Results on School Policies and Programs Overview of Key Findings ...
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Results on School Policies and Programs Overview of Key Findings ...

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Average percent of boys in interscholastic/varsity sports: 37%. • Average percent of girls in interscholastic/varsity sports: 31%. • Average percent of boys in ...

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Results on School Policies and ProgramsOverview of Key Findings0290A Study Supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
  
      YOUTH, EDUCATION, AND SOCIETY  RESULTS ON SCHOOL POLICIES AND PROGRAMS    Overview of Key Findings, 2009     yb Lloyd D. J ohnston PJeartrailcdk  GM. . BOa’cMhamllaeny  John E. Sc hulenberg     InTshtiet uUtnei fvoerr sSitoyc ioafl  MRiecsheigaracnh        A Study Supported by the Rob ert Wood Johnson Foundation   0102
YES Results 2009 Acknowledgments Funding for the Youth, Education, and Society (YES) project is provided by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. It is part of a larger research initiative of the Foundation, entitled Bridging the Gap.  Several staff members on the YES project provided valuable assistance in the preparation of this report: Jonathon Brenner carried out the analyses, assisted with the writing, and oversaw the production; Ginny Laetz assisted with the writing. ii  
 Contents YES Results 2009  Acknowledgments ........................................................................................................................................ ii Executive Summary ...................................................................................................................................... v What School Factors Were Associated With Fewer ATOD Problems? .................................................. v How Common Was School Drug Testing of Students?. .......................................................................... v Physical Education in Schools: What Were Schools Doing? .................................................................. v What Were the Most Common Nutritional Policies and Practices in Schools? ...................................... v Project Description ....................................................................................................................................... 1 The Purpose of the Project ....................................................................................................................... 1 A Description of the Questionnaire ......................................................................................................... 1 A Description of Participating Schools. ................................................................................................... 1 Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use: Challenges in Today’s Schools ................................................  2Ratings of School Problems ...................................................................................................................... 2 Comparison of Public and Private Schools .............................................................................................. 3 Comparison of Middle and High Schools ................................................................................................ 3 Meeting the Challenge of ATOD Use in Schools .................................................................................... 4 Barriers to Implementing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs .......................................................... 4 School Factors Related to ATOD Problems ............................................................................................ 4 1. School Services. .............................................................................................................................. 4 2. Professional Care Providers. ........................................................................................................... 5 3. Racial Composition ........................................................................................................................ 5 4. Staff Smoking ................................................................................................................................. 5 5. School Uniforms ............................................................................................................................. 5 6. Parental Involvement ...................................................................................................................... 5 Resources Available to Address ATOD Problems ................................................................................. 6 Counseling Staff and Services ................................................................................................................. 6 School Programs and Services ................................................................................................................. 7 Tobacco Cessation Services ............................................................................................................... 7 ATOD Prevention Programs. .............................................................................................................. 7 School Drug-Testing Policies and Procedures ........................................................................................ 8 ATOD Summary........................................................................................................................................ 8 Student Participation in Physical Education ........................................................................................... 10 Promoting Physical Activity and Fitness ............................................................................................... 10 Physical Education Summary ................................................................................................................ 10 Food and Nutrition Policies and Programs in Schools ............................................................................ 11 School Meal Planning ............................................................................................................................ 11 School Lunch Options. ........................................................................................................................... 11 Vending Machines, Snack Bars/Carts, School Store ............................................................................. 12 Food Vending Provided by a Company ................................................................................................. 12  iii 
YES Results 2009 Food and Beverage Vending Decisions and Profits............................................................................... 13 Exclusive Beverage Contracts ............................................................................................................... 15 Efforts to Improve Student Nutrition ..................................................................................................... 16 School Wellness Policies ....................................................................................................................... 17 Effectiveness of School Wellness Policies ............................................................................................ 18 Food and Nutrition Summary ................................................................................................................ 18 Conclusions. ................................................................................................................................................. 19   vi 
