A Study of Pueblo Architecture: Tusayan and Cibola - Eighth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the - Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1886-1887, - Government Printing Office, Washington, 1891, pages 3-228
255 Pages

A Study of Pueblo Architecture: Tusayan and Cibola - Eighth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the - Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1886-1887, - Government Printing Office, Washington, 1891, pages 3-228


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The Project Gutenberg EBook of A Study of Pueblo Architecture: Tusayan and Cibola, by Victor Mindeleff and Cosmos Mindeleff This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org Title: A Study of Pueblo Architecture: Tusayan and Cibola Eighth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1886-1887, Government Printing Office, Washington, 1891, pages 3-228 Author: Victor Mindeleff and Cosmos Mindeleff Illustrator: Henry Hobart Nichols Release Date: November 17, 2006 [EBook #19856] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK PUEBLO ARCHITECTURE *** Produced by Louise Hope, Carlo Traverso, Håkon Hope and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (This file was produced from images generously made available by the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF/Gallica) at http://gallica.bnf.fr) A few words in this e-text use the uncommon letters “Ĕ”, “ĭ”, “ŏ” (vowel with breve or “short” mark); they have been given popup transliterations. If the apostrophes and quotation marks in this paragraph appear as garbage, you may need to change your browser’s “file encoding” or “character set”, or change your default font. Some words in the text have variant spellings that were left unchanged. The main ones are: nyumu: sometimes hyphenated as nyu-mu Mashongnavi, Shupaulovi, Sichumovi (names): sometimes written with accents as Mashóngnavi , Shupaúlovi , Sichúmovi Brackets and parenthetical question marks are as in the original. A few typographical errors have been corrected. They are marked in the text with mouse-hover popups. 3 A STUDY OF PUEBLO ARCHITECTURE: T U S A Y A N BY A N D C I B O L A . VICTOR MINDELEFF. CONTENTS. Page. 13 16 16 16 38 40 42 42 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 52 53 54 56 57 59 59 61 61 62 63 66 71 73 76 5 Introduction C HAPTER I.— Traditionary history of Tusayan Explanatory Summary of traditions List of traditionary gentes Supplementary legend C HAPTER II.— Ruins and inhabited villages of Tusayan Physical features of the province Methods of survey Plans and description of ruins Walpi ruins Old Mashongnavi Shitaimuvi Awatubi Horn House Small ruin near Horn House Bat House Mishiptonga Moen-kopi Ruins on the Oraibi wash Kwaituki Tebugkihu, or Fire House Chukubi Payupki Plans and descriptions of inhabited villages Hano Sichumovi Walpi Mashongnavi Shupaulovi Shumopavi Oraibi Moen-kopi C HAPTER III.— Ruins and inhabited villages of Cibola Physical features of the province Plans and descriptions of ruins Hawikuh Ketchipauan Chalowe Hampassawan K’iakima Matsaki Pinawa Halona Tâaaiyalana ruins Kin-tiel and Kinna-Zinde Plans and descriptions of inhabited villages Nutria Pescado Ojo Caliente Zuñi C HAPTER IV.— Architecture of Tusayan and Cibola compared by constructional details Introduction Housebuilding Rites and methods Localization of gentes Interior arrangement Kivas in Tusayan General use of kivas by pueblo builders Origin of the name Antiquity of the kiva Excavation of the kiva Access Masonry Orientation The ancient form of kiva Native explanations of position Methods of kiva building and rites Typical plans Work by women Consecration Various uses of kivas Kiva ownership Motives for building a kiva Significance of structural plan Typical measurements List of Tusayan Kivas 77 80 80 80 80 81 83 84 