Aesthetic as Science of Expression and General Linguistic

Aesthetic as Science of Expression and General Linguistic

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Aesthetic as Science of Expression and General Linguistic, by Benedetto CroceCopyright laws are changing all over the world. Be sure to check the copyright laws for your country before downloadingor redistributing this or any other Project Gutenberg eBook.This header should be the first thing seen when viewing this Project Gutenberg file. Please do not remove it. Do notchange or edit the header without written permission.Please read the "legal small print," and other information about the eBook and Project Gutenberg at the bottom of thisfile. Included is important information about your specific rights and restrictions in how the file may be used. You can alsofind out about how to make a donation to Project Gutenberg, and how to get involved.**Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts****eBooks Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971*******These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousands of Volunteers!*****Title: Aesthetic as Science of Expression and General LinguisticAuthor: Benedetto CroceRelease Date: November, 2005 [EBook #9306] [Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule] [This file was firstposted on September 19, 2003]Edition: 10Language: English*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AESTHETIC AS SCIENCE OF EXPRESSION ***Produced by Charles Aldarondo, Tiffany Vergon, Beth Trapaga and PG Distributed ProofreadersAESTHETIC AS SCIENCE OF EXPRESSIONAND GENERAL LINGUISTICTRANSLATED FROM ...

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Aesthetic as
Science of Expression and General Linguistic, by
Benedetto Croce
Copyright laws are changing all over the world. Be
sure to check the copyright laws for your country
before downloading or redistributing this or any
other Project Gutenberg eBook.
This header should be the first thing seen when
viewing this Project Gutenberg file. Please do not
remove it. Do not change or edit the header
without written permission.
Please read the "legal small print," and other
information about the eBook and Project
Gutenberg at the bottom of this file. Included is
important information about your specific rights and
restrictions in how the file may be used. You can
also find out about how to make a donation to
Project Gutenberg, and how to get involved.
**Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla
Electronic Texts**
**eBooks Readable By Both Humans and By
Computers, Since 1971**
*****These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousands
of Volunteers!*****
Title: Aesthetic as Science of Expression andGeneral Linguistic
Author: Benedetto Croce
Release Date: November, 2005 [EBook #9306]
[Yes, we are more than one year ahead of
schedule] [This file was first posted on September
19, 2003]
Edition: 10
Language: English
*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG
EBOOK AESTHETIC AS SCIENCE OF
EXPRESSION ***
Produced by Charles Aldarondo, Tiffany Vergon,
Beth Trapaga and PG Distributed ProofreadersAESTHETIC AS SCIENCE OF
EXPRESSION
AND GENERAL LINGUISTIC
TRANSLATED FROM THE ITALIAN OF
BENEDETTO CROCE
BY
DOUGLAS AINSLIE B.A. (OXON.)
1909
THE AESTHETIC IS DEDICATED BY THE
AUTHOR TO THE MEMORY OF HIS PARENTS
PASQUALE AND LUISA SIPARI AND OF HIS
SISTER MARIA
NOTE
I give here a close translation of the complete
Theory of Aesthetic, and in the Historical
Summary, with the consent of the author, an
abbreviation of the historical portion of the original
work.CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
THEORY
I INTUITION AND EXPRESSION
Intuitive knowledge—Its independence in respect
to the intellect— Intuition and perception—Intuition
and the concepts of space and time—Intuition and
sensation—Intuition and association—Intuition and
representation—Intuition and expression—Illusions
as to their difference—Identity of intuition and
expression.
II INTUITION AND ART
Corollaries and explanations—Identity of art and of
intuitive knowledge— No specific difference—No
difference of intensity—Difference extensive and
empirical—Artistic genius—Content and form in
Aesthetic—Critique of the imitation of nature and of
the artistic illusion—Critique of art conceived as a
sentimental, not a theoretic fact—The origin of
Aesthetic, and sentiment—Critique of the theory of
Aesthetic senses—Unity and indivisibility of the
