-117-FAR.shtml>;
Hinsonv.Kittelson
,NTSBOrderNo.EA-4068
(1994),
availableat
<http://www.ntsb.gov/alj/O_n_O/docs/AVIATION/4068.PDF>.
16
Thereisabeliefthatairlinepassengersareentitledtocompleteandtimelydisclosureofallinformation
dealingwithsafetystandardsandcompliancewithsafetyregulations.CanadianAssociationofAirline
Passengers(CAAP),
AirlinePassengerBillofRights,availableat
<http://www.piac.ca/billsum.htm>.
17
B
ARRY
S
CHIFF
,F
LYING
W
ISDOM
:T
HE
P
ROFICIENT
P
ILOT
226(AviationSuppliesandAcademics,Inc.
1997).Whatthelawpermitsorrequiresisnotnecessarilywhatis
ethically
right.
See
W
EST

S
E
NCYCLOPEDIAOF
A
MERICAN
L
AW
316(Vol.41997)(emphasisadded);AMCCVII.e(promoteethical
behaviorwithintheGAcommunity).
18
Availableat
<http://www.alaska.net/~etc/aasf/psgr's%20bor.htm>.
91Whilenotmandatory(withregardtoGApassengers),the
FTCPolicyStatementonDeception
mayoffer
pilotsinformalhelpfulgenericguidanceonformulatingpassengerbriefingsthatprovideappropriate
discloseandsteerclearofmisrepresentationsaboutflightrisks.
See
JamesC.MillerIII,Chairman,FTC,
FTCPolicyStatementonDeception
(Oct.14,1983),
availableat
<http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/policystmt/ad-
decept.htm>;andMichaelPertschuk,FTCChairman,
FTCPolicyStatementonFairness
(Dec.17,1980),
availableat
<http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/policystmt/ad-unfair.htm>.
20
Arguably,ifapilotestablishespersonalrecommendedpractices/personalminimumsthatmitigatemuch
oftheenumeratedrisks,therelativeneedtodisclosemaycorrespondinglydiminish.
21
See
FAR91.509
Survivalequipmentforoverwateroperations,availableat
<http://www.risingup.com/fars/info/part91-509-FAR.shtml>;
cf.
FAR91.205(b)(12)(requiringsuch
flotationgearwhenoverwaterandbeyondpower-offglidingdistancefromshore
onlyiftheaircraftis
operatedforhire
).Also,life-vestswithout
lifesuits
incoldwaterarelikelyineffective,yetlifesuitsare
notrequired.
22
Nightiswherewedotheabsolutelypoorestjobofmanagingrisksinflying.Nomatterwhatstatistic
youlookat,forwhateverphaseofflying,thefatalaccidentrateisalwayssubstantially,usually
dramatically,higherindarknessthaninlight.R
ICHARD
L.C
OLLINS
&P
ATRICK
E.B
RADLEY
,C
ONFIDENT
dnF
LYING
155(AviationSuppliesandAcademics2ed.2001).Nighttimeflightisobviouslymore
dangerousthandaytimeflight.
Cappellov.DuncanAircraftSalesofFlorida,Inc
.,Fed.App.0102P[No.
94-5543](6
th
Cir.1996),
availableat
<http://www.law.emory.edu/6circuit/mar96/96a0102p.06.html>;
Nightcomplicatesallflightoperationsparticularlyinstrumentoperationsandifanaccidentoccursat
night,itsmuchmorelikelytobefatal.2001N
ALL
R
EPORT
,at6,
availableat
<http://www.aopa.org/asf/publications/>.
ConsiderthatVFRnightoperationsrequireaninstrumentratinginCanada,Mexico,andthatallsingle
enginenightflightsarebannedintheUK,andelsewhere.
See
U.S.Dept.oftheInterior,OfficeofAircraft
Services,AlaskaRegionalOffice,
AircraftRentalAgreement
(Mar.2002),atB2.3(Single-engineaircraft
operationsshallnotbeconductedintoinstrumentmeteorologicalconditions(IMC)ornightconditionsas
definedin14CFRwithGovernmentpersonnelonboard.),
availableat
<http://www.oas.gov/akro/akflight/pdf/ara-ak.pdf>;NewZealandTransportAccidentInvestigation
Commission,
Recommendations
,Report03-001(Jun.3,2003),
availableat

