Ancient Rome : from the earliest times down to 476 A. D.
112 Pages

Ancient Rome : from the earliest times down to 476 A. D.


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Published 08 December 2010
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of History of Rome from the Earliest times down to 476 AD, by Robert F. Pennell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: History of Rome from the Earliest times down to 476 AD Author: Robert F. Pennell Release Date: March 20, 2009 [EBook #6989] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HISTORY OF ROME *** Produced by Lynn Bonnett, Teresa Thomason, and David Widger ANCIENT ROME FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES DOWN TO 476 A.D. By Robert F. Pennell Revised Edition Contents PREFACE. ANCIENT ROME. CHAPTER I. CHAPTER II. CHAPTER III. GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY THE EARLY INHABITANTS OF ITALY THE ROMANS AND THEIR EARLY GOVERNMENT CHAPTER IV. CHAPTER V. CHAPTER VI. CHAPTER VII. CHAPTER VIII. CHAPTER IX. CHAPTER X. CHAPTER XI. CHAPTER XII. CHAPTER XIII. THE EARLY GROWTH AND INTERNAL HISTORY OF ROME THE DYNASTY OF THE TARQUINS THE CONSULS AND TRIBUNES THE COMITIA TRIBUTA AND THE AGRARIAN LAWS THE CONTEST OF THE PLEBEIANS FOR CIVIL RIGHTS EXTERNAL HISTORY WARS WITH PYRRHUS (281-272) DIVISIONS OF THE ROMAN TERRITORY .—NOTED MEN OF THE PERIOD FOREIGN CONQUEST ROME AND CARTHAGE BETWEEN THE FIRST AND SECOND PUNIC WARS CHAPTER XIV. THE SECOND PUNIC WAR.—FROM THE PASSAGE OF THE PYRENEES TO THE BATTLE OF CANNAE (218-216.) CHAPTER XV. THE SECOND PUNIC WAR.-FROM CANNAE TO THE BATTLE OF ZAMA CHAPTER XVI. ROME IN THE EAST CHAPTER XVII. THE SYRIAN WAR CHAPTER XVIII. CONQUEST OF MACEDONIA AND GREECE (171-146.) CHAPTER XIX. THE THIRD PUNIC WAR, AND FALL OF CARTHAGE CHAPTER XX. ROME AND SPAIN.-THE NUMANTINE AND SERVILE WARS (206-132.) CHAPTER XXI. INTERNAL HISTORY .—THE GRACCHI CHAPTER XXII. EXTERNAL HISTORY .—PERGAMUM.—JUGURTHINE WAR (118-104) CHAPTER XXIII. THE CIMBRI AND TEUTONES.—POLITICAL QUARRELS CHAPTER XXIV. INTERNAL HISTORY .-THE SOCIAL WAR (90-88) CHAPTER XXV. MARIUS AND SULLA.-CINNA CHAPTER XXVI. SERTORIUS.—SPARTACUS.—LUCULLUS.—POMPEY AND CRASSUS CHAPTER XXVII. CAESAR.—CICERO.—VERRES CHAPTER XXVIII. TROUBLES AT ROME.—CONSPIRACY OF CATILINE CHAPTER XXIX. THE FIRST TRIUMVIRATE CHAPTER XXX. CAESAR'S CAMPAIGNS IN GAUL CHAPTER XXXI. CLODIUS AND MILO.—DEATH OF CRASSUS CHAPTER XXXII. CAESAR'S STRUGGLE WITH POMPEY .—BATTLE OF PHARSALIA CHAPTER XXXIII. CAESAR'S OPERATIONS IN EGYPT, ASIA, AFRICA, AND SPAIN CHAPTER MURDER OF CAESAR XXXIV. CHAPTER THE SECOND TRIUMVIRATE.—PHILIPPI AND ACTIUM XXXV. CHAPTER AUGUSTUS (30 B.C.-14 A.D.) XXXVI. CHAPTER THE AUGUSTAN AGE XXXVII. CHAPTER THE JULIAN AND CLAUDIAN EMPERORS XXXVIII. CHAPTER THE FLAVIAN EMPERORS XXXIX. CHAPTER XL. THE FIVE GOOD EMPERORS CHAPTER XLI. PERIOD OF MILITARY DESPOTISM.—DECLINE OF THE EMPIRE CHAPTER XLII. INVASIONS AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE BARBARIANS CHAPTER XLIII. ROMAN LITERATURE CHAPTER XLIV. ROMAN ROADS.—PROVINCES CHAPTER XLV. CHAPTER XLVI. HOUSES, CUSTOMS, INSTITUTIONS, ETC CHAPTER XLVII. PUBLIC BUILDINGS, SQUARES, ETC CHAPTER XLVIII. COLONIES.—THE CALENDAR.