Interviewing the Embodiment of Political Evil:
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Interviewing the Embodiment of Political Evil:

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(Un)Queering the Intersex Body in Elite Sports  Annette C. G. Brömdal  Abstract  Historically the Intersex Body is not a new phenomenon in elite sports. Sex testing, femininity controls and gender verifications emerged when allegations surfaced that men an d perhaps ‘hermaphrodites’ were participa ting in female only sporting events. The hetero-normative agenda and fear of disruptive sex, gender and body in elite sports have thus questioned and disqualified athletes with intersex variations on the basis of th em according ‘unfair’ competitive advantages. This paper examines the scandal surrounding Caster Semenya, the ‘Golden Girl’ who had her sex and gender questioned after winning the 800m world championship in Berlin 2009, and the pathologising of athletes with intersex variations. Historically, sports medicine policies pathologise the ‘Intersex Body’ by interpreting their presence as disorders and abnormal that can become orderly and normal through the power of science and medicine, if need be with the help of a scalpel. The Semenya con troversy thus represents much more than a world glimpsing into an athlete’s and a nation’s unde rpants. The controversy has raised many questions and produced anxieties linked to the binary sex, gender and body model in and around the culture of elite sports  what constitutes sex; what is feminine and what is masculine; how the female and the male athlete body should ideally look like; and whether the body constitute a part in the construction of sex and gender? This theoretical paper will be outlined in relation to disruptive sex, gender and body concepts where the pathologised Other is advised to conform to the binary norms or remain as a Deviant Other. This paper will conclude that the ways in which athletes with intersex variations are depicted and managed need to be challenged. The logic of the binary sex, gender and body model in and around the culture of elite sports also needs urgent troubling.  Key Words: Intersex, sex and gender testing, unfair competitive advantage, International Olympic Committee (IOC), International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF), illegibility, disorders of sex development, normalising, pathologising, unqueering.   1. Introduction   The intensified moment of Caster Semenya and the criticism directed against the International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) has taken the intersex debate in elite sports to another level. Due to the mishandling of the Semenya case, and others, as well as extensive criticism against the IAAF Gender Verification policy the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the IAAF agreed in late
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2 (Un)Queering the Intersex Body in Elite Sports __________________________________________________________________  2009 to draw up guidelines on how to define and manage athletes born with, what the efer to as, disorders of and the Inteyr nrational Athletic Foundation  (IseAxF ),d 1  etvheulso oprmgeannti se(dD aS sDc)i.e ntTifhiec  eIxOpCer t meeting in January of 2010 with the objective of setting the d irections of an upc 2 o mTing consensus statement and a policy coming into effect the 1 st  of May 2011. he conclusions of this Gender Symposium suggest:  
That sport authorities, in conjunction with the relevant medical authorities, have a responsibility to follow up on cases of DSD [disorders of sex development] that arise under their jurisdiction; That there be an increase in education and awareness of DSD within the sport community; That PPHE (pre-participation health examinations) are important for the purpose of identifying athletes with DSD; That precise diagnosis should be established expeditiously utilizing requisite expertise; That a management plan be drawn up if treatment is necessary (recommended); To establish strategically located centres of excellence at which athletes with DSD can, if necessary, be diagnosed and treated; That rules be put in place to determine eligibility of athletes for sport competition on a case-by-case basis both prior to and following diagnosis of a DSD, including treatmen uses twrehaetnm eannt  faotrh lae tDe SiDs . 3 undergoing t for DSD or ref
