A Handbook of the English Language
178 Pages
English

A Handbook of the English Language

-

Downloading requires you to have access to the YouScribe library
Learn all about the services we offer

Informations

Published by
Published 08 December 2010
Reads 57
Language English
The Project Gutenberg EBook of A Handbook of the English Language, by Robert Gordon Latham This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: A Handbook of the English Language Author: Robert Gordon Latham Release Date: March 29, 2009 [EBook #28436] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK A HANDBOOK OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE *** Produced by Colin Bell, Keith Edkins and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (This file was produced from images generously made available by The Internet Archive/American Libraries.) Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected. They appear in the text like this, and the explanation will appear when the mouse pointer is moved over the marked passage. A HAND-BOOK OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, FOR THE USE OF STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITIES AND HIGHER CLASSES OF SCHOOLS. BY R. G. LATHAM, M.D., F.R.S., LATE PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON. NEW-YORK: D. APPLETON & COMPANY, 443 & 445 BROADWAY. M.DCCC.LXIV. CONTENTS. PART I. GENERAL ETHNOLOGICAL RELATIONS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. CHAPTER I. GERMANIC ORIGIN OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. —DATE. SECTION PAGE 1. English language not British 2. Real origin German 3. Accredited immigrations and settlements 4, 5. Criticism CHAPTER II. 1 1 2 4, 5 GERMANIC ORIGIN OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. —THE GERMANIC AREA OF THE PARTICULAR GERMANS WHO INTRODUCED IT.—EXTRACT FROM BEDA. 6, 7. Jutes, Angles, and Saxons 8, 9. Extract from Beda 10—13. Criticism 14, 15. Angles 16. Saxons of Beda 17. Anglo-Saxon area 18, 19. The Frisians 20. Anglo-Saxon area CHAPTER III. 6 6, 7 8—11 11, 12 12, 13 13 13, 14 14 OF THE DIALECTS OF THE SAXON AREA, AND OF THE SO-CALLED OLD SAXON. 21—29. Old Saxon and Anglo-Saxon CHAPTER IV. 16, 17 AFFINITIES OF THE ENGLISH WITH THE LANGUAGES OF GERMANY AND SCANDINAVIA. 30, 31. Gothic languages 32—34. Divisions of the Gothic stock 35. Mœso-Gothic 36. Old High German 37. Low German 38. Frisian and Dutch 39. Platt-Deutsch 40, 41. Comparison CHAPTER V. 18 18 19 19 19 19 20 21—23 ANALYSIS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. —GERMANIC ELEMENTS.—THE ANGLES. 42. Analysis 43—54. Angles—their relations 55, 56. The Frisians CHAPTER VI. 24 24—28 29, 30 THE CELTIC STOCK OF LANGUAGES AND THEIR RELATIONS TO THE ENGLISH. 57. Branches of the Celtic stock 58—60. Structure of Celtic tongues 61—63. The Picts CHAPTER VII. 31 31—33 33—35 THE ANGLO-NORMAN, AND THE LANGUAGE OF THE CLASSICAL STOCK. 64. The classical languages 65—67. Latin branch 68, 69. Norman French 36 36—40 40, 41 PART II. HISTORY AND ANALYSIS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. CHAPTER I. HISTORICAL AND LOGICAL ELEMENTS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 70. Celtic elements 71. Latin of first period 72. Anglo-Saxon 73. Danish or Norse 74. Roman of second period 75. Anglo-Norman element 76. Indirect Scandinavian elements 77. Latin of third period 78. Latin of fourth period 79. Greek 80—82. Tables 83—90. Miscellaneous elements 91—94. Hybridism and new words 95. Historical and logical analysis CHAPTER II. 45 46 47 