An Historical Account of the Settlements of Scotch Highlanders in America

An Historical Account of the Settlements of Scotch Highlanders in America

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of An Historical Account of the Settlements ofScotch Highlanders in America, by J. P. MacLeanThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.netTitle: An Historical Account of the Settlements of Scotch Highlanders in AmericaAuthor: J. P. MacLeanRelease Date: June 23, 2008 [EBook #25879]Language: EnglishCharacter set encoding: ISO-8859-1*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK SCOTCH HIGHLANDERS IN AMERICA ***Produced by Marilynda Fraser-Cunliffe, Graeme Mackreth andthe Online Distributed Proofreading Team athttp://www.pgdp.net (This file was made using scans ofpublic domain works from the University of Michigan DigitalLibraries.)n cPainted by Capt . W M Kenzie BATTLE OF CULLODEN.An Historical AccountOF THESettlements of Scotch HighlandersINAmericaPrior to the Peace of 1783TOGETHER WITH NOTICES OFHighland RegimentsANDBiographical SketchesBYJ.P. MACLEAN, PH.D.Life Member Gaelic Society of Glasgow, and Clan MacLean Association of Glasgow; CorrespondingMember Davenport Academy of Sciences, and Western Reserve Historical Society; Author of History of ClanMacLean, Antiquity of Man, The Mound Builders, Mastodon, Mammoth and Man, Norse Discovery ofAmerica, Fingal's Cave, Introduction Study St. John's Gospel, Jewish Nature ...

