Comment-AMCC-III.General-Training
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Comment-AMCC-III.General-Training

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File: < http://www.secureav.com/Comment-AMCC-III.General-Training.pdf >.Last Updated: October 20, 2005THE AVIATORS’ MODEL CODE OF CONDUCT(AMCC) is available at < http://www.secureav.com >.About the Commentary: The Commentary addresses selected issues within the AVIATORS’ MODEL CODEOF CONDUCT(AMCC) to elaborate on their meaning, provide interpretive guidance, and suggest ways ofadopting the AMCC. It is intended primarily for implementers, policy administrators, aviation associationmanagement, and pilots who wish to explore the AMCC in greater depth. Please send your edits, errata,and comments to . Terms of Use are available at .COMMENTARY TOAMCC III. General – TRAINING AND PROFICIENCYPilot training and pilot proficiency lie at the heart of aviation safety, simply because most1accidents involve pilot error. Effective training requires a sophisticated understanding of the2nature of pilot error and the efficacy of various training methods. As a result, GA flight training3and flight testing are in constant flux, and the subject of considerable rethinking.“Training is the systematic modification of behavior through instruction, practice, measurement,and feedback. Its purpose is to teach the trainee to perform tasks not previously possible or to a4level of skill or proficiency previously unattainable.” The compelling need for flight trainingwas artfully urged long ago by Wolfgang Langewiesche:[F]lying is ...

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File:<http://www.secureav.com/Comment-AMCC-III.General-Training.pdf>.
LastUpdated:October20,2005
T
HE
A
VIATORS
M
ODEL
C
ODEOF
C
ONDUCT
(AMCC)isavailableat<http://www.secureav.com>.

AbouttheCommentary
:
TheCommentaryaddressesselectedissueswithintheA
VIATORS
M
ODEL
C
ODE
OF
C
ONDUCT
(AMCC)toelaborateontheirmeaning,provideinterpretiveguidance,andsuggestwaysof
adoptingtheAMCC.Itisintendedprimarilyforimplementers,policyadministrators,aviationassociation
management,andpilotswhowishtoexploretheAMCCingreaterdepth.Pleasesendyouredits,errata,
andcommentsto<
PEB@secureav.com
>.TermsofUseareavailableat<
http://secureav.com/terms.pdf
>.

C
OMMENTARYTO
AMCCIII.General
T
RAININGAND
P
ROFICIENCY
Pilottrainingandpilotproficiencylieattheheartofaviationsafety,simplybecausemost
accidentsinvolvepiloterror.
1
Effectivetrainingrequiresasophisticatedunderstandingofthe
natureofpiloterrorandtheefficacyofvarioustrainingmethods.
2
Asaresult,GAflighttraining
3andflighttestingareinconstantflux,andthesubjectofconsiderablerethinking.
Trainingisthesystematicmodificationofbehaviorthroughinstruction,practice,measurement,
andfeedback.Itspurposeistoteachthetraineetoperformtasksnotpreviouslypossibleortoa
4levelofskillorproficiencypreviouslyunattainable.Thecompellingneedforflighttraining
wasartfullyurgedlongagobyWolfgangLangewiesche:
[F]lying
is
difficulttolearnletnobodytellyouotherwise.Theaccidentrecordprovesit,
andsodoesthenumberofmenbarredfromflighttrainingoreliminatedfromtrainingfor
lackofaptitude.Whatmakesflyingsodifficultisthatthefliersinstinctsthatis,hismost
deeplyestablishedhabitsofmindandbodywilltempthimtodoexactlythewrongthing.
...Inlearningtheartofpiloting,muchcarefullylearnedbehavior,manyfirmlyheldideas
mustbeforgottenandclearedoutoftheway,mustactuallybereversed!
5
Aftermasteringbasicstickandrudderskills,themodernGApilotoftenyearnstolearnnew,
morecomplexskill-setsnecessaryforflyingtechnicallyadvancedaircraftinachallengingATC
environment.Humanfactorsresearchinaviationindicatesthattheincreasedimportanceof
[learning]properaeronauticaldecision-making(ADM)andriskassessmenthasneverbeen
greater.
6
AMCCIIIurgespilotstoembracesuchchallengesas(a)achievingandmaintaining
proficiency,(b)participatinginflightsafetyeducation,(c)respondingtoemergencies,and(d)
accuratelyloggingtheircurrency.
**

1
NTSB,
AnnualReviewofAircraftAccidentData,U.S.GeneralAviation,CalendarYear2000,
NTSB/ARG-04/01(Jun17,2004),
availableat
<
http://www.ntsb.gov/publictn/2004/ARG0401.pdf
>
(accidentbroadcause/factor89%-personnel);AOPAAirSafetyFoundation,
AccidentTrendsandFactors
for2003,
2004N
ALL
R
EPORT
,
availableat
<
http://www.aopa.org/asf/publications/03nall.pdf
>(pilot
relatedcausesofaccidents75.8%).
2
Theextentofaccidentscausedbypiloterror,themeaningoferror,andapproachestoreduceerrorare
miredincontroversy.Considerthefollowingviews:

Theindustrypersistsinattemptingtoeliminateerrorandadvocatespreventionstrategies
aimedaterroravoidanceratherthanerrormanagement....[C]onsiderhumanerroras
thestartingpoint....Errorshouldbeconsideredlikeafever:anindicationofillness
ratherthanitscause.Itisamarkerannouncingproblemsinthearchitectureofthe
aviationsystem.Theobviousplacetostartlookingisattheinterfacesbetweenhuman
andsystem,includingthevarioushuman-organizationinterfacesrelevanttotheevent
underscrutiny,todeterminewhethertheinterfacesarecontext-friendly.Capt.DanielE.
Maurino,ICAO,
AviationHumanFactorsandtheSafetyInvestigationProcess,

1

File:<http://www.secureav.com/Comment-AMCC-III.General-Training.pdf>.
LastUpdated:October20,2005
T
HE
A
VIATORS
M
ODEL
C
ODEOF
C
ONDUCT
(AMCC)isavailableat<http://www.secureav.com>.

