A School History of the United States

A School History of the United States

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of A School History of the United States by John Bach McMasterThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it,give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online atwww.gutenberg.netTitle: A School History of the United StatesAuthor: John Bach McMasterRelease Date: February 26, 2004 [EBook #11313]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HISTORY OF THE U.S. ***Produced by Juliet Sutherland, Charlie Kirschner and PG Distributed ProofreadersA SCHOOL HISTORYOF THEUNITED STATESBYJOHN BACH McMASTERPROFESSOR OF AMERICAN HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA1897PREFACEIt has long been the custom to begin the history of our country with the discovery of the New World by Columbus. To someextent this is both wise and necessary; but in following it in this instance the attempt has been made to treat the colonialperiod as the childhood of the United States; to have it bear the same relation to our later career that the account of theyouth of a great man should bear to that of his maturer years, and to confine it to the narration of such events as are reallynecessary to a correct understanding of what has happened since 1776.The story, therefore, has been restricted to the discoveries, explorations, and settlements within the United States by theEnglish, French, Spaniards, and Dutch; to ...

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of A School History
of the United States by John Bach McMaster
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at
no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever.
You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the
terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net
Title: A School History of the United States
Author: John Bach McMaster
Release Date: February 26, 2004 [EBook #11313]
Language: English
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG
EBOOK HISTORY OF THE U.S. ***
Produced by Juliet Sutherland, Charlie Kirschner
and PG Distributed Proofreaders
A SCHOOL HISTORY
OF THE
UNITED STATES
BY
JOHN BACH McMASTER
PROFESSOR OF AMERICAN HISTORY IN THE
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
1897PREFACE
It has long been the custom to begin the history of
our country with the discovery of the New World by
Columbus. To some extent this is both wise and
necessary; but in following it in this instance the
attempt has been made to treat the colonial period
as the childhood of the United States; to have it
bear the same relation to our later career that the
account of the youth of a great man should bear to
that of his maturer years, and to confine it to the
narration of such events as are really necessary to
a correct understanding of what has happened
since 1776.
The story, therefore, has been restricted to the
discoveries, explorations, and settlements within
the United States by the English, French,
Spaniards, and Dutch; to the expulsion of the
French by the English; to the planting of the
thirteen colonies on the Atlantic seaboard; to the
origin and progress of the quarrel which ended with
the rise of thirteen sovereign free and independent
states, and to the growth of such political
institutions as began in colonial times. This period
once passed, the long struggle for a government
followed till our present Constitution—one of the
most remarkable political instruments ever framed
by man—was adopted, and a nation founded.
Scarcely was this accomplished when the French
Revolution and the rise of Napoleon involved us in
a struggle, first for our neutral rights, and then for
our commercial independence, and finally in a
second war with Great Britain. During this period of
nearly five and twenty years, commerce and
agriculture flourished exceedingly, but our internal
resources were little developed. With the peace of
1815, however, the era of industrial development
commences, and this has been treated with great
—though it is believed not too great—fullness of
detail; for, beyond all question, the event of the
world's history during the nineteenth century is the
growth of the United States. Nothing like it has
ever before taken place.
To have loaded down the book with extended
bibliographies would have been an easy matter,
but quite unnecessary. The teacher will find in
Channing and Hart's Guide to the Study of
American History the best digested and arranged
bibliography of the subject yet published, and
cannot afford to be without it. If the student hastime and disposition to read one half of the
reference books cited in the footnotes of this
history, he is most fortunate.
JOHN BACH McMASTER.
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA.CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. EUROPE FINDS AMERICA II. THE SPANIARDS
IN THE UNITED STATES III. ENGLISH, DUTCH,
AND SWEDES ON THE SEABOARD IV. THE
PLANTING OF NEW ENGLAND V. THE MIDDLE
AND SOUTHERN COLONIES VI. THE FRENCH
IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY VII. THE INDIANS
VIII. THE STRUGGLE FOR NEW FRANCE AND
LOUISIANA IX. LIFE IN THE COLONIES IN 1763
X. "LIBERTY, PROPERTY, AND NO STAMPS" XI.
THE STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE XII.
