Ancient America, in Notes on American Archaeology
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Ancient America, in Notes on American Archaeology

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Ancient America, in Notes on AmericanArchaeology, by John D. BaldwinThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.netTitle: Ancient America, in Notes on American ArchaeologyAuthor: John D. BaldwinRelease Date: August 21, 2008 [EBook #26382]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ANCIENT AMERICA ***Produced by Julia Miller and the Online DistributedProofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (This file wasproduced from scans of public domain material produced byMicrosoft for their Live Search Books site.)Transcriber’s NoteA number of typographical errors have been maintained in the current version of this book. They are marked and thecorrected text is shown in the popup. A list of these errors is found at the end of this book.Engraving of corner of building witharchitectural sculpture Fig. 1.—Gatewayat Labna. [See p. 144.ANCIENT AMERICA,INNOTES ON AMERICAN ARCHÆOLOGY.By JOHN D. BALDWIN, A.M.,AUTHOR OF “PRE-HISTORIC NATIONS.”WITH ILLUSTRATIONS.ColophonNEW YORK:HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS,FRANKLIN SQUARE.Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1871, byJohn D. Baldwin,In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.PREFACE.The purpose of this volume is to give a summary of what ...

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Ancient America, in
Notes on American
Archaeology, by John D. Baldwin
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no
cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it,
give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg
License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net
Title: Ancient America, in Notes on American
Archaeology
Author: John D. Baldwin
Release Date: August 21, 2008 [EBook #26382]
Language: English
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK
ANCIENT AMERICA ***
Produced by Julia Miller and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (This file
waswas
produced from scans of public domain material
produced by
Microsoft for their Live Search Books site.)
Transcriber’s Note
A number of typographical errors have been
maintained in the current version of this book. They
are marked and the corrected text is shown in the
popup. A list of these errors is found at the end of this
book.
Engraving of corner of building with architectural
sculpture Fig. 1.—Gateway at Labna. [See p. 144.
ANCIENT AMERICA,
IN
NOTES ON AMERICAN
ARCHÆOLOGY.
By JOHN D. BALDWIN, A.M.,
AUTHOR OF “PRE-HISTORIC NATIONS.”WITH ILLUSTRATIONS.
Colophon
NEW YORK:
HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS,
FRANKLIN SQUARE.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year
1871, by
John D. Baldwin,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at
Washington.
PREFACE.
The purpose of this volume is to give a summary of
what is known of American Antiquities, with some
thoughts and suggestions relative to their significance.
It aims at nothing more. No similar work, I believe, has
been published in English or in any other language.
What is known of American Archæology is recorded in
a great many volumes, English, French, Spanish, and
German, each work being confined to some particular
department of the subject, or containing only an
intelligent traveler’s brief sketches of what he saw as
he went through some of the districts where the old
ruins are found. Many of the more important of these
works are either in French or Spanish, or in great
English quartos and folios which are not accessible to
general readers, and not one of them attempts to givea comprehensive view of the whole subject.
Therefore I have prepared this work for publication,
believing it will be acceptable to many who are not now
much acquainted with the remains of Ancient America,
and that some who read it may be induced to study
the but as Ancient America covers all time previous to
the discovery by Columbus, they may not be deemed
out of place. Materials for the paper on “Antiquities of
the Pacific Islands” came to me from the Pacific World
while I was preparing the others. The discovery of the
Pacific is so intimately connected with the discovery of
America, that this paper would not be out of place
even if the Mexican and Peruvian traditions did not
mention that a foreign people communicated with the
western coast of America in very ancient times.
Worcester, Mass., November, 1871.
CONTENTS.