85 86 86 88 89 91 94 94 95 96 97 100 100 100 100 104 108 111 111 111 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 118 129 129 130 133 134 135 136 136 6 Details of Tusayan and Cibola construction Walls Roofs and floors Wall copings and roof drains Ladders and steps Cooking pits and ovens Oven-shaped structures Fireplaces and chimneys Gateways and covered passages Doors Windows Roof openings Furniture Corrals and gardens; eagle cages “Kisi” construction Architectural nomenclature Concluding remarks Footnotes Index About the Illustrations 137 137 148 151 156 162 167 167 180 182 194 201 208 214 217 220 223 7 ILLUSTRATIONS. Illustrations have been placed as close as practicable to their discussion in the text. The printed page numbers show the original location. Multi-part Figures are sometimes shown vertically (one drawing above the other) where the original layout was horizontal. The Map and most site plans are shown as thumbnails linked to larger versions. PLATE I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. Map of the provinces of Tusayan and Cibola Old Mashongnavi, plan General view of Awatubi Awatubi (Talla-Hogan), plan Standing walls of Awatubi Adobe fragment in Awatubi Horn House ruin, plan Bat House Mishiptonga (Jeditoh) A small ruin near Moen-kopi Masonry on the outer wall of the Fire-House, detail XII. Chukubi, plan XIII. Payupki, plan XIV. General view of Payupki Page. 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII. XIX. XX. XXI. XXII. XXIII. XXIV. XXV. XXVI. XXVII. XXVIII. XXIX. XXX. XXXI. XXXII. XXXIII. XXXIV. XXXV. XXXVI. XXXVII. XXXVIII. XXXIX. XL. XLI. XLII. XLIII. XLIV. XLV. XLVI. XLVII. XLVIII. XLIX. L. LI. LII. LIII. LIV. LV. LVI. LVII. LVIII. LIX. LX. Standing walls of Payupki Plan of Hano View of Hano Plan of Sichumovi View of Sichumovi Plan of Walpi View of Walpi South passageway of Walpi Houses built over irregular sites, Walpi Dance rock and kiva, Walpi Foot trail to Walpi Mashongnavi, plan Mashongnavi with Shupaulovi in distance Back wall of a Mashongnavi house-row West side of a principal row in Mashongnavi Plan of Shupaulovi View of Shupaulovi A covered passageway of Shupaulovi The chief kiva of Shupaulovi Plan of Shumopavi View of Shumopavi Oraibi, plan Key to the Oraibi plan, also showing localization of gentes A court of Oraibi Masonry terraces of Oraibi Oraibi house row, showing court side Back of Oraibi house row The site of Moen-kopi Plan of Moen-kopi Moen-kopi The Mormon mill at Moen-kopi Hawikuh, plan Hawikuh, view Adobe church at Hawikuh Ketchipanan, plan Ketchipauan Stone church at Ketchipauan K’iakima, plan Site of K’iakima, at base of Tâaaiyalana Recent wall at K’iakima Matsaki, plan Standing wall at Pinawa Halona excavations as seen from Zuñi Fragments of Halona wall The mesa of Tâaaiyalana, from Zuñi Tâaaiyalana, plan 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 In pocket. 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 8 LX. LXI. LXII. LXIII. LXIV. LXV. LXVI. LXVII. LXVIII. LXIX. LXX. LXXI. LXXII. LXXIII. LXXIV. LXXV. LXXVI. LXXVII. LXXVIII. LXXIX. LXXX. LXXXI. LXXXII. LXXXIII. LXXXIV. LXXXV. LXXXVI. LXXXVII. LXXXVIII. LXXXIX. XC. XCI. XCII. XCIII. XCIV. XCV. XCVI. XCVII. XCVIII. XCIX. C. CI. CII. CIII. Tâaaiyalana, plan Standing walls of Tâaaiyalana ruins Remains of a reservoir on Tâaaiyalana Kin-tiel, plan (also showing excavations) North wall of Kin-tiel Standing walls of Kin-tiel Kinna-Zinde Nutria, plan Nutria, view Pescado, plan Court view of Pescado, showing corrals Pescado houses Fragments of ancient masonry in Pescado Ojo Caliente, plan General view of Ojo Caliente House at Ojo Caliente Zuñi, plan Outline plan of Zuñi, showing distribution of oblique openings General inside view of Zuñi, looking west Zuñi terraces Old adobe church of Zuñi Eastern rows of Zuñi A Zuñi court A Zuñi small house A house-building at Oraibi