ConferenceoftheIntlSocietyofAirSafetyInvestigtaors,Anchorage,Alaska(Oct.15,
1997),pp.2,6.

Ifflightinstructorsareresponsibleforpilotsabilitytomaketherightdecisions,thento
blamepiloterrorforanincidentwouldbeunfairtoapilotwithoutrecognizingthechain
oferrorsthatlikelyinculpatesthatpilotsinstructor,andinturn,thedemographicsthat
causedtheinstructortohavelittleexperience.InterviewwithFrankHofmann,Secy,
CanadianOwnersandPilotsAssn(COPA),inSãoPaulo,Braz.(Oct.4,2002).

Regulatoryrequirementsforinstructorsarelow,
GuidelinesforBusinessAviationPilot
Training,
NBAA,§3.3,(Sept.1,2002),p.10,
availableat
<http://www.nbaa.org>(implicatingflightinstructorqualityconcerns).
3
Forexample,thisrethinkingincludestheevolutionofFAAPracticalTestStandardstoincludescenario-
basedtrainingandriskmanagement.
See,e.g.
,FAA,
InstrumentRatingPTS
,FAA-S-8081-4D(Apr.2004),
availableat
<
http://www.faa.gov/education_research/testing/airmen/test_standards/media/FAA-S-8081-
4D.pdf
>(incorporationofscenariosintheplanofactioncharacterizedasamajorenhancement);
RobertA.Wright,FAA,
ChangesInGeneralAviationFlightOperationsAndTheirImpactOnSystem
SafetyAndFlightTraining
(DraftVersion2.0Apr.2002),p.10,
at
<
http://www.faa.gov/education_research/training/fits/guidance/media/whitepaper.doc
>(whencoupled
withstate-of-the-arttrainingdevicesandcurricula,[scenario-basedflighttraining]wouldbeideallysuited
topreparinggeneralaviationpilotsforoperationinanincreasinglycomplexNAS.).
See
ArlynnMcMahon,MCFI,
MakingaCompletePilot,NAFIMentor
(Aug.2005),pp.10-13(explaining
scenario-basedtraining);MichaelW.Brown,
TransformingScienceintoArtWhatthePTScanand
cannotdoforpilottraining,
FAAA
VIATION
N
EWS
,Jul./Aug.2005,pp.26-28(Asaninstructor,yourtask
istodevelopscenarios,trainingexercises,andcurriculathathighlightallknowriskfactorsandother
considerationsassociatedwithagivenPTSmaneuver.
Id.
p.28).
4
PaulW.Caro,
FlightTrainingandSimulation
,
in
H
UMAN
F
ACTORSIN
A
VIATION
229(EarlWiener&
DavidNagel,eds.AcademicPress1998).PerhapsCarosuseofpreviouslyunattainableisbetter
characterizedbypreviously
unattained
becauseoruonlylimitsareself-imposed.EmailfromDoug
Stewart,MCFI(Aug.11,2005)(emphasisadded).
5
S
TICKAND
R
UDDER
3(McGraw-HillPublg1972)(1944).Langeweischeisreferringtostickandrudder
skills.[His]statementreinforcesthementalitythattrainingshouldbemaneuversbased.Yetwehave
realizedthatlimitingourselvestojusttrainingmaneuvers(aswehaveprettymuchsinceWWI)ignoresthe
realkiller...thatbeingriskmanagement/aeronauticaldecisionmaking.AtthetimethatLangeweische
wrotethis,mostflyingwasconductedlocallyandengineswerelessreliablethantheyaretoday.Stickand
rudderskillswerewhatsavedthebaconinmostinstances.Today,ifwedonttraintoproficiencyin
thoseskillswetypicallybendmetalorcrackcomposites,butdonotnecessarilykillourselves.Itispoor
decisionmakingskillsthatleadtomostofthefatalitiestoday.EmailfromDougStewart,
supra
note4
.
Balancingtheobjectivityneededtomeasurestickandrudderskillswitt
h
esubjectivityrequiredto
evaluatepilotperformanceinothercriticalareasisnosimplematter.MichaelW.Brown,
supra
note3,p.
.626
DougStewart,MCFI,
TechnicalLessons,
NAFIM
ENTOR
,Mar.2005,p.9.Stewartexplains:Because
theseairplanesarebeingusedforlongcrosscountryflightsforthemostpart,creatinggreaterexposureto
risk.Furthermore,manyofthepilotsthatcanaffordthesetypesofaircraftare
megatypeA
personalities,
thatarenotusedtobeingtoldthattheycannotdosomething.EmailfromDougStewart,
Id
.
Increasingly,thesearethefolkswhohavethemeanstofly,yetthey(generally,often)disdainany
questioningoftheir
judgment,
andsofailtoavailthemselvesofopportunitiestolearnthisvitalflying
skill.EmailfromMichaelRadomsky,Pres.,CirrusOwnersandPilotsAssn(Sept.4,2005).
***

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