A Critique of the Theory of Evolution
155 Pages
English

A Critique of the Theory of Evolution

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of A Critique of the Theory of Evolution, by Thomas Hunt MorganThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.netTitle: A Critique of the Theory of EvolutionAuthor: Thomas Hunt MorganRelease Date: December 17, 2009 [EBook #30701]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK CRITIQUE OF THEORY OF EVOLUTION ***Produced by Bryan Ness, Keith Edkins, and the OnlineDistributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net. Pagesscanned by Bryan Ness.Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected. They appear in the text like this, and the explanationwill appear when the mouse pointer is moved over the marked passage. Figures 41 and 42 have beeninterchanged from the printed copy in order to match the text.Princeton UniversityTHE LOUIS CLARK VANUXEM FOUNDATIONLECTURES FOR 1915-1916The Louis Clark Vanuxem Foundation of Princeton Universitywas established in 1912 with a bequest of $25,000 under the will of Louis Clark Vanuxem, of the Class of 1879. By direction of theexecutors of Mr. Vanuxem's estate, the income of the foundation is to be used for a series of public lectures delivered in Princetonannually, at least one half of which shall be on subjects of current scientific interest. The lectures are to be ...

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Published 08 December 2010
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of A Critique of theTheory of Evolution, by Thomas Hunt MorganThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at nocost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it,give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project GutenbergLicense includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.netTitle: A Critique of the Theory of EvolutionAuthor: Thomas Hunt MorganRelease Date: December 17, 2009 [EBook #30701]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOKCRITIQUE OF THEORY OF EVOLUTION ***Produced by Bryan Ness, Keith Edkins, and the OnlineDistributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net.Pagesscanned by Bryan Ness.
scanned by Bryan Ness.Transcriber'snote:A few typographical errors have been corrected. They appear in the text like this, and the explanation will appear when the mouse pointer is moved over the marked passage. Figures 41 and42 have been interchanged from the printed copy in order to match the text.Princeton UniversityTHE LOUIS CLARK VANUXEM FOUNDATIONLECTURES FOR 1915-1916The Louis Clark Vanuxem Foundation ofPrinceton University
was established in 1912 with a bequest of $25,000under the will of Louis Clark Vanuxem, of the Class of1879. By direction of the executors of Mr. Vanuxem'sestate, the income of the foundation is to be used fora series of public lectures delivered in Princetonannually, at least one half of which shall be onsubjects of current scientific interest. The lectures areto be published and distributed among schools andlibraries generally.The following lectures have already been published orare in press:1912-13 The Theory of PermutableFunctions, by Vito Volterra1913-14 Lectures delivered in connection withthe dedication of the Graduate College ofPrinceton University by Emile Boutroux, AloisRiehl, A. D. Godley, and Arthur Shipley1914-15 Romance, by Sir Walter Raleigh1915-16 A Critique of the Theory ofEvolution, by Thomas Hunt MorganLOUIS CLARK VANUXEM FOUNDATIONA CRITIQUEOF THE
THEORY OF EVOLUTIONBYTHOMAS HUNT MORGANPROFESSOR OF EXPERIMENTAL ZOOLOGY INCOLUMBIA UNIVERSITYLECTURES DELIVERED AT PRINCETONUNIVERSITYFEBRUARY 24, MARCH 1, 8, 15, 1916PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESSPRINCETONLONDON: HUMPHREY MILFORDOXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS1916Copyright, 1916, byPrinceton University PressPublished October, 1916Publisher's MarkPREFACEOccasionally one hears today the statement that we
have come to realize that we know nothing aboutevolution. This point of view is a healthy reaction to theover-confident belief that we knew everything aboutevolution. There are even those rash enough to thinkthat in the last few years we have learned more aboutevolution than we might have hoped to know a fewyears ago. A critique therefore not only becomes acriticism of the older evidence but an appreciation ofthe new evidence.In the first lecture an attempt is made to put a newvaluation on the traditional evidence for evolution. Inthe second lecture the most recent work on heredity isdealt with, for only characters that are inherited canbecome a part of the evolutionary process. In the thirdlecture the physical basis of heredity and thecomposition of the germ plasm stream are examinedin the light of new observations; while in the fourthlecture the thesis is developed that chance variationcombined with a property of living things to manifoldthemselves is the key note of modern evolutionarythought.T. H. MorganJuly, 1916TABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTER IA REVALUATION OF THE EVIDENCE ON WHICH T
HE THEORY OF EVOLUTION WAS BASEDPreface1Three Kinds of Evolution.2The Evidence for Organic Evolution.aThe Evidence from Comparative Anatomy.bThe Evidence from Embryology.cThe Evidence from Paleontology.3The Four Great Historical Speculations.aThe Environment.Geoffroy St. HilairebUse and Disuse.From Lamarck to WeismanncThe Unfolding Principle.PAGEv1-77-277-1414-2324-2727-3927-3131-3434-36
Nägeli and BatesondNatural Selection-336.9DarwinCHAPTER IITHE BEARING OF MENDEL'S DISCOVERY ON THEORIGIN OF HEREDITY CHARACTERS1Mendel's First DiscoverySegregation-451.22Mendel's Second DiscoveryIndependent Assor-552.tment9Th593w teh eC hSaarmacet eLras wosf  oWf iIlnd hAenriitmanalcse  aansd  dPol athntes  CFhoallroa-8.cters of Domesticated Animals and Plants461aSexual Dimorphism-6.461Eosin eye color of Drosophila-6262Color of the Clover Butterfly, Colias philodice-63Color of Papilio turnus6363Color pattern of Papilio polytes-64b65
bDuplication of parts.Thorax of DrosophilaLegs of DrosophilacLoss of characters."Eyeless" of DrosophilaVestigial wings of DrosophilaBar eye of Drosophila-666565-6666-6866-676767-6868dSmall changes of characters-7.0"Speck"68Bristles of "club"70eManifold effects of same factor71.fConstant but trivial effects may be the product .of factors having other vital aspects7375gSex-linked inheritance-8.075-76in Drosophila ampelophila
in the wild species D. repletain manin domesticated Fowlsin the wild moth, AbraxashMultiple allelomorphs.in the wild Grouse Locustin domesticated mice and rabbitsin Drosophila ampelophila767777-7878-8081-8481-83838484-884Mutation and Evolution.CHAPTER IIITHE FACTORIAL THEORY OF HEREDITY AND THECOMPOSITION OF THE GERM PLASM1The Cellular Basis of Organic Evolution and Here899-.dity82The Mechanism of Mende98.d in the Behavior of the Chliraonm Hoesroemdietys Discovere-012103The Four Great Linkage Groups of Drosophila A3-.mpelophila118
aGroup I..bGroup II..cGroup III..dGroup IV..4Localization of Factors in the Chromosomes.aThe Evidence from Sex Linked Inheritance.bThe Evidence from Interference.cThe Evidence from Non-Disjunction.104-109109-112112-115115-118118-142118-137137-138139-142