A Book of Natural History - Young Folks
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A Book of Natural History - Young Folks' Library Volume XIV.

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of A Book of Natural History, by Various This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org Title: A Book of Natural History Young Folks' Library Volume XIV. Author: Various Editor: David Starr Jordan Release Date: April 28, 2006 [EBook #18274] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK A BOOK OF NATURAL HISTORY *** Produced by Juliet Sutherland, Paul Ereaut, Laura Wisewell and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net Y O U N G F O L K S ’ L I B R A R Y SELECTIONS FROM THE CHOICEST LITERATURE OF ALL LANDS: FOLK-LORE, FAIRY TALES, FABLES, LEGENDS, NATURAL HISTORY, WONDERS OF EARTH, SEA AND SKY, ANIMAL STORIES, SEA TALES, BRAVE DEEDS, EXPLORATIONS, STORIES OF SCHOOL AND COLLEGE LIFE, BIOGRAPHY, HISTORY, PATRIOTIC ELOQUENCE, POETRY THIRD EDITION REVISED IN CONFERENCE BY THOMAS BAILEY ALDRICH, EDITOR-IN-CHIEF, PRESIDENT WILLIAM JEWETT TUCKER, HAMILTON WRIGHT MABIE, HENRY VAN DYKE, NATHAN HASKELL DOLE TWENTY VOLUMES RICHLY ILLUSTRATED BOSTON HALL AND LOCKE COMPANY PUBLISHERS COPYRIGHT, 1902, BY HALL & LOCKE COMPANY. BOSTON, U. S. A. Stanhope Press F. H. GILSON COMPANY BOSTON, U. S. A.

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of A Book of Natural History, by Various
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org
Title: A Book of Natural History
Young Folks' Library Volume XIV.
Author: Various
Editor: David Starr Jordan
Release Date: April 28, 2006 [EBook #18274]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK A BOOK OF NATURAL HISTORY ***
Produced by Juliet Sutherland, Paul Ereaut, Laura Wisewell
and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at
http://www.pgdp.netY O U N G F O L K S ’
L I B R A R Y
SELECTIONS FROM THE CHOICEST LITERATURE OF ALL LANDS:
FOLK-LORE, FAIRY TALES, FABLES, LEGENDS, NATURAL
HISTORY, WONDERS OF EARTH, SEA AND SKY,
ANIMAL STORIES, SEA TALES, BRAVE DEEDS,
EXPLORATIONS, STORIES OF SCHOOL
AND COLLEGE LIFE, BIOGRAPHY,
HISTORY, PATRIOTIC
ELOQUENCE,
POETRY
THIRD EDITION
REVISED IN CONFERENCE BY
THOMAS BAILEY ALDRICH, EDITOR-IN-CHIEF,
PRESIDENT WILLIAM JEWETT TUCKER,
HAMILTON WRIGHT MABIE, HENRY
VAN DYKE, NATHAN HASKELL DOLE
TWENTY VOLUMES RICHLY ILLUSTRATED
BOSTON
HALL AND LOCKE COMPANY
PUBLISHERS
COPYRIGHT, 1902,
BY HALL & LOCKE COMPANY.
BOSTON, U. S. A.Stanhope Press
F. H. GILSON COMPANY
BOSTON, U. S. A.
EDITORIAL BOARD
THOMAS BAILEY ALDRICH, Editor-in-chief,
Author, poet, former editor Atlantic Monthly, Boston, Mass.
The HON. GEORGE FRISBIE HOAR,
United States Senator, Worcester, Mass.
The HON. JOHN D. LONG,
Secretary of the United States Navy, Boston.
HAMILTON WRIGHT MABIE, LL.D.,
Author, literarian, associate editor The Outlook, New York.
ERNEST THOMPSON-SETON,
Artist, author, New York.
JOHN TOWNSEND TROWBRIDGE,
Author, poet, and editor, Arlington, Mass.
The REVEREND CYRUS TOWNSEND BRADY,
Archdeacon, author, Philadelphia.
JOEL CHANDLER HARRIS,
Humorous writer, Atlanta, Ga.
MARY HARTWELL CATHERWOOD,
Historical novelist, Chicago.
LAURA E. RICHARDS,
Author, Gardiner, Me.
ROSWELL FIELD,
Author, editor The Evening Post, Chicago.
TUDOR JENKS,
Author, associate editor Saint Nicholas, New York.
GEORGE A. HENTY,
Traveller, author, London, England.
KIRK MUNROE,
Writer of stories for boys, Cocoanut Grove, Fla.EDITH M. THOMAS,
Poet, West New Brighton, N.Y.
CAROLINE TICKNOR,
Author, editor, Boston.
WILLIAM RAINEY HARPER, D.D., LL.D.,
President Chicago University.