 The excerpt raises many questions as to why it is important to identify, diagnose and treat athletes with DSDs on a ‘case -by-case’ basis and in what ways the potential refusing in complying with the rules for eligibility may affect the lives and careers of athletes with intersex variations. In other words, why is the intersex body causing such nervous reactions and why is there a need to police, regulate and conform athletes with intersex variations? This paper thus seeks to examine the underlining arguments for developing the upcoming consensus statement and policy on the eligibility and management of athletes with DSD: that they accord unfair competitive advantages in relation to non-intersex female athletes. This paper also aims to trouble the athletic intersex body in relation to the logic of the binary sex, gender and body model in and around the culture of elite sports. 4    2. Queering versus Unqueering Intersex Research on the discourse of intersex, hermaphroditism and, the more recently medically and scientifically developed nomenclature, disorders of sex development (DSD) is an increasingly examined phenomenon. 5  The term intersex originally derives from the medical establishment and much of its literature, up until the early 1990s, was mainly produced for an audience within the field of medicine and
Annette C. G. Brömdal 3 __________________________________________________________________  science. 6  The discourse on intersex, is, however, more recently contributing to fields challenging binary and hegemonic sex, gender and body norms, 7 and social psychologist Susanne Kessler is one of the first scholars to question the clinical management of intersex infants from a non-binary sex and gender perspective. Kessler criticises the power the field of science has in constructing and upholding the binary sex and gender model. 8  Through a ‘phallocentric’ approach , Kessler argues that the field of medicine often assigns gender at an early age with the help of uninformed and non-consented genital reconstructive surgeries unfeasible to backtrack. 9    Anne Fausto-Sterling also critiques the scientific and medical management of intersex infants. Fausto-Sterling questions the power the medical establishment has ermi n what is considered normal and the norm and what is considered ianb ndoertmal annid gpathological. 10  Medicine is thus ‘ part of a system of defining and reinforc i 1 n 1 g our cultural ideas about what counts as normal in the world of sex and gender. Fausto-Sterling particularly questions the dual sex and gender concept by noting that around 17 in 1000 children (1.7%) are born with an intersex variation, 12  and suggests in increasing the numbers of sexes to five as a move towards inclusion. 13 Kessler has raised scepticism against this idea as an increased number of sex classifications continue giving great significance to genitalia and ignores the fact that in everyday life there is no sex, only gender, because attributions are made without reference to genitalia. 14 , 15   Kessler and McKenna further challenge  the natural order of gender by suggesting that anything that does not live up to the standards of masculinity must ublet ifmeamteilnyi neb ea nmd aswchualit nee.v eTr hdeoy esc rnitoitq uliev et hue p ltaoc kt hoef  stoathnedra rodps tioofn sf.e 16 m i niBnuittlye r maunsdt  intersex scholar Morgan Holmes comparably argue that whatever is not feminine is not necessarily masculine and whatever is not masculine is not necessarily feminine. 17  Instead, there is a sphere of individuals, perceived as ‘gender benders’, who do not fit any of these socially constructed categories. These ‘gender benders’ do not take characters of either camp but construct their own gender, such as groupings within the queer paradigm, e.g., transgendered, intersex and pangendered individuals. 18  The intersex discourse also focuses on historically unfolding the intersex identity and its activism, however, a recent nomenclature 19 revision has changed the dynamics of this identity debate. In 2006 the generic term disorders of sex development (DSD) replaced intersex, though, mainly within the fields of medicine and science. DSD is defined as ‘ congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex is a typical.’ 20  The classification change has not only created lively debates, disagreements and distinct divisions within the intersex movement but also within the fields of science, medicine, ethics and law. 21  Some within the intersex movement argue that intersex is discriminatory and diffusive as it enters the ‘identity’ debate instead of  establishing which type of ‘condition’ the person