UNDER THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
XIII. MAKING THE CONSTITUTION XIV. OUR
COUNTRY IN 1790 XV. THE RISE OF PARTIES
XVI. THE STRUGGLE FOR NEUTRALITY XVII.
STRUGGLE FOR "FREE TRADE AND SAILORS'
RIGHTS" XVIII. THE WAR FOR COMMERCIAL
INDEPENDENCE XIX. PROGRESS OF OUR
COUNTRY BETWEEN 1790 AND 1815 XX.
SETTLEMENT OF OUR BOUNDARIES XXI. THE
RISING WEST XXII. THE HIGHWAYS OF TRADE
AND COMMERCE XXIII. POLITICS FROM 1824
TO 1845 XXIV. EXPANSION OF THE SLAVE
AREA XXV. THE TERRITORIES BECOME SLAVE
SOIL XXVI. PROGRESS IN THE UNITED STATES
BETWEEN 1840 AND 1860 XXVII. WAR FOR THE
UNION, 1861-1865 XXVIII. WAR ALONG THE
COAST AND ON THE SEA XXIX. THE COST OF
THE WAR XXX. RECONSTRUCTION OF THE
SOUTH XXXI. THE NEW WEST (1860-1870)
XXXII. POLITICS FROM 1868 TO 1880 XXXIII.
GROWTH OF THE NORTHWEST XXXIV.
MECHANICAL AND INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS
XXXV. POLITICS SINCE 1880
APPENDIX
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES
STATE CONSTITUTIONS INDEX
LIST OF IMPORTANT MAPS
DISCOVERY ON THE EAST COAST OF
AMERICA EUROPEAN CLAIMS AND
EXPLORATIONS, 1650 FRENCH CLAIMS, ETC.,
IN 1700 BRITISH COLONIES, 1733 EUROPEANPOSSESSIONS, 1763 THE BRITISH COLONIES
IN 1764 BRITISH COLONIES, 1776 RESULTS OF
THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE THE UNITED
STATES, 1783 THE UNITED STATES, 1789
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, 1790 SLAVE
AND FREE SOIL IN 1790 THE UNITED STATES,
1801 THE UNITED STATES, 1810 NORTH
AMERICA AFTER 1824 DISTRIBUTION OF
POPULATION, 1820 FREEDOM AND SLAVERY
IN 1820 THE UNITED STATES, 1826 TERRITORY
CLAIMED BY TEXAS IN 1845 THE OREGON
COUNTRY ROUTES OF THE EARLY
EXPLORERS TERRITORY CEDED BY MEXICO,
1848 AND 1853 RESULTS OF THE
COMPROMISE OF 1850 THE UNITED STATES IN
1851 EXPANSION OF SLAVE SOIL, 1790-1860
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, 1850 THE
UNITED STATES, 1861 WAR FOR THE UNION
INDUSTRIAL AND RAILROAD MAP OF THE
UNITED STATESA SCHOOL HISTORY OF THE
UNITED STATES
* * * * *
DISCOVERERS AND EXPLORERS
CHAPTER I
EUROPE FINDS AMERICA
%1. Nations that have owned our Soil.%—Before
the United States became a nation, six European
powers owned, or claimed to own, various portions
of the territory now contained within its boundary.
England claimed the Atlantic coast from Maine to
Florida. Spain once held Florida, Texas, California,
and all the territory south and west of Colorado.
France in days gone by ruled the Mississippi valley.
Holland once owned New Jersey, Delaware, and
the valley of the Hudson in New York, and claimed
as far eastward as the Connecticut river. The
Swedes had settlements on the Delaware. Alaska
was a Russian possession.
Before attempting to narrate the history of our
country, it is necessary, therefore, to tell
1. How European nations came into possession of
parts of it.
2. How these parts passed from them to us.
3. What effect the ownership of parts of our
country by Europeans had on our history and
institutions before 1776.
%2. European Trade with the East; the Old
Routes.%—For two hundred years before North
and South America were known to exist, a splendid
trade had been going on between Europe and the
East Indies. Ships loaded with metals, woods, and
pitch went from European seaports to Alexandria
and Constantinople, and brought back silks and
cashmeres, muslins, dyewoods, spices, perfumes,
ivory, precious stones, and pearls. This trade in
course of time had come to be controlled by the
two Italian cities of Venice and Genoa. The
merchants of Genoa sent their ships to
Constantinople and the ports of the Black Sea,
where they took on board the rich fabrics andspices which by boats and by caravans had come
up the valley of the Euphrates and the Tigris from
the Persian Gulf. The men of Venice, on the other
hand, sent their vessels to Alexandria, and carried
on their trade with the East through the Red Sea.