5

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ODEL
C
ODEOF
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ONDUCT
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>.
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<
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<http://www.taic.org.nz/aviation/recommend_03-001.html>(recommendingthepublicationofguidance
materialforallnightVFRflying).
Cf.
IAOPAPolicyManual(6/14,8/9),at23,
availableat
<http://www.iaopa.org>(urgingallStatestopermitnightVFRoperationsingeneralaviationaircraft.)
23
See
AIM7-5-5(a)
MountainFlying
(characterizingmountainflyingasaneve-rto-be-forgotten
nightmareifunaware).
24
IsmereFAAlicensuresufficienttoremovetheresponsibilitytodiscloseminimumexperience?Apilots
judgmentandabilitytomanagerisksaregenerallyofgreaterimportthanamerequantificationofflight
time.Nonetheless,flighttimeprovidesexperiencethat,inpart,underliesthedevelopmentofjudgment.So
whileflighttimeisnotanabsoluteindicatorofjudgment,itisonerecognized,helpfulindicator.
See
Les
Abend,
AvoidingThunderstormsAirlineStyle
,F
LYING
,Sept.2003,72,76,
availableat
<http://www.flyingmag.com>(Experienceistheprimaryteacherofjudgment.).
Considerthatpilotswithunder200hoursofflighttimemaynotflypassengersforvoluntary/charityevents
andyetneednotdisclosetheirlimitedexperiencetootherpassengers.FAR61.113(d)(1)(ii)
Privatepilot
privilegesandlimitations:Pilotincommand
,
availableat
<http://www.risingup.com/fars/info/part61-113-
FAR.shtml>(passenger-carryingairliftsponsoredbyacharitableorganization).
See
AOPAAirSafety
Foundation,
VolunteerPilots
(1999),
availableat
<http://www.aopa.org/asf/publications/volunteer.pdf>
(recommendingapersonalminimumof200hrs.PICversus200hoursofflighttimepertheFARfor
charityflights).
Cf.
NPRM[FAA-1998-4521],
NationalAirTourSafetyStandards
(Oct.22,2003),
availableat
<http://dms.dot.gov/search/document.cfm?documentid=257434&docketid=4521>(proposing
SFAR71-likerequirementsforsightseeingflightsunder14C.F.R.19.1(e)(2),includingraisingthe
thresholdto500hours).CharityflightrestrictionsalsorequiretheuseofFAAapprovedairportsonly,
prohibit
aerobaticorformationflight
,prohibittheuseofexperimentalaircraft,andlimitflightstoVFR
.ylno25
ConsiderthestatusofpersonalinformationundertheFederalAviationAct,49U.S.C.§44936(f)
(protectingtheprivacyofpilotapplicants).Howaretheconflictinginterestsofprivacyandsafetyserved
anddoesthissquarewithadequatepassengerdisclosure?
26
See
FAR91.213
Inoperativeinstrumentsandequipment,availableat
<http://risingup.com/fars/info/part91-213-FAR.shtml>.Forexample,shouldapilotdisclosealackof
operationallandinglightsfornighttimeoperation?
See
FAR91.209
AircraftLights,availableat
<http://www.risingup.com/fars/info/part91-209-FAR.shtml>(notrequiringlandinglights).Consider
voluntaryconformance(forPart91operations)withFAR135.163
Equipmentrequirements:Aircraft
carryingpassengersunderIFR,availableat
<http://www.risingup.com/fars/info/part135-163-FAR.shtml
>.
Note
:Aminimumequipmentlist(MEL)isalistofitemsofequipmentandinstrumentsthatmaybe
inoperativeonaspecifictypeofaircraftandservesasthebasisforthedevelopmentofanindividual
operatorsMEL.
27
Weathe-rrelatedaccidentscontinuetohavethehighestprobabilityoffatalities.AOPAASF,2001
N
ALL
R
EPORT
,
at4
,availableat
<http://www.aopa.org/asf/publications/>.Weatheraccountsfor19
percentofallfatalpiloting-relatedaccidents,and28.3%inhighperformanceaircraft.
Id.
at6.
28
FAR91.211(a)(3)
Supplementaloxygen,availableat
<http://www.risingup.com/fars/info/part91-211-
FAR.shtml>(provisionofoxygenrequiredforpassengersabove15,000ft.MSL).Thebriefingforhigher
altitudeflightsmightbenefitbyincludingaminiaviationphysiologycomponentsinceiplotsshouldnot
takeforgrantedpassengerunderstandingofapplicablephysiologicalprinciples.
29
See
AOPA,
TravelingwithChildrenandFamily,at
<http://www.aopa.org/members/files/topics/family.html>.
30
Forexample,disclosingtotalcoverageandwhethersmoothorpe-rpassengersublimitstopoliciesexist
(
e.g.,
1,000,000total,100,000perpassengercap).Asmoothlimitprovidesacombinedsinglelimitof
coverageforallbodilyinjuryandpropertydamageclaims.Aspecifiedmaximumamountcanbepaidout