4 (Un)Queering the Intersex Body in Elite Sports __________________________________________________________________  has. 22 Others strongly oppose to the idea of being defined by science and medicine and categorized as disorderly. For instance, Alyson Spurgas argues that the introducing of the DSD term implies that intersex is ‘ first and foremost a disorder requiring medical treatment 23  The new taxonomy ‘unqueers’ and normalises  the . intersex person by giving the in dividual a ‘ pa thological or disordered status’ while the term intersex attempted to ‘ reclaim and reconstruct the term intersex as a positive marker of non-normative and queer identity. 24 Spurgas further argues that  […] although certain intersex -related conditions (such as salt-losing associated with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia) can be life threatening and thus may require intervention, intersexuality itself is not ath ical and thus does not require medical treatment. 25  p olog  Hence, an intersex variation involving a malady is a malady in its own right which does not need to pathologise the entire individual. Holmes further argues that the development of the DSD term is a convenient way to discipline the disruptive intersex body and intersex identity into normalcy and in maintaining the binary sex and gender model. Holmes contests that the i d n e t f e e r c s t ex 26 bo T d h y u  s a , n i d n  i d d iv e i n d t u it a y l  s i  s w hhoa udnot endo  by binary gender norms due to its bodily s. t comply with the binary sex, gender and body model are othered and perceived as walking disorders. 27 Holmes believes that many individuals with intersex variations, not wanting to take up the challenge against normalness, would less likely feel like human failures if intersex studies, intersex bodies and intersex identities were welcome, possible and celebrated. Being branded as a t d i i f s i o c r a d ti er or 2  8 a walking pathology may hinder the ‘ search for autonomous self-iden on.    3. Unqueering the Intersex Body in Elite Sports The Semenya controversy has yet again produced tensions linked to the logic of the binary sex, gender and body model in and around the culture of elite sports. The controversy has also generated questions challenging the purpose of elite sport as athletes with intersex variations are argued to be disorderly and accord unfair competitive advantages. The IOC and the IAAF medical establishments argue that female athletes with higher than usual production levels of functional testosterone, 29  are disturbing the level playing field and disadvantaging non-intersex women. 30  Due to their potential competitive advantage they many be co c sp o o n r d t i i t n io g n e e v d e  n t t o s  . 3 u 1  n S d p er o g rt o   sc ‘t i r e e n a t t is m t e T n i t’ m   i N n o o a r k d e e s r ,   t h o o  w el e i v g e i r b , l  y a  ssert m s p t e h t a e t   i e n li  t f e e s m p a o l r e t  i o s n a l l y l   about athletes bestowed with unique genetic advantages making them superior and excel in what they do. As elite athletes are generally ‘ genetic freaks , conditioning them to become worse would according to Noakes defeat the purpose of elite
Annette C. G. Brömdal 5 __________________________________________________________________  sports. 32  One could further elaborate on this topic and put it in relation to other competitive advantages. In other words, if female athletes with certain intersex variations are considered to be too good to be women and conditioned to undergo treatment/s to eligibly compete as women, it is valid to question whether other genetically advantageous athletes should be equally conditioned to conform before competing. 33  Jonathan Reeser argues that sport has since its inception acknowledges unique inborn variations which, to some, would be considered unfair competitive advantages. 34  For this reason, should very tall basket-ball players or swimmers with large, flexible and flat feet, performing like flippers (potentially born with Marfan syndrome) also be conditioned to conform to eligibly compete in their respective sport category? Furthermore, should athletes with the genetic condition Primary familial and congenital polycythemia (PFCP), which increases the oxygen transportation capacity of the blood and gives the athlete an advantage in events requiring endurance and high muscle performance, also have their genetic advantage questioned and conditioned to eligibly compete? In principal, how do these genetic advantages differ from one another? Reeser and Susan Cahn argue that athletes transgressing sex and gender norms do not follow the same system of acceptance, 35 which is mainly rooted in our heterogendered binary society and that medicine and science pathologise intersex. 36 . It is imperative to further question whether the policing, regulating and conforming suggestions of the IOC and the IAAF are easier to execute if they employ ‘disorders of sex development’ than ‘intersex’? From a holistic point of view I question how appropriate the DSD term is as most intersex variations do not entail competitive advantages in elite sports. 