A Tusayan interior A Zuñi interior A kiva hatchway of Tusayan North kivas of Shumopavi, from the northeast Masonry in the north wing of Kin-tiel Adobe garden walls near Zuñi. A group of stone corrals near Oraibi An inclosing wall of upright stones at Ojo Caliente Upright blocks of sandstone built into an ancient pueblo wall Ancient wall of upright rocks in southwestern Colorado Ancient floor-beams at Kin-tiel Adobe walls in Zuñi Wall coping and oven at Zuñi Cross-pieces on Zuñi ladders Outside steps at Pescado An excavated room at Kin-tiel Masonry chimneys of Zuñi Remains of a gateway in Awatubi Ancient gateway, Kin-tiel 128 130 132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 150 152 In pocket. 154 156 In pocket. 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172 174 176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 196 198 200 202 204 206 208 210 9 CIV. A covered passageway in Mashongnavi CV. Small square openings in Pueblo Bonito CVI. Sealed openings in a detached house of Nutria CVII. Partial filling-in of a large opening in Oraibi, converting it into a doorway CVIII. Large openings reduced to small windows, Oraibi CIX. Stone corrals and kiva of Mashongnavi CX. Portion of a corral in Pescado CXI. Zuñi eagle-cage FIG . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. View of the First Mesa Ruins, Old Walpi mound Ruin between Bat House and Horn House Ruin near Moen-kopi, plan Ruin 7 miles north of Oraibi Ruin 14 miles north of Oraibi (Kwaituki) Oval fire-house ruin, plan. (Tebugkihu) Topography of the site of Walpi Mashongnavi and Shupaulovi from Shumopavi Diagram showing growth of Mashongnavi Diagram showing growth of Mashongnavi Diagram showing growth of Mashongnavi Topography of the site of Shupaulovi Court kiva of Shumopavi Hampassawan, plan Pinawa, plan Nutria, plan; small diagram, old wall Pescado, plan, old wall diagram A Tusayan wood-rack Interior ground plan of a Tusayan room North kivas of Shumopavi from the southwest Ground plan of the chief-kiva of Shupaulovi Ceiling-plan of the chief-kiva of Shupaulovi Interior view of a Tusayan kiva Ground-plan of a Shupaulovi kiva Ceiling-plan of a Shupaulovi kiva Ground-plan of the chief-kiva of Mashongnavi Interior view of a kiva hatchway in Tusayan Mat used in closing the entrance of Tusayan kivas Rectangular sipapuh in a Mashongnavi kiva Loom-post in kiva floor at Tusayan A Zuñi chimney showing pottery fragments embedded in its adobe base 33. A Zuñi oven with pottery scales embedded in its surface 34. Stone wedges of Zuñi masonry exposed in a rain- 212 214 216 218 220 222 224 226 43 47 51 53 55 56 58 64 66 67 68 69 71 75 84 87 94 95 103 108 114 122 123 124 125 125 126 127 128 131 132 139 139 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. washed wall An unplastered house wall in Ojo Caliente Wall decorations in Mashongnavi, executed in pink on a white ground Diagram of Zuñi roof construction Showing abutment of smaller roof-beams over round girders Single stone roof-drains Trough roof-drains of stone Wooden roof-drains Curved roof-drains of stone in Tusayan Tusayan roof-drains; a discarded metate and a gourd Zuñi roof-drain, with splash-stones on roof below A modern notched ladder in Oraibi Tusayan notched ladders from Mashongnavi Aboriginal American forms of ladder Stone steps at Oraibi with platform at corner Stone steps, with platform at chimney, in Oraibi Stone steps in Shumopavi A series of cooking pits in Mashongnavi Pi-gummi ovens of Mashongnavi Cross sections of pi-gummi ovens of Mashongnavi Diagrams showing foundation stones of a Zuñi oven Dome-shaped oven on a plinth of masonry Oven in Pescado exposing stones of masonry Oven in Pescado exposing stones of masonry Shrines in Mashongnavi A poultry house in Sichumovi resembling an oven Ground-plan of an excavated room in Kin-tiel A corner chimney-hood with