47 49 49 50 51 51 52 53—55 55—60 60—62 63 THE RELATION OF THE ENGLISH TO THE ANGLO-SAXON, AND THE STAGES OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 96. Ancient and modern tongues 97. Details 98. Stages of the English language 99. Semi-Saxon 100—103. Old English, &c. 104. Present tendencies 64 65—68 68 69 70—72 73 PART III. SOUNDS, LETTERS, PRONUNCIATION, SPELLING. CHAPTER I. GENERAL NATURE AND CERTAIN PROPERTIES OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 105. Spelling and speaking 106. Sounds and syllables 107. Vowels 108. Divisions 109. Sharp and flat sounds 110. Continuous and explosive 111. General statements 112. The sound of h CHAPTER II. SYSTEM OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 77 79 79 80 80 80 81 81 113. Certain foreign sounds 114. System of mutes 115. Lenes and aspirates 116. Fourfold character of mutes 117. Y and w 118, 119. Diphthongs 120. Compound sounds 121. Ng 122, 123. Broad, slender; long, short; dependent, independent 124—126. System of sounds CHAPTER III. OF CERTAIN COMBINATIONS OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 82 82 83 84 84 84 85 85 85, 86 86, 87 127. Sharp and flat mutes 128. Unstable combinations 129. Effect of y 130, 131. Double consonants rare 132. True aspirates rare CHAPTER IV. EUPHONY AND THE PERMUTATION OF LETTERS. 88 89 89 89 90 133. Euphony 134. Permutation 92 93 CHAPTER V. ON THE FORMATION OF SYLLABLES. 135. Syllabification CHAPTER VI. ON QUANTITY. 95—97 136. Long and short sounds 137. Quantity of vowels—of syllables 138. Classical and English measurements CHAPTER VII. ON ACCENT. 98 98 99 139. Place of accents 140. Distinctive accents 141. Emphasis CHAPTER VIII. ORTHOGRAPHY. 101 101 102 142. Orthoepy 143—146. Principle of an alphabet 147. Violations of it 148. Rules 149—151. Details of English 152. Insufficiency 153. Inconsistency 154. Erroneousness 155. Redundancy 156. Unsteadiness 157. Other defects 158. Historical propriety 159. Conventional spelling CHAPTER IX. HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE ENGLISH ALPHABET. 103 103—105 105 107 107—109 109 109 110 110 110 111 113 113 160—166. Phœnician, Greek, Roman stages 166—172. Anglo-Saxon alphabet 173. Anglo-Norman alphabet 174. Extract from Ormulum 175. Order of alphabet 116—124 124—126 126 127 128 PART IV. ETYMOLOGY. CHAPTER I. ON THE PROVINCE OF ETYMOLOGY. 176—179. Meaning of term CHAPTER II. ON GENDER. 131—133 180. Boy and girl 181. Man-servant and maid-servant 182, 183. Forms like genitrix 184. Forms like domina 185—189. Genders in English 190—192. The sun in his glory; the moon in her wane 193. Miscellaneous forms CHAPTER III. THE NUMBERS. 134 134 135 136 136, 137 138 139—142 194—197. Numbers in English 198. Rule 199. Remarks 200. Addition of -es Pence, alms, &c. Mathematics 201. Children 202. Form in -en 203. Men, feet, &c. 204. Brethren, &c. 205. Houses 206. Wives, &c. CHAPTER IV. ON THE CASES. 143, 144 145 145 146 147 147 149 150 150 150 152 152 207—211. Nature of cases 212. Accusatives 213. Datives 214. Genitives 215. Instrumental All the better 216. Determination of cases 217. Analysis of cases 218. Form in -s CHAPTER V. THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 154—156 156 157 157 158 158, 159 159 160 160 219, 220. I , we, us, &c. 221. You 222. Me 223—225. Cautions CHAPTER VI. 162 162 163 163, 164 ON THE TRUE REFLECTIVE PRONOUN IN THE GOTHIC LANGUAGES, AND ON ITS ABSENCE IN ENGLISH. 