37  Why refer to the umbrella terminology when only a few forms of variations may contribute to competitive advantages? Organisation Intersex International (OII) representative Hida Viloria for example argues that the use of the term DSD is not only misleading as it suggests that all athletes with an intersex variation has an innate competitive advantage. As the terminology is scientifically and medically defined it also suggests that they all are disorderly and in need of medical treatment. 38  OII representatives Viloria, Curtis Hinkle and Ins A Kromminga further argue that the SD term and the n ive pDathologise the indtieargsneox sibog dgy anthd e sfiuepldprs eosfs  stcihee ncien taernsde xm eiddiecinntiet yt.h 3 e 9   pSopwuerrg taos  simi ar a tte l m a p r t l  y t  o n g o u r e m s a t li h z a e t   a t n he d  r u ec n e q n u t e  e s r h i  f t t h  e o  f i  n n t o er m se e x n  c b l o at d u y r  e d  u fr e o t m o  i i n n t t e e r r s [ e se x x t ] o   ph D o S b D ia  i . s 4  0 an These debates can further be put in relation to Butler who questions the binary sex and gender structure - especially that a sex and gender reflect and mimic each other. Butler asserts that gender is unstable due to it being culturally constructed and loaded with social meaning similarly questions the stability of sex. We cannot assume that sex is fixed when gender is arguably unstable, instead, we should ask ourselves what are sex and gender and how do we define them? 41  More importantly, what history do sex and gender have? Within the context of elite
6 (Un)Queering the Intersex Body in Elite Sports __________________________________________________________________  sports, I wonder why is it assumed that an athlete, with or without an intersex variation, necessarily identifies as a man or a woman? Even though there are elements that show that certain morphological structures lead to reproduction, why s bina ntersex variations can sausscucemses futllhya t resperxo diuce? 42  rPy erhwahpes n atinhldeitveisd ucalos mpweitteh  iin the category society acknowledge them as, but truthfully to themselves identify differently? This leads me to questioning to what extent we human beings own our bodies and our identities and are in control of our bodies and identities. Butler argues that our bodies are not really our own. As bodies enter the public domain they also become dependant on others because others define us. The public domain thus has the power to define our bodies and engender our bodies, for others primarily. What then counts as a real woman and femininity as well as a real man and masculinity is up to the public domain to determine. 43 Within the context of athletes disturbing normative sex, gender and body ideals, Pat Griffin contests that IOC medical experts are in power of defining and regulating our bodies and identities. 44 Whether the intersex body failing to satisfactorily express identity must be changed and normalised thus remains an unresolved matter in need of further troubling. 45    4. Conclusion This paper contests that the medical establishments of the IOC, the IAAF and science in general exercise great power in defining sex and gender, and how the body should look in order not to be othered or pathologised. Sex and gender tests, from their outset, suggest that some female athletes are more women and feminine than others and are therefore more eligible to compete than others. These tests also suggest that certain inborn competitive advantages such as higher levels of functional testosterone need to be monitored and potentially treated or regulated if the advantages are understood as unfair by medical experts and other female athletes. I thus wonder whether the argument of fair play is a disguise in discovering hermaphrodites distracting the idea of a perfect binary logic. Through sex and gender controls and the upcoming consensus statement and policy on the management of athletes with DSDs the IOC and the IAAF seem to hunt for hybrids as the intersex body confuses the binary sex and gender boundary and challenges its logic. Potentially conditioning intersex athletes to undergo treatment and conforming to binary ideals further suggest that athletes troubling them lack ownership of their body and identity if they wish to uphold a career in elite sports. Hence, the ways in which athletes with intersex variations are currently depicted, treated and managed not only unqueer them but force them into normalcy as they may be conditioned to undergo transformation procedures from being the illegible DSD athlete into becoming the eligible female athlete. The upcoming consensus statement and policy on the management of athletes with DSDs, determining the future of these athletes, are thus more dependant on the evolution of societal sex, gender and body politics than the actual sex and gender controls/policies.