work of art—Art as deliverer.III ART AND PHILOSOPHY
Indissolubility of intellective and of intuitive
knowledge—Critique of the negations of this thesis
—Art and science—Content and form: another
meaning. Prose and poetry—The relation of first
and second degree—Inexistence of other
cognoscitive forms—Historicity—Identity and
difference in respect of art—Historical criticism—
Historical scepticism—Philosophy as perfect
science. The so-called natural sciences, and their
limits—The phenomenon and the noumenon.
IV HISTORICISM AND INTELLECTUALISM IN
AESTHETIC
Critique of the verisimilar and of naturalism—
Critique of ideas in art, of art as thesis, and of the
typical—Critique of the symbol and of the allegory
—Critique of the theory of artistic and literary
categories—Errors derived from this theory in
judgments on art— Empirical meaning of the
divisions of the categories.
V ANALOGOUS ERRORS IN HISTORY AND IN
LOGIC
Critique of the philosophy of History—Aesthetic
invasions of Logic— Logic in its essence—
Distinction between logical and non-logical
judgments—The syllogism—False Logic and true
Aesthetic—Logic reformed.VI THEORETIC AND PRACTICAL ACTIVITY
The will—The will as ulterior grade in respect of
knowledge—Objections and explanations—Critique
of practical judgments or judgments of value—
Exclusion of the practical from the aesthetic—
Critique of the theory of the end of art and of the
choice of content—Practical innocence of art—
Independence of art—Critique of the saying: the
style is the man—Critique of the concept of
sincerity in art.
VII ANALOGY BETWEEN THE THEORETIC AND
THE PRACTICAL
The two forms of practical activity—The
economically useful— Distinction between the
useful and the technical—Distinction between the
useful and the egoistic—Economic and moral
volition—Pure economicity—The economic side of
morality—The merely economical and the error of
the morally indifferent—Critique of utilitarianism
and the reform of Ethic and of Economic—
Phenomenon and noumenon in practical activity.
VIII EXCLUSION OF OTHER SPIRITUAL FORMS
The system of the spirit—The forms of genius—
Inexistence of a fifth form of activity—Law; sociality
—Religiosity—Metaphysic—Mental imagination andthe intuitive intellect—Mystical Aesthetic—Mortality
and immortality of art.
IX INDIVISIBILITY OF EXPRESSION INTO
MODES OR GRADES AND CRITIQUE OF
RHETORIC
The characteristics of art—Inexistence of modes of
expression— Impossibility of translations—Critique
of rhetorical categories— Empirical meaning of
rhetorical categories—Their use as synonyms of
the aesthetic fact—Their use as indicating various
aesthetic imperfections—Their use as transcending
the aesthetic fact, and in the service of science—
Rhetoric in schools—Similarities of expressions—
Relative possibility of translations.
X AESTHETIC SENTIMENTS AND THE
DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE BEAUTIFUL AND
THE UGLY
Various meanings of the word sentiment—
Sentiment as activity— Identification of sentiment
with economic activity—Critique of hedonism—
Sentiment as concomitant of every form of activity
—Meaning of certain ordinary distinctions of
sentiments—Value and disvalue: the contraries
and their union—The beautiful as the value of
expression, or expression without adjunct—The
ugly and the elements of beauty that constitute it—
Illusion that there exist expressions neither
beautiful nor ugly—Proper aesthetic sentimentsand concomitant and accidental sentiments—
Critique of apparent sentiments.
XI CRITIQUE OF AESTHETIC HEDONISM
Critique of the beautiful as what pleases the
superior senses—Critique of the theory of play—
Critique of the theory of sexuality and of the
triumph—Critique of the Aesthetic of the
sympathetic—Meaning in it of content and of form
—Aesthetic hedonism and moralism—The rigoristic
negation, and the pedagogic negation of art—
Critique of pure beauty.
XII THE AESTHETIC OF THE SYMPATHETIC
AND PSEUDO-AESTHETIC CONCEPTS
Pseudo-aesthetic concepts, and the Aesthetic of
the sympathetic— Critique of the theory of the ugly
in art and of its surmounting— Pseudo-aesthetic
concepts appertain to Psychology—Impossibility of
rigorous definitions of these—Examples: definitions
of the sublime, of the comic, of the humorous—
Relation between those concepts and aesthetic
concepts.
XIII THE SO-CALLED PHYSICALLY BEAUTIFUL
IN NATURE AND IN ART
Aesthetic activity and physical concepts—
Expression in the aesthetic sense, and expression