6

File:<
http://www.secureav.com/Comment-AMCC-II.c-Passengers.pdf
>
LastUpdated:July22,2005
T
HE
A
VIATORS

M
ODEL
C
ODEOF
C
ONDUCT
(AMCC),
availableat
<
http://www.secureav.com
>.
©2005TermsofUse,
availableat
<
http://www.secureav.com/terms.pdf
>.

fromacoveredoccurrenceinanycombination-passengerbodilyinjury,otherpersonsbodilyinjuryor
propertydamage.
RichardC.Collinshasopined,$100,000aseatisnotreallyinsurance,
MitsubishiMU-2
,F
LYING
,June
2002,at82,
availableat
<http://www.flyingmag.com>.Nonetheless,$100,000aseatisthemaximum
limitavailableoraffordabletomanyaircraftowners.Thealternativeinthesecasesisnoinsuranceatall.
Moreover,$100,000hashistoricallybeen,infact,adequatetocoverthevastmajorityofliabilityclaims.In
additiontothelimitofliability,theinsuredisprovidedwithunlimitedlegalrepresentationattheinsurers
expense.Inaperfectworldpilotswouldpreferunlimitedliabilitylimitsavailableatanaffordablecost.In
therealworld,however,$100,000isoftenwhatisavailableoraffordable.
TheExperimentalAircraftAssociationarrangedfor
excesspassengerliabilitycoverage
of$1,000,000for
bodilyinjury,peroccurrence,forYoungEagles(minorpassengers)toapplyinexcessofaminimum
underlyingaircraftliabilitycoverageof$100,000perpassengerseatcarriedbytheparticipatingMember
Pilot.KarenKryzaniak,CorporateRiskManager,EAA,
DontLetInsuranceBeAnExcuse
(Jan.2003)
(copyonfilewithauthor).
Urgepassengers,attheiroption,toconsiderobtainingadditionalinsurance.
Cf.
Westronglyrecommend
thatyouobtainpersonalinsuranceforallthephysicalactivitiesundertakenonthecourseandforanyother
activitieswhichyoumaywishtopursue,aswellasforallusualtravel,accident,medicalandluggagerisks.
WildFitness
isinsuredforactivitiesundertakenunderoursupervision,butthisinsuranceissubjectto
certainlimitsandexclusions.
WildfitnessConsentandWaiverofLiabilityForm
(copyonfilewith
author).
FlightDepartmentOperationsandInsurance-
Theestablishmentofacaptiveflightdeaprtmentorflight
organizationintendedtoshieldthecompanyfromliabilityexposure(andthatisinsuredtooperate
exclusivelyunderFARPart91)maycreateethicalissuesregardingpassengerswheretheFAAdeclares
thatsuchflightoperationswereactuallyperformedunderPart135,therebyvoidinginsurancecoverage,to
thedetrimentofpassengersandtheirfamilies.MatthewW.Broughton,Esq.,G
ENTRY
L
OCKE
R
AKES
&
M
OORE
,PresentationattheLawyer-PilotsBarAssnWinterMeeting,inTucson,Ariz.(Ja.n15,2003).
31
TheOccupationalSafetyandHealthAdministration(OSHA)requireshearingprotectionwhenambient