226. How far found in English 165 CHAPTER VII. THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS, ETC. 227. He, she, it 228. She 229. Her, him, his, its, &c. 230. Theirs 231. Table 232. These 233. Those CHAPTER VIII. THE RELATIVE, INTERROGATIVE, AND CERTAIN OTHER PRONOUNS. 166 166 167 167 168 169 171 234. Who, what, &c. 235. Same, &c. 236. Other, whether CHAPTER IX. ON CERTAIN FORMS IN -ER. 173 173 177 237—239. Idea expressed by -er CHAPTER X. THE COMPARATIVE DEGREE. 179—181 240. Form in -s 241. Elder, &c. 242. Rather 243, 244. Excess of expression 245—247. Better 248. Worse 249. More 250. Less 251—253. Near, &c. 254. Origin of superlative CHAPTER XI. THE SUPERLATIVE DEGREE. 182 183 183 183 183—185 185 185 185 186 186 255, 256. Former 257. Nearest 258. Next 259, 260. Upmost, &c. CHAPTER XII. THE CARDINAL NUMBERS. 188 188 188 189, 190 261. How far undeclined CHAPTER XIII. THE ORDINAL NUMBERS. 191 262—264. Seven, nine, ten 192 265, 266. Thirteen, thirty CHAPTER XIV. THE ARTICLES. 193 267. A, an, the CHAPTER XV. DIMINUTIVES, AUGMENTATIVES, AND PATRONYMICS. 194 268—270. Diminutives 271. Augmentatives 272. Patronymics CHAPTER XVI. GENTILE FORMS. 197—199 200 200, 201 273. Wales CHAPTER XVII. ON THE CONNEXION BETWEEN THE NOUN AND VERB, AND ON THE INFLECTION OF THE INFINITIVE MOOD. 202 274—281. The verb, how far a noun CHAPTER XVIII. ON DERIVED VERBS. 203—206 282. Divisions of verbs 282. Derivation CHAPTER XIX. ON THE PERSONS. 207 208, 209 283. Persons in English 284, 285. Historical view 286. Form in -t 287. Thou spakest, &c. 288. We loves CHAPTER XX. ON THE NUMBERS OF VERBS. 210 211 212 212 213 289. Numbers in English 290. Ran, run, &c. CHAPTER XXI. ON MOODS. 214 215 291—292. Moods in English CHAPTER XXII. 216 ON TENSES IN GENERAL. 293. Strike, struck 294—296. Ἔτυπτον, &c. 297. Reduplication 298. Weak or strong CHAPTER XXIII. THE STRONG TENSES. 217 217, 218 219 220 299. Sing, sang, sung 300—303. Tables CHAPTER XXIV. THE WEAK TENSES. 221 222—225 304. Stabbed, &c. 305—307. Divisions 309. Bought, sought 309. Forms in -te and -ode 310—312. Bred, beat, &c. 313. Leave, left 314. Made, had 314. Would, should, could 315. Aught 316. Durst, must, &c. 317. This will do 318. Mind 319. Yode 320. Did CHAPTER XXV. ON CONJUGATION. 226 227, 228 228 229 230 231 231 231 231 232 233 234 234 234 321, 322. Weak and strong conjugations natural CHAPTER XXVI. DEFECTIVENESS AND IRREGULARITY. 235—237 323—325. Irregularity 326. Vital and obsolete processes 327. Processes of necessity, &c. 328. Ordinary processes 329. Positive 330. Normal 331. Could 332. Quoth 333. Real irregular verbs few CHAPTER XXVII. THE IMPERSONAL VERBS. 238 240 241 241 242 242 243 244 244 334, 335. Me-seems, me-listeth CHAPTER XXVIII. 246 THE VERB SUBSTANTIVE. 336. Not irregular 337. Was 338—341. Be 342. An 343. Worth CHAPTER XXIX. THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 247 247 248, 249 249 250 344. Forms in -ing 345. Forms in -ung CHAPTER XXX. THE PAST PARTICIPLE. 251 252 346. Forms in -en 347, 348. Drunken 349. Forlorn 350. Forms in -ed 351. The prefix Y CHAPTER XXXI. COMPOSITION. 254 254 255 255 256 352—357. Nature of compounds 358—361. Accent 362. Obscure compounds 363—365. Exceptions 366. Peacock, peahen 367. Nightingale 368. Improper compounds 369. Decomposites 370. Combinations CHAPTER XXXII. ON DERIVATION AND INFLECTION. 258—261 261—266 266 266, 267, 268 269 269 270 270 270, 271 371—373. Their nature CHAPTER XXXIII. ADVERBS. 272—275 374, 375. Their division 376—379. Adverbs of deflection 380. Darkling CHAPTER XXXIV. ON CERTAIN ADVERBS OF PLACE. 276 277 278 381—384. Hither, thither, &c 385. Hence, &c. 386. Yonder 387. Anon 279 280 280 281