two supporting poles, Tusayan A curved chimney-hood of Mashongnavi A Mashongnavi chimney-hood and walled-up fireplace A chimney-hood of Shupaulovi A semi-detached square chimney-hood of Zuñi Unplastered Zuñi chimney-hoods, illustrating construction A fireplace and mantel in Sichumovi A second-story fireplace in Mashongnavi Piki stone and chimney-hood in Sichumovi Piki stone and primitive andiron in Shumopavi A terrace fireplace and chimney of Shumopavi A terrace cooking-pit and chimney of Walpi A ground cooking-pit of Shumopavi covered with a chimney Tusayan chimneys A barred Zuñi door 141 142 146 149 151 153 153 154 154 155 156 157 157 158 161 161 162 163 163 163 164 165 166 166 167 167 168 170 170 171 172 172 173 174 174 175 176 177 177 178 179 183 10 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. Wooden pivot hinges of a Zuñi door Paneled wooden doors in Hano Framing of a Zuñi door panel Rude transoms over Tusayan openings A large Tusayan doorway, with small transom openings A doorway and double transom in Walpi An ancient doorway in a Canyon de Chelly cliff ruin A symmetrical notched doorway in Mashongnavi A Tusayan notched doorway A large Tusayan doorway with one notched jamb An ancient circular doorway, or “stone-close,” in Kin-tiel Diagram illustrating symmetrical arrangement of small openings in Pueblo Bonito Incised decoration on a rude window-sash in Zuñi Sloping selenite window at base of Zuñi wall on upper terrace A Zuñi window glazed with selenite Small openings in the back wall of a Zuñi house cluster. Sealed openings in Tusayan A Zuñi doorway converted into a window Zuñi roof-openings A Zuñi roof-opening with raised coping Zuñi roof-openings with one raised end A Zuñi roof-hole with cover Kiva trap-door in Zuñi Halved and pinned trap-door frame of a Zuñi kiva Typical sections of Zuñi oblique openings Arrangement of mealing stones in a Tusayan house A Tusayan grain bin A Zuñi plume-box A Zuñi plume-box A Tusayan mealing trough An ancient pueblo form of metate Zuñi stools A Zuñi chair Construction of a Zuñi corral Gardens of Zuñi “Kishoni,” or uncovered shade, of Tusayan A Tusayan field shelter, from southwest A Tusayan field shelter, from northeast Diagram showing ideal section of terraces, with Tusayan names 184 185 186 188 189 189 190 190 191 192 193 195 196 197 197 198 199 201 202 203 203 204 205 206 208 209 210 210 210 211 211 213 213 215 216 218 219 219 223 11 full size PLATE I. GENERAL M AP OF THE PUEBLO REGION OF ARIZONA AND NEW M EXICO, SHOWING RELATIVE POSITION OF THE PROVINCES OF T USAYAN AND CIBOLA . BY VICTOR M INDELEFF. 13 A STUDY OF PUEBLO ARCHITECTURE IN TUSAYAN AND CIBOLA. BY VICTOR MINDELEFF. I N T R O D U C T I O N . The remains of pueblo architecture are found scattered over thousands of square miles of the arid region of the southwestern plateaus. This vast area includes the drainage of the Rio Pecos on the east and that of the Colorado on the west, and extends from central Utah on the north beyond the limits of the United States southward, in which direction its boundaries are still undefined. The descendants of those who at various times built these stone villages are few in number and inhabit about thirty pueblos distributed irregularly over parts of the region formerly occupied. Of these the greater number are scattered along the upper course of the Rio Grande and its tributaries in New Mexico; a few of them, comprised within the ancient provinces of Cibola and Tusayan, are located within the drainage of the Little Colorado. From the time of the earliest Spanish expeditions into the country to the present day, a period covering more than three centuries, the former province has been often visited by whites, but the remoteness of Tusayan and the arid and forbidding character of its surroundings have caused its more complete isolation. The architecture of this