noiselevelexceeds90decibels(db).GAaircraftgenerallyexceed90db,eveninnormaloperations.
Exposuretosoundat85dboverasingle8-hourperiod,100dbovera15-minuteperiodor130dbor
greaterforanyperiodcancausemeasurablepermanenthearingloss.Noise-inducedhearingloss(NIHL)
referstoanypermanenthearingloss(mildtoprofound)thatistheresultofexposuretoloudnoiseoveran
extendedperiodoftime.
32
See
FAR91.519(b)(2)(emergencyequipment),
availableat
<http://risingup.com/fars/info/part91-519-
FAR.shtml>.
33
See,e.g.,
AOPAAirSafetyFoundation,
PinchHitter
®
TheVideo,
availableat
<http://www.aopa.org/asf>.Incapacitationisaminorcauseofaircraftaccidents.
Seegenerally
Charles
A.Dejohnetal.,
In-flightMedicalIncapacitationandImpairmentofU.S.AirlinePilots:1993to1998,
FlightS
AFETY
D
IGEST
,Jan.2005,at1.
34
See
AIM6-3-3
DitchingProcedures
.
35
See
FAR91.319(d)(1),
availableat
<http://www.risingup.com/fars/info/part91-319-FAR.shtml>
(Adviseeachpersoncarriedoftheexperimentalnatureoftheaircraft.Noguidanceisgivenonrisk
disclosure).Additionally,considercommunicatingtheincrementalriskoffatalitiesinexperimental
aircraft.
See
FAR91.319(e)(permittingtheAdministratortoprescribeadditionallimitationsregardingthe
personsthatmaybecarriedintheaircraft.).
Cf.EAASeekstoContinueDownwardFatalAccidentTrend
,
EAAS
PORT
A
VIATION
,Oct.2004,at25,
availableat
<http://www.sportpilot.org/>(citingNTSB
announcementthatthehomebuiltaircraftfatalaccidentratedroppedthirtysixpercentinthe2002-2003
fiscalyearfrompreviousyear).

7

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>
LastUpdated:July22,2005
T
HE
A
VIATORS

M
ODEL
C
ODEOF
C
ONDUCT
(AMCC),
availableat
<
http://www.secureav.com
>.
©2005TermsofUse,
availableat
<
http://www.secureav.com/terms.pdf
>.

36
Forexample,inadditiontooperationofparachutesandemergencyprocedures,properclothing,effects
ofenhanced(andnegative)Gforces,andenhancedriskstoairfoilsshouldbecommunicatedtopassengers
participatinginaerobaticflights
.
37
See,e.g.,
FAA,AC91-42D
HazardsofRotatingPropellerandHelicopterRotorBlades
(Mar.3,1983),
availableat
<http://www.avcommusa.com/download/ac91-42.pdf>.
38
TheSamplePassengerBriefingisnotpartoftheAMCC.Rather,itisprovidedasanindependent,
voluntarytooltotheGAcommunity.
39
See
AMCC
Introduction,
§9(
StylisticConventionsandInterpretation
),
availableat
<
http://www.secureav.com/Comment-AMCC-Introduction.pdf
>.

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8