[Illustration: Routes to India]
%3. New Routes wanted.%—Splendid as this trade
was, however, it was doomed to destruction.
Slowly, but surely, the Turks thrust themselves
across the caravan routes, cutting off one by one
the great feeders of the Oriental trade, till, with the
capture of Constantinople in 1453, they destroyed
the commercial career of Genoa. As their power
was spreading rapidly over Syria and toward Egypt,
the prosperity of Venice, in turn, was threatened.
The day seemed near when all trade between the
Indies and Europe would be ended, and men
began to ask if it were not possible to find an
ocean route to Asia.
Now, it happened that just at this time the
Portuguese were hard at work on the discovery of
such a route, and were slowly pushing their way
down the western coast of Africa. But as league
after league of that coast was discovered, it was
thought that the route to India by way of Africa was
too long for the purposes of commerce.[1] Then
came the question, Is there not a shorter route?
and this Columbus tried to answer.
[Footnote 1: Read the account of Portuguese
exploration in search of a way to India, in Fiske's
Discovery of America, Vol. I., pp. 274-334.]
%4. Columbus seeks the East and finds
America.%[2]—Columbus was a native of Genoa,
in Italy. He began a seafaring life at fourteen, and
in the intervals between his voyages made maps
and globes. As Portugal was then the center of
nautical enterprise, he wandered there about 1470,
and probably went on one or two voyages down
the coast of Africa. In 1473 he married a
Portuguese woman. Her father had been one of
the King of Portugal's famous navigators, and had
left behind him at his death a quantity of charts and
notes; and it was while Columbus was studying
them that the idea of seeking the Indies by sailing
due westward seems to have first started in his
mind. But many a year went by, and many a
hardship had to be borne, and many an insult
patiently endured in poverty and distress, before
the Friday morning in August, 1492, when his three
caravels, the Santa Maria (sahn'-tah mah-ree'-ah),
the Pinta (peen'-tah), and the Niña (neen'-yah),sailed from the port of Palos (pah'-los), in Spain.
[Footnote 2: There is reason to believe that about
the year 1000 A.D. the northeast coast of America
was discovered by a Norse voyager named Leif
Ericsson. The records are very meager; but the
discovery of our country by such a people is
possible and not improbable. For an account of the
pre-Columbian discoveries see Fiske's Discovery of
America, Vol. I., pp. 148-255.]
[Illustration: Santa Maria]
His course led first to the Canary Islands, where he
turned and went directly westward. The earth was
not then generally believed to be round. Men
supposed it to be flat, and the only parts of it
known to Europeans were Iceland, the British Isles,
the continent of Europe, a small part of Asia, and a
strip along the coast of the northern part of Africa.
The ocean on which Columbus was now
embarked, and which in our time is crossed in less
than a week, was then utterly unknown, and was
well named "The Sea of Darkness." Little wonder,
then, that as the shores of the last of the Canaries
sank out of sight on the 9th of September, many of
the sailors wept, wailed, and loudly bemoaned their
cruel fate. After sailing for what seemed a very
long time, they saw signs of land. But when no land
appeared, their hopes gave way to fear, and they
rose against Columbus in order to force him to
return.
[Illustration: Niña]
But he calmed their fears, explained the sights they
could not understand, hid from them the true
distance sailed, and kept steadily on westward till
October 7, when a flock of land birds were seen
flying to the southwest. Pinzon (peen-thon'), who
commanded one of the vessels, begged Columbus
to follow the birds, as they seemed to be going
toward land. Had the little fleet kept on its way, it
would have brought up on the coast of Florida. But
Columbus yielded to Pinzon. The ships were
headed southwestward, and about ten o'clock on
the night of October 11, Columbus saw a light
moving in the distance. It was made by the
inhabitants going from hut to hut on a neighboring
coast. At dawn the shore itself was seen by a
sailor, and Columbus, followed by many of his
men, hastened to the beach, where, October 12,
1492, he raised a huge cross, and took possession
of the country in the name of Ferdinand and
Isabella, King and Queen of Spain, who had
supplied him with caravels and men.[1] He had