Asparagus, its culture for home use and for market: - a practical treatise on the planting, cultivation, - harvesting, marketing, and preserving of asparagus, with - notes on its history
54 Pages
English

Asparagus, its culture for home use and for market: - a practical treatise on the planting, cultivation, - harvesting, marketing, and preserving of asparagus, with - notes on its history

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Asparagus, its culture for home use and formarket:, by F. M. HexamerThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.netTitle: Asparagus, its culture for home use and for market:a practical treatise on the planting, cultivation,harvesting, marketing, and preserving of asparagus, withnotes on its historyAuthor: F. M. HexamerRelease Date: March 14, 2010 [EBook #31643]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ASPARAGUS, ITS CULTURE ***Produced by Tom Roch, Matt Whittaker and the OnlineDistributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (Thisfile was produced from images produced by Core HistoricalLiterature in Agriculture (CHLA), Cornell University)Transcriber's Note: Obvious typos were fixed and use of hyphens was normalizedthroughout, but all other spelling and punctuation was retained as it appeared in theoriginal text.ASPARAGUSITS CULTURE FOR HOME USE AND FOR MARKETA PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE PLANTING, CULTIVATION, HARVESTING, MARKETING, ANDPRESERVING OF ASPARAGUS, WITH NOTES ON ITS HISTORY AND BOTANYBYF. M. HEXAMERILLUSTRATEDNEW YORKORANGE JUDD COMPANY1914Printed in U. S. A.BEGINNING OF THE ASPARAGUS INDUSTRY IN CALIFORNIATABLE OF CONTENTSPAGEPreface viI. Historical Sketch 1II. Botany 4III. ...

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Published 01 December 2010
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Asparagus, its culture for home use and for market:, by F. M. Hexamer This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net
Title: Asparagus, its culture for home use and for market: a practical treatise on the planting, cultivation, harvesting, marketing, and preserving of asparagus, with notes on its history Author: F. M. Hexamer Release Date: March 14, 2010 [EBook #31643] Language: English
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ASPARAGUS, ITS CULTURE ***
Produced by Tom Roch, Matt Whittaker and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (This file was produced from images produced by Core Historical Literature in Agriculture (CHLA), Cornell University)
Transcriber's Note: Obvious typos were fixed and use of hyphens was normalized throughout, but all other spelling and punctuation was retained as it appeared in the original text.
ASPARAGUS ITS CULTURE FOR HOME USE AND FOR MARKET A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE PLANTING, CULTIVATION, HARVESTING, MARKETING, AND PRESERVING OF ASPARAGUS, WITH NOTES ON ITS HISTORY AND BOTANY BY
F. M. HEXAMER
ILLUSTRATED
NEW YORK
ORANGE JUDD COMPANY
1914
Printed in U. S. A.
BEGINNING OF THE ASPARAGUS INDUSTRY IN CALIFORNIA
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE Prefacevi I. Historical Sketch1 II. Botany4 III. Cultural Varieties17 IV. Seed Growing26 V. The Raising of Plants30 VI. Selection of Plants38 VII. The Soil and Its Preparation43 VIII. Planting49 IX. Cultivation61 X. Fertilizers and Fertilizing72 XI. Harvesting and Marketing83 XII. Forcing100 XIII. Preserving Asparagus112 XIV. Injurious Insects126 XV. Fungus Diseases137 XVI. Asparagus Culture in Different Localities145 Index167