DAVID STARR JORDAN, M.D., LL.D.,
President Leland Stanford Junior University, naturalist, writer, Stanford
University, Cal.
CHARLES ELIOT NORTON, A.M., LL.D., etc.,
Scholar, author, Emeritus Professor of Art at Harvard University.
HENRY VAN DYKE, D.D., LL.D.,
Clergyman, author, Professor Princeton University.
The REVEREND THOMAS J. SHAHAN,
Dean of the Faculty of Divinity, Professor of Early Ecclesiastical History,
Catholic University, Washington, D.C.
WILLIAM P. TRENT,
Author, editor, Professor of English Literature, Columbia University, New
York City.
EDWARD SINGLETON HOLDEN, A.M., LL.D.,
Ex-president University of California, astronomer, author, U.S. Military
Academy, West Point.
EDWIN ERLE SPARKS,
Professor of American History, Chicago University.
The VERY REV. GEORGE M. GRANT. D.D., LL.D.,
Educator, author, vice-principal Queen’s College, Kingston, Ont.
NATHAN HASKELL DOLE,
Author, translator, literary editor Current History , Boston.
ABBIE FARWELL BROWN,
Author, Boston.
CHARLES WELSH, Managing Editor,
Author, lecturer, editor, Winthrop Highlands, Mass.
LIST OF VOLUMESVOLUME I.
THE STORY TELLER
Edited by CHARLES ELIOT NORTON
VOLUME II.
THE MERRY MAKER
Edited by JOEL CHANDLER HARRIS
VOLUME III.
FAMOUS FAIRY TALES
Edited by ROSWELL FIELD
VOLUME IV.
TALES OF FANTASY
Edited by TUDOR JENKS
VOLUME V.
MYTHS AND LEGENDS
Edited by THOMAS J. SHAHAN
VOLUME VI.
THE ANIMAL STORY BOOK
Edited by ERNEST THOMPSON-SETON
VOLUME VII.
SCHOOL AND COLLEGE DAYS
Edited by KIRK MUNROE and MARY HARTWELL CATHERWOOD
VOLUME VIII.
BOOK OF ADVENTURE
Edited by NATHAN HASKELL DOLE
VOLUME IX.
FAMOUS EXPLORERS
Edited by EDWIN ERLE SPARKS
VOLUME X.
BRAVE DEEDS
Edited by JOHN TOWNSEND TROWBRIDGE
VOLUME XI.
WONDERS OF EARTH, SEA, AND SKY
Edited by EDWARD SINGLETON HOLDEN
VOLUME XII.FAMOUS TRAVELS
Edited by GEORGE A. HENTY
VOLUME XIII.
SEA STORIES
Edited by CYRUS TOWNSEND BRADY
VOLUME XIV.
A BOOK OF NATURAL HISTORY
Edited by DAVID STARR JORDAN
VOLUME XV.
HISTORIC SCENES IN FICTION
Edited by HENRY VAN DYKE
VOLUME XVI.
FAMOUS BATTLES BY LAND AND SEA
Edited by JOHN D. LONG
VOLUME XVII.
MEN WHO HAVE RISEN
Edited by HAMILTON WRIGHT MABIE
VOLUME XVIII.
BOOK OF PATRIOTISM
Edited by GEORGE FRISBIE HOAR
VOLUME XIX.
LEADERS OF MEN, OR HISTORY TOLD IN BIOGRAPHY
Edited by WILLIAM RAINEY HARPER
VOLUME XX.
FAMOUS POEMS
Selected by THOMAS BAILEY ALDRICH, with Poetical Foreword by EDITH
M. THOMAS.THE CONDOR.
Young Folks’ Library in Twenty Volumes
Thomas Bailey Aldrich, Editor-in-Chief
A B O O K O F
N A T U R A L
H I S T O R Y
EDITED BY
DAVID STARR JORDAN
VOLUME XIV
BOSTON
HALL AND LOCKE COMPANYPUBLISHERS
[Pg_xi]CONTENTS
PAGE
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xiii
ANIMALS, BIRDS, AND FISHES xv
BY DAVID STARR JORDAN.
THE WONDER OF LIFE 1
BY PROFESSOR T. H. HUXLEY.
LIFE GROWTH;—FROGS 10
BY MARGARET WARNER MORLEY.
THE MAN-LIKE APES 15
BY PROFESSOR T. H. HUXLEY.
SOME STRANGE NURSERIES 46
BY GRANT ALLEN.
HOW ANIMALS SPEND THE WINTER 69
BY W. S. BLATCHLEY.
BIRDS’ NESTS 88
BY JOHN BURROUGHS.
BIRDS IN THEIR RELATION TO AGRICULTURE 121
BY LAWRENCE BRUNER.
THE SCISSOR BEAK 143
BY CHARLES DARWIN.