Pag
e
ANCIENT AMERICA.—THE MOUND-BUILDE
I. 13
RS
Works of the Mound-Builders 14
Extent of their Settlements 31
Their Civilization 33
Their Ancient Mining Works 43
II. ANTIQUITY OF THE MOUND-BUILDERS 47
How long were they here? 51
III. WHO WERE THE MOUND-BUILDERS? 57Not Ancestors of the Wild Indians 58
Brereton’s Story 62
American Ethnology 65
Who the Mound-Builders were 70
IV. MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA 76
Their Northern Remains 77
The “Seven Cities of Cevola” 85
Central Mexico 89
The great Ruins at the South 93
V. MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA 103
Palenque 104
Copan and Quiragua 111
Mitla 117
An Astronomical Monument 122
Ruins farther South 123
The Ruins in Yucatan 125
Mayapan 127
Uxmal 131
Kabah 137
Chichen-Itza 140
Other Ruins 144
VI. ANTIQUITY OF THE RUINS 151
Distinct Eras traced 155
Nothing perishable left 156
“The Oldest of Civilizations” 159
American Cities seen by Tyrians 161
VII. WHENCE CAME THIS CIVILIZATION? 165
The “Lost Tribes of Israel” 166
The “Malay” Theory 167
The Phœnician Theory 171
The “Atlantic” Theory 174
It was an original Civilization 184
VIII
AMERICAN ANCIENT HISTORY 187
.The Old Books not all lost 189
The Ancient History sketched 197
The Toltecs our Mound-Builders 200
Some confirmation of the History 205
IX. THE AZTEC CIVILIZATION 207
The Discovery and Invasion 209
The City of Mexico 211
The Conquest 213
Who were the Aztecs? 216
They came from the South 217
X. ANCIENT PERU 222
The Spanish Hunt for Peru 223
The Ruins near Lake Titicaca 226
Other Ruins in Peru 237
The great Peruvian Roads 243
The Peruvian Civilization 246
XI. PERUVIAN ANCIENT HISTORY 257
Garcilasso’s History 258
Fernando Montesinos 261
His Scheme of Peruvian History 264
Probabilities 268
Conclusion 272
APPENDIX 277
A. The Northmen in America 279
B. The Welsh in America 285
C. Antiquities of the Pacific Islands 288
D. Deciphering the Inscriptions 292
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Page
Frontispiec
1. Gateway at Labna1. Gateway at Labna
e.
2. Great Mound near Miamisburg 16
3. Square Mound near Marietta 18
4. Works at Cedar Bank, Ohio 19
Works in Washington County, Mississip
5. 20
pi
6. Works at Hopeton, Ohio 22
7. Principal Figures of the Hopeton Works 23
8. Graded Way near Piketon, Ohio 25
9. Great Serpent Inclosure 29
10
Fortified Hill, Butler County, Ohio 30
.
11
Stone-work in Paint Creek Valley, Ohio 35
.
12
Work on North Fork of Paint Creek 36
.
13
Ancient Work, Pike County, Ohio 38
.
14
Work near Brownsville, Ohio 38
.
15
Works near Liberty, Ohio 39
.
16
Work in Randolph County, Indiana 40
.
17
.
}Vases from the Mounds 41
18
.
19
Ancient Mining Shaft 45
.
20
Pueblo Ruin at Pecos 80
.
21
Modern Zuni 81
.22
Ruins in the Valley of the Gila 83
.
23
Pueblo Building restored 87
.
24
Ground Plan of the Building 88
.
25
Arch of Los Monjas, Uxmal 98
.
26
Arch most common in the Ruins 100
.
27
Casa No. 1, Palenque 107
.
28
Casa No. 2 (La Cruz), Palenque 108
.
29
Great Wall at Copan 112
.
30
Ruins at Mitla 116
.
31
Great Hall at Mitla 118
.
32
A ruined “Palace” at Mitla 119
.
33
Mosaic Decoration at Mitla 120
.
34
Great Mound at Mayapan 127
.
35
Circular Edifice at Mayapan 129
.
36
Casa del Gobernador, Uxmal 132
.
37
Ground Plan 132
.
38
Two-headed Figure at Uxmal 133
.39
Decorations over Doorway, Uxmal 134
.
40
Ground Plan of Las Monjas, Uxmal 136
.
41
Ruined Arch at Kabah 139
.
42
Casa Colorada, Chichen-Itza 141
.
43
Great Stone Ring 143
.
44
Great Mound at Xcoch 145
.
45
Bottom of an Aguada 146
.
46
Subterranean Reservoir 147
.
47
Plan of the Walls of Tuloom 148
.
48
Watch-tower at Tuloom 149
.
49
Specimen of Inscriptions on Stone 190
.
50
Specimen of the Manuscript Writing 191
.
51
Ancient Masonry at Cuzco 227
.
52 Ruins of a “Temple” on the Island of Titi
228
. caca
53
Ruin on the Island of Titicaca 229
.
54
Ruin on the Island of Coati 231
.
55
Monolithic Gateway at Tiahuanaco 233
.