—RELIGION CHAPTER XLIX. THE ROMAN ARMY IN CAESAR'S TIME CHAPTER L. LEGENDARY ROME CHRONOLOGY . SPECIMEN EXAMINATION PAPERS. YALE COLLEGE. UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK. INDEX. PREFACE. This compilation is designed to be a companion to the author's History of Greece. It is hoped that it may fill a want, now felt in many high schools and academies, of a short and clear statement of the rise and fall of Rome, with a biography of her chief men, and an outline of her institutions, manners, and religion. For this new edition the book has been entirely rewritten, additional matter having been introduced whenever it has been found necessary to meet recent requirements. The penults of proper names have been marked when long, both in the text and Index. The Examination Papers given are introduced to indicate the present range of requirement in leading colleges. The maps and plans have been specially drawn and engraved for this book. The design has been to make them as clear and open as possible; consequently, names and places not mentioned in the text have, as a rule, been omitted. ROBERT F. PENNELL. RIVERSIDE, CALIFORNIA, July. 1890. (Illustration: GAIUS IULIUS CAESAR.) ANCIENT ROME. CHAPTER I. GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY. Italy is a long, narrow peninsula in the southern part of Europe, between the 38th and 46th parallels of north latitude. It is 720 miles long from the Alps to its southern extremity, and 330 miles broad in its widest part, i.e. from the Little St. Bernard to the hills north of Trieste. It has an area of nearly 110,000 square miles, about that of the State of Nevada. The Alps separate Italy on the north and northwest from the rest of Europe. The pass over these mountains which presents the least difficulties is through the Julian Alps on the east. It was over this pass that the Barbarians swept down in their invasions of the country. The Apennines, which are a continuation of the Alps, extend through the whole of the peninsula. Starting in the Maritime Alps, they extend easterly towards the Adriatic coast, and turn southeasterly hugging the coast through its whole extent. This conformation of the country causes the rivers of any size below the basin of the Po to flow into the Tyrrhenian (Tuscan) Sea, rather than into the Adriatic. Northern Italy, between the Alps and the Apennines, is drained by the Padus (Po) and its tributaries. It was called GALLIA CISALPÍNA (Gaul this side of the Alps), and corresponds in general to modern Lombardy. The little river Athesis, north of the Padus, flows into the Adriatic. Of the tributaries of the Padus, the Ticínus on the north, and the Trebia on the south, are of historical interest. The portion of Northern Italy bordering on the Mediterranean is a mountainous district, and was called LIGURIA. In this district on the coast were Genua and Nicaea. The district north of the Athesis, between the Alps and the Adriatic, was called VENETIA, from which comes the name Venice. Here were located Patavium (Padua), Aquileia, and Forum Julii. Gallia Cisalpína contained many flourishing towns. North of the Padus were Veróna, Mediolánum (Milan), Cremóna, Mantua, Andes, and Vercellae, a noted battle-field. South of this river were Augusta Taurinórum (Turin), Placentia, Parma, Mutina, and Ravenna. The Rubicon, a little stream flowing into the Adriatic, bounded Gallia Cisalpína on the southeast. The Mucra, another little stream, was the southern boundary on the other side of Italy. CENTRAL ITALY Italia Propria, or Italy Proper, included all of the peninsula below these rivers , as far down as Apulia and Lucania. In this division are the rivers Tiber, Arnus, Liris, and Volturnus, which empty into the Mediterranean, and the Metaurus, Aesis, and Aternus, which empty into the Adriatic. The most important subdivision of Central Italy was LATIUM, bordering on the Tyrrhenian Sea. North of it on the same