sparagus NanusAlPmusosuaparug sinicAususagar LAirrapsrpS egnerago Tetvar.us, mesoR cagasupsraowCrusosntmearS sugarapsAsunULLIARTSNOITgeBSug sapartsyrnIudng oinnie Asf thsAliCan  iiarnfohcneR sestoorTla Pinntdyeaor f'n srTnegHduosot in PrcherRoof noitisoP repoosCrngriveCor T er nfotcoi-sesPlanter s Afnche Rn,tsooBu, , dsaepSSr,metaeL ves, Flowers, BerreisFolewsrtoetlmPaagarsp A-toPsulP nworGHoranttal izonolmpeDevfoR ne tpaAsp  Ungkiic Pdna gnittuCsugparaf Aset oBaskto slParugsAapand Sid esivEnugarnK sseapsA Ten Boxrier forroesC raarugsHt gnilevegdiR ehSpy rlEaLengri diRiFlei  ngddeAstinggus paraUtrefnilit dez Aedarspusaglo PeSsanoeFtrlizis After Cutting sSarugsAapna traguAspaern outh gnihcnuB eht tAGif  ooxBeblTa hht eoS mhTorguong IslailA LnuT lenrC setag ineaStr forcFoConoess Asver'ug saparehruBcnw ie Vdetehi WofgarapsA hcnuB suand Knives Used niN weE gnaldnatWs t'paAsgurauB sehcnRr kcaeetlus BAspaemmnooCragaA psleetBey otSpstA sugarb dekcatAsparagus Cannerfoa C lafiroin aarspusagie FsldynnaC yreA nipsraaiA ofnraCilf a ew or Vierio weiV evitcepsrePrynean CusagetirilizenyrSagus Cannd AsparmotnInizioR gStiler Tngkan sugleiFno duoB inldsl Idan
Frontispiece PAGE 5 7 9 11 12 14 14 15 21 37 51 57 58 59 60 67 69 75 77 85 86 87 89 90 91 92 93 94 97 98 107 113 115 117 119 121 123 127 129 131 134 138 139 161
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PREFACE T he cultivation of asparagus for home use as well as for market is so rapidly increasing, and reliable information pertaining to it is so frequently asked for, that a book on this subject is evidently needed. While all works on vegetable culture treat more or less extensively on its cultivation, so far there has been no book exclusively devoted to asparagus published in America. Asparagus is one of the earliest, most delicious, and surest products of the garden. Its position among other vegetables is unique, and when once planted it lasts a lifetime; it may be prepared for use in great variety, and may be canned or dried so as to be available at any time of the year; and yet in the great majority of farm gardens it is almost unknown. The principal reason for this neglect is based upon the erroneous idea that asparagus culture requires unusual skill, expense, and hard work. While this was true, in a measure, under old-time rules, modern methods have so simplified every detail connected with the cultivation of asparagus as to make it not necessarily more expensive and laborious than that of any other garden crop. To de scribe and make clear these improved methods, to demonstrate how easily and inexpensively an asparagus bed may be had in every garden, and how much pleasure, health, and profit may be derived from the crop have been the principal inducements to writing this book. In a popular treatise on so widely distributed a vegetable as asparagus, the cultivation of which had been brought to a high state of development many centuries before the Christian era, there is little opportunity for originality. All that the author has endeavored in this little volume has been to collect, arrange, classify, and systematize all obtainable facts, compare them with his own many years' experience in asparagus culture, and present his inferences in a plain and popular manner. Free use has been made of all available literature, especially helpful among which has been the Farmers' Bulletin No. 61 of the United States Department of Agriculture, by R. B. Handy; also bulletins of the Missouri, New York, Ohio, New Jersey, North Carolina, Maryland, Massachusetts, and South Carolina and other experiment stations; the files ofAmerican Agriculturist; Gardener's Chronicle, from which descriptions of several ornamental species by William Watson were condensed; Thome's "Flora von Deutschland;" "Eintraegliche Spargelzucht," von Franz Goeschke; "Braunschweiger Spargelbuch," von Dr. Ed. Brinckmeier; "Parks and Gardens of Paris," by William Robinson; "Asparagus Culture," by James Barnes and William Robinson; "Les Plantes Potageres," by Vilmorin-Andrieux; the works of Peter Henderson, Thomas Bridgeman, J. C. Loudon, and others. The author desires to express his grateful acknowledgments to Mr. Herbert Myrick, editor-in-chief ofAmerican Agriculturist allied publications, for critically reading the whole manuscript; to Prof. W. G. Johnson, Charles V. and Mapes, C. L. Allen, A. D. McNair, Superintendent Southern Pines Experimental Farm; Prof. W. F. Massey, Robert W. Nix, Robert Hickmott, Charles W. Prescott, Joel Borton, and all others who by their help, suggestions, and advice have aided him in the preparation of this work. F. M. Hexamer. NewYork, 1901.