THE CONDOR 146
BY CHARLES DARWIN.
THE UMBRELLA BIRD 153
BY SIR A. R. WALLACE.
HUMMING BIRDS 155
BY THOMAS G. BELT, F.G.S.
THE FOUNDATIONS OF A WONDERFUL CITY 158
BY MAURICE MAETERLINCK.
WASPS 175
BY THOMAS G. BELT, F.G.S.
A WASP AND ITS PREY 180
BY G. W. AND E. G. PECKHAM.
LEAF-CUTTING ANTS 190
BY THOMAS G. BELT, F.G.S.
SOME WONDERFUL SPIDERS 197
BY CHARLES DARWIN.WHAT I SAW IN AN ANT’S NEST 201
[Pg_xii]BY ANDREW WILSON.
THE WILD LLAMA 228
BY CHARLES DARWIN.
BATS 232
BY W. S. DALLAS, F.G.S.
HOW SNAKES EAT 258
BY CATHERINE C. HOPLEY.
WHAT WORMS DO 264
BY CHARLES DARWIN.
TWO FOPS AMONG THE FISHES 284
BY W. S. BLATCHLEY.
SEA SLUGS AND CUTTLE-FISH 292
BY CHARLES DARWIN.
THE COW FISH 295
BY SIR ALFRED RUSSELL WALLACE.
OLD RATTLER AND THE KING SNAKE 297
BY DAVID STARR JORDAN.
THE STORY OF A STRANGE LAND 303
BY DAVID STARR JORDAN.
THE COLOR OF ANIMALS 315
BY SIR JOHN LUBBOCK BART.
PROTECTIVE RESEMBLANCES IN SPIDERS 343
BY E. G. PECKHAM.
THE BATH OF THE BIRDS 369
BY RICHARD JEFFERIES.
THE LOON 378
BY HENRY D. THOREAU.
THE DARTMOOR PONIES 384
BY ARABELLA R. BUCKLEY.
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 396
SUGGESTIONS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY READING 398
NOTE.
The publishers’ acknowledgments are due to Miss Margaret Warner Morley
and Messrs. A. C. McClurg & Co. for permission to use “Life Growth,—Frogs”;
t o Mr. W. S. Blatchley and The Popular Science Monthly for “How Animals
Spend the Winter” and “Two Fops Among the Fishes”; to Messrs. Houghton,
Mifflin & Co. for “Birds’ Nests,” by John Burroughs; to Mr. L. Bruner and the
Nebraska Ornithologists’ Union for “Birds in Their Relation to Agriculture”; to
G. W. and E. G. Peckham for “A Wasp and Its Prey” and “Protective
Resemblances in Spiders”; to President David Starr Jordan and The Popular
Science Monthly for “Old Rattler and the King Snake”; to President Jordan and
A. C. McClurg & Co. for “The Story of a Strange Land.”[Pg_xiii]LIST OF COLORED ILLUSTRATIONS
PAGE
THE CONDOR Frontispiece
THE GORILLA Face Page 40
THE YELLOW BELLIED WOODPECKER 92
THE UMBRELLA BIRD 154
THE GUANACO 230
THE VAMPIRE BAT 242
THE COW FISH 296
[Pg_xiv]AND ONE HUNDRED AND FORTY-TWO BLACK AND WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT.
[Pg_xv]ANIMALS, BIRDS, AND FISHES
BY
DAVID STARR JORDAN, LL.D.
This volume is made up from the writings of naturalists who have told us of the
behavior of animals as they have seen it at first hand and of the beginnings and
the growth of life so far as they know about it. In selecting these from the wealth
of available material the editor has been guided by this rule: The subject matter
must be interesting to young people; it must be told in a clear and attractive
style; and most important of all, it must deal with actualities. We have seen in
the last few years a marked revival of nature studies. This has led to a wider
range of interest in natural phenomena and in the growth and ways of animals
and plants. If this movement is not to be merely a passing fad, the element of
truthfulness must be constantly insisted upon. If a clever imagination, or worse,
sentimental symbolism, be substituted for the truth of nature, the value of such
studies is altogether lost.
The essence of character-building lies in action. The chief value of nature study
[Pg_xvi]in character-building is that, like life itself, it deals with realities. One must in life
make his own observations, frame his own inductions, and apply them in action
as he goes along. The habit of finding out the best thing to do next and then
doing it is the basis of character. Nature-study, if it be genuine, is essentially
doing. To deal with truth is necessary, if we are to know truth when we see it in
action. The rocks and shells, the frogs and lilies, always tell the absolute truth.
Every leaf on the tree is an original document in botany. When a thousand are
used or used up, the archives of Nature are just as full as ever. By the study of
realities wisdom is built up. In the relations of objects he can touch and move,
the child finds the limitations of his powers, the laws that govern phenomena,