YES Results 2009  Executive Summary Today’s school administrators afce multiple challenges, from raising accountability and achievement standards to creating safe, drug-free learning environments and, more recently, to attending to the growing problem of obesity among youth. This report provides key findings from the Youth, Education, and Society (YES) study of school policies concerning physical education (PE) and nutrition as well as alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) prevention programs and school activities. The following are some of the highlights from the 2009 nationwide survey: What School Factors Were Associated With Fewer ATOD Problems?   Less staff smoking and more parental involvement were associated with fewer reported ATOD problems.  Schools in which African-American students are in the majority showed lower than average ATOD use. How Common Was School Drug Testing of Students?   In 2009, about one in four schools (23%) tested some students for illicit drug use.  Suspicion or cause was the most common reason for drug testing, followed by athletic team participation. Physical Education in Schools: What Were Schools Doing?   Half of all schools (50%) required PE for the surveyed grade (8, 10, or 12), but the percentage of schools that required PE varied considerably depending on grade level, with PE much less likely to be required in higher grades.  About two of three schools (65%) reported that they give physical fitness tests to the students in their surveyed grade. What Were the Most Common Nutritional Policies and Practices in Schools?   Most schools (83%) participated in the USDA reimbursable National School Lunch Program, and half (50%) participated in the USDA-sponsored Team Nutrition program.  High schools were more likely to have vending machines and school stores than middle schools.  Middle schools were more likely than high schools to restrict access to soft drink vending machines.   v 
YES Results 2009   
Project Description YES Results 2009  The Purpose of the Project The School Policies and Programs Questionnaire was administered in a national sample of schools in order to collect information about how school policies and prevention programs affect young people’s behavior and attitudes regarding alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use. Questions about school activities and policies regarding physical education (PE) and nutrition were added to the annual series of school surveys in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Ultimately, the goal of this project is to determine which policies and programs are most effective in reducing students’o besity levels and ATOD use and to inform policymakers and school administrators of the results. A Description of the Questionnaire The School Policies and Programs Questionnaire was mailed in the spring and summer of 2009. The project has collected information on ATOD since 1998, PE since 2003, and nutrition since 2004. The information presented in this report reflects responses to the 2009 survey. On some occasions, comparisons over the 12-year period are drawn for the ATOD data. The questionnaire asked about the following:  General characteristics of the school, teaching staff, and students  Resources available to students in the school and local community  PE programs  School nutrition policies and programs  School policies and practices regarding alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use  Types of ATOD prevention programs taught in the school (and/or its feeder schools) A Description of Participating Schools A total of 164 secondary schools across the nation participated in the YES study in 2009, reflecting a response rate of 83%. The schools selected to be surveyed came from a national sample of schools cycling out of the Monitoring the Future (MTF) student survey after two years of participation (i.e., in 2008 and 2009). At each grade (8, 10, and 12), an independent sample of schools was invited to participate in the MTF study. They were drawn originally with probability proportionate to estimated school size. The 2009 YES survey of school administrators contained:  141 public and 23 private schools  53 junior high/middle schools and 111 high schools  36 schools from the Northeast region, 38 schools from the Midwest, 56 schools from the South, and 34 schools from the West The primary respondents to the questionnaire were school principals (63%), followed by counselors, teachers, and other school administrators. In most cases, however, the primary respondents at schools relied on additional school staff—most often the director of food services—to help gather information to complete the questionnaire.   1 
YES Results 2009 Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use: Challenges in Today’s Schools Ratings of School Problems We asked respondents to rate the severity of various problems in their school on a scale of 1 (“not a problem”) to 5 (“a serious problem”). The Percentage and Average Ratings on School Problems Not a  Somewhat  A  Average Type of Problem Problem Proofb lae m PSreoriboleusm  R(1a–ti5n) g  1 2 3 4 5  Academic underachievement 10% 21% 38% 24% 7% 3.0 Student disrespect of teachers 24% 34% 27% 10% 4% 2.3 Alcohol, tobacco, & other drug use 23% 42% 26% 7% 2% 2.1 Gang activity 59% 26% 8% 5% 2% 1.7 School violence 52% 34% 12% 1% 1% 1.6 Racial tension among students 57% 34% 6% 3% 0% 1.5  Of the six types of problems, respondents reported that academic underachievement, student disrespect of teachers, and ATOD use by students were the most serious problems in their schools. In eight of the twelve years of the survey, the ATOD problem ranked second only to academic underachievement. In 2009, respondents were asked to rate separately the severity of the alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use problems that their school faced:  Percent of schools that reported alcohol use was at least somewhat of a problem: 38%  Percent of schools that reported illicit drug use was at least somewhat of a problem: 37%  Percent of schools that reported tobacco use was at least somewhat of a problem: 32% According to administrators’ rtaings, alcohol use was the most serious ATOD problem in private schools, while illicit drug use was the most serious problem in public schools. Gang activity, school violence, and racial tension among students were not considered a serious problem in most schools.  2  
YES Results 2009  Comparison of Public and Private Schools In the figure below, we compare the average rating of each problem for public and private schools. Administrators in public schools reported significantly more challenges than administrators in private schools for all problems listed. Average Rating on Various School Problems for Public and Private  Secondary SchoolsAcademic Underachievement2.13.1Disrespect1.52.5ATOD Use1.72.3Gangs1.01.8Violence1.01.7Racial Tension1.11.654321Not a Problem                                                         A Serious Problem Comparison of Middle and High Schools We also compare how administrators in middle schools and high schools rated each of these problems. The only problem that differed significantly between middle and high schools was reported ATOD use—respondents from high schools rated this as a more serious problem than did respondents from middle schools. Average Rating on Various School Problems for High Schools and Middle Schools  PublicPrivateHigh SchoolMiddle SchoolAcademic Underachievement2.39.0ATOD Use1.62.5Disrespect2.23.4Gangs1.16.7Violence11..66Racial Tension11..5554321Not a Problem                                                         A Serious Problem 3