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of An Historical Account of the Settlements of Scotch Highlanders in America, by J. P. MacLean This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: An Historical Account of the Settlements of Scotch Highlanders in America Author: J. P. MacLean Release Date: June 23, 2008 [EBook #25879] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK SCOTCH HIGHLANDERS IN AMERICA *** Produced by Marilynda Fraser-Cunliffe, Graeme Mackreth and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (This file was made using scans of public domain works from the University of Michigan Digital Libraries.) n cPainted by Capt . W M Kenzie BATTLE OF CULLODEN. An Historical Account OF THE Settlements of Scotch Highlanders IN America Prior to the Peace of 1783 TOGETHER WITH NOTICES OF Highland Regiments AND Biographical Sketches BY J.P. MACLEAN, PH.D. Life Member Gaelic Society of Glasgow, and Clan MacLean Association of Glasgow; Corresponding Member Davenport Academy of Sciences, and Western Reserve Historical Society; Author of History of Clan MacLean, Antiquity of Man, The Mound Builders, Mastodon, Mammoth and Man, Norse Discovery of America, Fingal's Cave, Introduction Study St. John's Gospel, Jewish Nature Worship, etc. ILLUSTRATED. THE HELMAN-TAYLOR COMPANY, Cleveland. JOHN MACKaY, Glasgow. 1900. Highland Arms. To Colonel Sir Fitzroy Donald MacLean, Bart., C.B., President of The Highland Society of London, An hereditary Chief, honored by his Clansmen at home and abroad, on account of the kindly interest he takes in their welfare, as well as everything that relates to the Highlands, and though deprived of an ancient patrimony, his virtues and patriotism have done honor to the Gael, this Volume is Respectfully dedicated by the Author. "There's sighing and sobbing in yon Highland forest; There's weeping and wailing in yon Highland vale, And fitfully flashes a gleam from the ashes Of the tenantless hearth in the home of the Gael. There's a ship on the sea, and her white sails she's spreadin', A' ready to speed to a far distant shore; She may come hame again wi' the yellow gowd laden, But the sons of Glendarra shall come back no more. The gowan may spring by the clear-rinnin' burnie, The cushat may coo in the green woods again. The deer o' the mountain may drink at the fountain, Unfettered and free as the wave on the main; But the pibroch they played o'er the sweet blooming heather Is hushed in the sound of the ocean's wild roar; The song and the dance they hae vanish'd thegither, For the maids o' Glendarra shall come back no more." PREFACE. An attempt is here made to present a field that has not been preoccupied. The student of American history has noticed allusions to certain Scotch Highland settlements prior to the Revolution, without any attempt at either an account or origin of the same. In a measure the publication of certain state papers and colonial records, as well as an occasional memoir by an historical society have revived what had been overlooked. These settlements form a very important and interesting place in the early history of our country. While they may not have occupied a very prominent or pronounced position, yet their exertions in subduing the wilderness, their activity in the Revolution, and the wide influence exercised by the descendants of these hardy pioneers, should, long since, have brought their history and achievements into notice. The settlement in North Carolina, embracing a wide extent of territory, and the people numbered by the thousands, should, ere this, have found a competent exponent. But it exists more as a tradition than an actual colony. The Highlanders in Georgia more than acted their part against Spanish encroachments, yet survived all the vicissitudes of their exposed position. The stay of the Highlanders on the Mohawk was very brief, yet their flight into Canada and final settlement at Glengarry forms a very strange episode in the history of New York. The heartless treatment of the colony of Lachlan Campbell by the governor of the province of New York, and their long delayed recompense stands without a parallel, and is so strange and fanciful, that long since it should have excited the poet or novelist. The settlements in Nova Scotia and Prince Edwards Island, although scarcely commenced at the breaking out of the Revolution, are more important in later events than those chronicled in this volume. The chapters on the Highlands, the Scotch-Irish, and the Darien scheme, have sufficient connection to warrant their insertion. It is a noticeable fact that notwithstanding the valuable services rendered by the Highland regiments in the French and Indian war, but little account has been taken by writers, except in Scotland, although General David Stewart of Garth, as early as 1822, clearly paved the way. Unfortunately, his works, as well as those who have followed him, are comparatively unknown on this side the Atlantic. I was led to the searching out of this phase of our history, not only by the occasional allusions, but specially from reading works devoted to other nationalities engaged in the Revolution. Their achievements were fully set forth and their praises sung. Why should not the oppressed Gael, who sought the forests of the New World, struggled in the wilderness, and battled against foes, also be placed in his true light? If properly known, the artist would have a subject for his pencil, the poet a picture for his praises, and the novelist a strong background for his romance. Cleveland, O., October, 1898. TABLE OF CONTENTS. CHAPTER I. The Highlanders of Scotland. Division of Scotland—People of the Highlands—Language—Clanship—Chiefs Customs—Special Characteristics—Fiery-Cross—Slogan—Mode of Battle Forays—Feasts—Position of Woman—Marriage— Religious Toleration Superstitions—Poets—Pipers—Cave of Coire-nan-Uriskin—The Harp—Gaelic Music —Costume—Scotland's Wars—War with Romans—Battle of Largs—Bannockburn—Flodden—Pinkie— Wars of Montrose—Bonnie Dundee—Earl of Mar—Prince Charles Stuart—Atrocities in the Wake of Culloden—Uncertainty of Travellers' Observations—Kidnapping Emigration CHAPTER II. The Scotch-Irish in America. Origin of the name of Scotland—Scoto-Irish—Ulster—Clandonald—Protestant Colonies in Ireland— Corruption of Names—Percentage of in Revolution—Characteristics—Persecuted—Emigration from Ulster —First Scotch-Irish Clergyman in America—Struggle for Religious Liberty Settlement at Worcester—History of the Potato—Pelham—Warren and Blandford—Colerain—Londonderry—Settlements in Maine—New York —New Jersey—Pennsylvania—The Revolution—Maryland—Virginia—Patrick Henry—Daniel Morgan— George Rogers Clark—North Carolina—Battle of King's Mountain—South Carolina—Georgia—East Tennessee—Kentucky Canada—Industrial Arts—Distinctive Characteristics CHAPTER III. Causes that Led to Emigration. Results of Clanship—Opposed to Emigration—Emigration to Ulster Expatriation of 7000—Changed Condition of Highlanders—Lands Rented Dissatisfaction—Luxurious Landlords—Action of Chiefs in Skye— Deplorable State of Affairs—Sheep-Farming—Improvements—Buchanan's Description—Famine—Class of Emigrants—America—Hardships and Disappointments CHAPTER IV. Darien Scheme. First Highlanders in America—Disastrous Speculation—Ruinous Legislation—Massacre of Glencoe— Darien Scheme Projected—William Paterson—Fabulous Dreams—Company Chartered—Scotland Excited Subscriptions—List of Subscribers—Spanish Sovereignty over Darien—English Jealousy and Opposition— Dutch East India Company—King William's Duplicity—English and Dutch Subscriptions Withdrawn—Great Preparations—Purchase of Ships—Sailing of First Expedition—Settlement of St. Andrews—Great Sufferings—St. Andrews Abandoned—The Caledonia and Unicorn Arrive at New York—Recriminations— The St. Andrews—The Dolphin—King Refuses Supplies—Relief Sent—Spaniards Aggressive—Second Expedition—Highlanders—Disappointed Expectations—Discordant Clergy—How News was Received in Scotland—Give Vent to Rage—King William's Indifference—Campbell of Fonab—Escape—Capitulation of Darien Colony—Ships Destroyed—Final End of Settlers CHAPTER V. Highlanders in North Carolina. On the Cape Fear—Town Established—Highlanders Patronized—Arrival of Neil McNeill—Action of Legislature—List of Grantees—Wave of Emigration—Represented in Legislature—Colony Prosperous— Stamp Act—Genius of Liberty—Letter to Highlanders—Emigrants from Jura—Lands Allotted—War of Regulators—Campbelton Charter—Public Road—Public Buildings at Campbelton—Petition for Pardon— Highland Costume—Clan Macdonald Emigration—Allan Macdonald of Kingsborough—American Revolution —Sale of Public Offices—Attitude of