Notes
Annette C. G. Brömdal 7  __________________________________________________________________   1  IAF’s primary mission is to charitably assist the IAAF and its affiliated national governing bodies in sustaining the development and promotion of athletics world-wide. For more on the IAF Mission and Background, see http://www . athleticfoundation.org/en/background.html.  2  International Olympic Committee (IOC), ‘Summary of Conclusions Reached at Gender Symposium,’ 2010, http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Media/?Media  NewsTab=0&currentArticlesPageIPP=10&currentArticlesPage=17&CalendarTab= 1&articleNewsGroup=-1&articleId=76409; International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF), ‘IAAF Meeting, Monaco, Day One,’  2010, http://www.iaaf . org/aboutiaaf/news/newsid=58749.html.  34 IOC ,t h e Summary of Conclusions Reached at Gender Symposium,’ 2010.  On inconsistency of the binary sex, gender and body logic read further, in Judith Butler, Bodies that matter: On the discursive limits of ‘sex’  (New York: Routledge, 1993); Butler, Gender Trouble: feminism and the subversion of identity  (New York: Routledge, 1999); Butler, Undoing Gender  (London: Routledge, 2004); Suzanne Kessler and Wendy McKenna, Gender: an ethnomethodological approach  (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985); Anne Fausto-Sterling, ‘The Five Sexes,’ Sciences , 33, 2 (1993), 20-25; Fausto-Sterling, Sexing the body: gender politics and the construction of sexuality (New York: Basic Books, 2000) 5  Since 2006 the medical establishment no longer refers to intersex when making references to individuals born with intersex variations. Through a highly debatable consensus statement the taxonomy chang ed to ‘disorders of sex development’ (DSD). The DSD acronym development went from ‘disorders of sexual differentiation’ to ‘disorders of sexual development’ to the present ‘disorders of sex development’. On the development of the DSD nomenclature read further, in (Christopher P. Houk et al., ‘Summary of consensus statement on intersex disorders and their management,’ Pediatrics , 118, 2 (2006), 753-757; Alyson K. Spurgas, ‘(Un)Queering Identity: The Biosocial Production of Intersex/DSD.’ In Critical Intersex , edited by Morgan Holmes (Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2009), 102) 6  Ian Morland, ‘Between Critique and Reform: Ways of Reading the Intersex Controversy.’ In Critical Intersex , edited by Morgan Holmes (Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2009), 207) 7  Read further, in Morgan Holmes, ‘In(to) visibility: intersexuality in the field of queer.’ In Looking queer; body image and identity in lesbian, bisexual, gay, and transgender communities , edited by Dawn Atkins (New York: Haworth Press, 1998); Holmes, ‘Queer cut bodies.’ In Queer Frontiers: Millennial Geographies, Genders and Generations , edited by Joseph Boone et al., (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2000); Holmes, ‘Rethinking the meaning and management of  
8 (Un)Queering the Intersex Body in Elite Sports __________________________________________________________________   intersexuality.’ Sexualities, 5, 2 (2002), 159 -180; Holmes, Intersex: A Perilous Difference  (Selingsgrove: Susquehanna University Press, 2008); Holmes, ‘Straddling Past, Present and Future.’ In  Critical Intersex , edited by Morgan Holmes (Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2009), 1-12); Susannah Cornwall, ‘Theologies of Resistance: In tersex/DSD, Disability and Queering the ‘Real World’.’ In Critical Intersex , edited by Morgan Holmes (Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2009), 215-243); Angela P. Aragon, Challenging lesbian norms: intersex, transgender, intersectional, and queer perspectives  (Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press, 2006); Thamar Klein, ‘Queering Medical and Legal Discourses of Queer Sexes and Genders in South Africa,’ Anthropology Matters Journal , 10, 2 (2008), 1-15; Morland, ‘Between Critique and Reform’; Spurgas, ‘(Un)Queering Identity.’  8  Suzanne Kessler, ‘The Medical Construction of Gender: Case Management of Intersexed Infants,’ Signs , 16, 1 (1990), 3-26. 9 Ibid. 10 Ibid., 4. 11 Ibid. 12 In the world of science and medicine, an intersex variation refers to an individual being born wit h some form of ‘atyp i cal’ sex development where the chromosomal, anatomical [internal and external genitalia] and hormonal expecta tions [do not correspond] to the dimorphic ideal.’ Fausto -Sterling, Sexing the body , 20. However, one in between 1000 to 2000 infants is born with a variation that may lead to a medical intervention. (Ibid) This may however have changed as the ‘new’ scientific u mbrella terminology for intersex  disorders of sex development has increased the number of conditions. DSD is defined by: 1) congenital development of ambiguous genitalia (e.g., 46,XX virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia; clitoromegaly; micropenis); 2) congenital disjunction of internal and external sex anatomy (e.g., Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome; 5-alpha reductase deficiency); 3) incomplete development of sex anatomy (e.g., vaginal agenesis; gonadal agenesis); 4) sex chromosome anomalies (e.g., Turner Syndrome; Klinefelter Syndrome; sex chromosome mosaicism); 5) disorders of gonadal development (e.g., ovotestes). Read further about the nomenclature changes in Lee et al., ‘Consensus Statement on Manegement of Intersex Disorders,’ Pediatrics , 118, 2 (2006), e488-500; Consortium on the Management of Disorders of Sex Development, Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Disorders of Sex Development in Childhood (Rohnert Park: ISNA, 2006). 13  Fausto-Sterling, ‘The Five Sexes,’ 20; Anne Fausto-Sterling et al., ‘How Sexually Dimorphic are We? Review and Synthesis,’ American Journal of Human Biology, 12 (2000), 161.  