ASPARAGUS
I HISTORICAL SKETCH T he word "asparagus" is said to be of Persian origin. In middle Latin it appears assparagus; Italian,sparajio; old French,esperaje; old English,sperage,sparage,sperach. The middle Latin form,sparagus, was in English changed intosparagrass,sparrow-grass, and sometimes simplygrass, terms which were until recently in good literary use. In modern French it isasperge; German,spargel; Dutch,aspergie; Spanish,esperrago. The original habitat of the edible asparagus is not positively known, as it is now found naturalized throughout Europe, as well as in nearly all parts of the civilized world. How long the plant was used as a vegetable or as a medicine is likewise uncertain, but that it was known and highly prized by the Romans at least two centuries before the Christian era is historically recorded. According to Pliny, the Romans were already aware of the difference in quality, that grown near Ravenna being considered best, and was so large that three spears weighed one pound. The elder Cato has treated the subject with still greater care. He advises the sowing of the seed of asparagus in the beds of vine-dressers' reeds, which are cultivated in Italy for the support of the vines, and that they should be burned in the spring of the third year, as the ashes would act as a manure to the future crop. He also recommends that the plants be renewed after eight or nine years. The usual method of preparing asparagus pursued by the Roman cooks was to select the finest sprouts and to dry them. When wanted for the table they were put in hot water and cooked a few minutes. To this practice is owing one of Emperor Augustus's favorite sayings: "Citius quam asparagi coquenturquicker than you can cook asparagus)." (Do it While the indigenous asparagus has been used from time immemorial as a medicine by Gauls, Germans, and Britons, its cultivation and use as a vegetable was only made known to the people by the invading Roman armies. But in the early part of the sixteenth century it was mentioned among the cultivated garden vegetables, and Leonard Meager, in his "English Gardener," published in 1683, informs us that in his time the London market was well supplied with "forced" asparagus. The medicinal virtues formerly attributed to asparagus comprise a wide range. The roots, sprouts, and seeds were used as medicine. The fresh roots are diuretic, perhaps owing to the immediate crystalizable principle, "asparagine," which is said to be sedative in the dose of a few grains. A syrup made of the young shoots and an extract of the roots has been recommended as a sedative in heart affections, and thespecies diuretica—a mixture of asparagus, celery, parsley, holly, and sweet fennel—was a favorite preparation for use in dropsy and gravel. Among the Greeks and Romans it was one of the oldest and most valued medicines, and to which most absurd virtues were attributed. It was believed that if a person anointed himself with a liniment made of asparagus and oil the bees would not approach or sting him. It was also believed that if the root be put on a tooth which aches violently it causes it to come out without pain. The therapeutic virtues of asparagus seem to have been held in almost as high esteem by the ancients as those of ginseng are esteemed by the Chinese to this day.
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II BOTANY T he genus Asparagus belongs to the Lily Family. It comprises about one hundred and fifty species, and these are spread through the temperate and tropical regions of the Old World. One-half of these species are indigenous to South Africa, and it is from this region that the most ornamental of the greenhouse species have been obtained. All the species are perennial, with generally fleshy roots or tubers. The stems are annual in some, perennial in others, most of them being spiny, climbing shrubs, growing to a length of from five to twenty or even fifty feet. The true leaves are usually changed into spines, which are situated at the base of the branches and are often stout and woody. The false leaves, termed cladodia, are the linear or hair-like organs which are popularly called leaves; they are in reality modified branches. These cladodia are nearly always arranged in clusters at intervals along the branches, and the flowers generally spring from their axils. They usually fall off the hardy species in winter, and they are easily affected by unfavorable conditions in all the species. Most of them flower and fruit freely under cultivation, so that seeds are available for propagation.
s,
ORNAMENTAL SPECIES
FIG. 2—ASPARAGUS PLUMOSUS NANUS
p,lietsrr faf rogrowc., , etlarsu ylsuorogiv gnitry arinrd oerndI str ooaemtne.t is a det system fo ebut esnssamenrmsuto.Arssa. ecarni s owt semngloh ncerowFl.  ,evithsarrgyrf es linch whiong,bolg,esolup  ,ypt.aner B rry, edcxleeltnc ilbmreone-seeded. An erethe inspp arsh a esab sti ta gThe ng. h lo inc fnasro raet-euq hen, ueaygrre-go er a fvaela se of an i-quarterel,do enofrua-gnmstein nfee loet ,gncirp ylkt ta a vigorous growre ,iwhtw ooyds g inchan ee,ovabnarb hcanivah hcase,he bn co faw,df oler yrberlesi tper  mroi fotK a uewsereedntci ana d sfoA rfe Cape fAsia; thni nwohs sa ,suniss hi T5.. ig F efon mat ehdnrerago tetiety var4 APSRAGASUL RAillar plant.FIG.na scxe ellep tnh utriAf. ca iIt ththguopoci ertspre is hrouad tsihT.suseiceps A.USINICosemac re seeded red, ones ,udllseg olob Be.rier, teitwhapmaalunlamsc ,lf Sots o pariousvnranoi oCmmre .etamdin  ichinn a fo htxis-eno ,