Annette C. G. Brömdal 9 __________________________________________________________________   14  In 1993 Fausto-Sterling argued, from a perspective of ‘rhetorical value’  that there should be at least five sexes, instead of two, that together form a continuum of possible sexes. However, after Kessler commenting and disagreeing on the ‘five sex pr oposal’ Fausto -Sterling revised her opinion and aligned it with Kessler’s. Fausto-Sterling, ‘The Five Sexes,’ 20 -22; Kessler, ‘The Medical Construction of Gender,’ 4. 15 Kessler, ‘The Medical Construction of Gender,’ 3. 16 Kessler and McKenna, Gender , 159.  17 Butler, Undoing Gender , 42-43; Holmes, ‘In(to) Visibility;’ Holmes, ‘Straddling Past, Present and Future,’ 7. 18 Ibid. 19  Read further in Cheryl Chase, ‘Affronting Reason.’ In Looking Queer: Body Image and Identity in Lesbian, Bisexual, Gay, and Transgender Communities , edited by Dawn Atkins (New York: Hawthorn Press, 1998); Sharon Preves, ‘Sexing the Intersexed: An Analysis of Sociocultural Responses to Intersexuality,’ Signs , 27, 2 (2002), 523-556; Sharon Preves, Intersex and Identity: the contested self (Bew Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2003); Holmes, Intersex . 20 Lee et al., ‘Consensus Statement on Manegement of Intersex Disorders,’ e488. 21  Read further in Dreger and Herndon, 2009; Feder, 2009; Holmes, 2009; Morland, 2009; Spurgas, 2009; H inkle, a; 2008; Cornwall, 2009. 22  Read further in Dreger and Herndon, 2009; Feder, 2009; Holmes, 2009; Morland, 2009b; Spurgas, 2009; Hinkle, a, 2005, 2008 and Cornwall, 2009 23 Spurgas, ‘(Un)Queering Identity.’ 102 24 Ibid., 98 25 Ibid., 99 2267  IHboild.m es, ‘Straddling Past, Present and Future,’ 6  28 Ibid., 5 29 Normal range of testosterone production for women are somewhere between 6-86 ng/dl, while the ‘normal’ range of testosterone production for men are somewhere between 270-1100ng/dl. WomenSport Internati onal (WSI), ‘Disorders of Sexual Differentiation (DSD) A Consensus Statement,’  June, 2010, 4, http://www.sportsbiz.bz/womensportinternational/conferences/documents/2010_Ju ne_Baltimore_DSD.pdf. 30 IOC, ‘Summary of Conclusions Reached at Gender Symposium,  31 Ibid. 32  Maxx Ginnane, Too Fast to be a Woman?: The Story of Caster Semenya  (UK: 3 B 3  BACl icTew oD,r e2g0e1r0, ). ‘Science is Forcing Sports to Re -examine Their Core Principles,’ The New York Times , September 13, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/13/  
10 (Un)Queering the Intersex Body in Elite Sports  __________________________________________________________________  sports/13dreger.html ; Alice Dreger, ‘Sex Typing for Sport,’ Hastings Center Report , 40, 2, March-April, 2010, 22-24, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/hastings_  cent _ ep t/v040/40.2.dreger.html. er r or 34 Jonathan Reeser, ‘Gender identity and sport: is the playing field level?,’ British Journal of Sports Medicine , 39 , 10 (2005), 698. 35 Ian Ritchie, ‘Sex Tested, Gender Verified: Controlling F emale Sexuality in the Age of Containment,’ Sport History Review , 39, 10, (2003), 91-92; Susan Cahn, Coming on Strong: Gender and Sexuality in Twentieth-centurury Women’s Sport  (New York, Free Press, 1994), 111) 36 Dennis Hemphill and Caroline Symons, ‘Tran sgendering Sex and Sport in the  Gay Games.’ In Sport, Sexualitites and Queer/Theory , edited by Jayne Caudwell ( 37 LoInntdeorsn: Routledge, 2006), 114-115  ex Trust Aotearoa New Zeeland (ITANZ) argues that there are around 30 intersex variations. ITANZ, Intersex: 1 in 1000 live births , (Wellington, 2010) 38  Hida Viloria (Organisation Intersex International, USA, Human Rights R 9 e ry 5, 2011 3  prVeisleonrtiaa tivien)t,e irnvtieerwvi; ewCedu rbtiys  theH ianuktlheo,r , F(eFboruunader of Organisation Intersex International), interviewed by the author, January 27, 2011; Ins A Kromminga, (Spokes person of Organisation Intersex International Germany), interviewed by the author, November 1, 2010. 40 Spurgas, ‘(Un)Queering Identity,’  41 Butler, Gender Trouble , 9-11 42  Ibid., 10; Hinkle, Test your I.Q (Intersex Quotient), 2004 , http://www.intersex  /intersex- l. 4 u 3 a lBituet.loerr,g Undoing i G q. e h n t d m er , 21-22, 25, 30. 44 Pat Griffin’s LGBT Sport Blog , ‘IOC Releases ‘New’ ‘Gender’ Verification  Policy,’ blog entry by Pat Griffin, January 26, 2010. 45 Cressida Heyes, Self-Transformations: Foucault, Ethics and Normalized Bodies (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 36.   
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Annette C. G. Brömdal 11 __________________________________________________________________   ——— Gender trouble: feminism and the subversion of identity . New York: . Routledge, 1999 [1990]. ——— Undoing Gender . London: Routledge, 2004. . Cahn, Susan K. Coming on strong: gender and sexuality in twentieth-century women's sport . New York: Free Press, 1994. Chase, Cheryl. ‘ Affronting Reason. In Looking queer: body image and identity in lesbian, bisexual, gay, and transgender communities , edited by Dawn Atkins, 204-216. New York: Hawthorn Press, 1998. Consortium on the Management of Disorders of Sex Development. Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Disorders of Sex Development in Childhood . Rohnert Park: Intersex Society North America, 2006. Cornwall, Susannah. Theologies of Resistance: Intersex/DSD, Disability and Queering the ‘Real World’ .  In Critical Intersex , edited by Morgan Holmes, 215-243. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2009. Dreger, Alice. Where's the Rulebook for Sex Verification.  The New York Times , August 22, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/22/sports/22runner.html . ———. ‘ Science is Forcing Sports to Re-examine Their Core Principles  The New .  York Times , September 13, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/13/sports/  13dreger.html.  ———. ‘ The Sex of Athletes: One Issue, Many Variables.  The New York Times,  October 25, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/25/sports/25intersex.html . ——— . Sex Typing for Sport.  Hastings Center Report 40, no. 2, March April (2010): 22-24, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/hastings_cen _ p rt/v040/40.2 . ter re o dreger.html. Dreger, Alice D. and April M. Herndon. Progress and Politics in the Intersex Rights Movement: Feminist Theory in Action.  GLQ 15, no. 2 (2009):199-224. Fausto-Sterling, Anne. The Five Sexes.  Sciences 33, no. 2 (1993): 20-25. ——— . Sexing the body: gender politics and the construction of sexuality . 1st ed. New York: Basic Books, 2000. Fausto-Sterling, Anne et al., How Sexually Dimorphic are We? Review and Synthesis. American Journal of Human Biology 12 (2000):151-166.