Byzantine Churches in Constantinople - Their History and Architecture
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Byzantine Churches in Constantinople - Their History and Architecture

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Byzantine Churches in Constantinople, by Alexander Van Millingen and Ramsay Traquair and W. S. George and A. E. HendersonThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.netTitle: Byzantine Churches in ConstantinopleTheir History and ArchitectureAuthor: Alexander Van MillingenRamsay TraquairW. S. GeorgeA. E. HendersonRelease Date: June 9, 2009 [EBook #29077]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK BYZANTINE CHURCHES, CONSTANTINOPLE ***Produced by Bryan Ness, Turgut Dincer and the OnlineDistributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (Thisfile was produced from images generously made availableby The Internet Archive/Million Book Project)Book cover.Cover.BYZANTINE CHURCHESIN CONSTANTINOPLEPrinters mark.MACMILLAN AND CO., LimitedLONDON · BOMBAY · CALCUTTAMELBOURNETHE MACMILLAN COMPANYNEW YORK · BOSTON · CHICAGODALLAS · SAN FRANCISCOTHE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, Ltd.TORONTOPLATE I.Mediaeval Map of Constantinople by Bondelmontius.Mediaeval Map of Constantinople by Bondelmontius.Frontispiece.NOTE ON THE MAP OF CONSTANTINOPLEFor the map forming the frontispiece and the following note I am greatly indebted to Mr. F. W. Hasluck, of the British School at Athens.The map is taken from the unpublished ...

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Byzantine Churches in Constantinople, by Alexander Van Millingen and Ramsay Traquair and W. S. George and A. E. Henderson
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net
Title: Byzantine Churches in Constantinople Their History and Architecture
Author: Alexander Van Millingen Ramsay Traquair W. S. George A. E. Henderson
Release Date: June 9, 2009 [EBook #29077]
Language: English
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK BYZANTINE CHURCHES, CONSTANTINOPLE ***
Produced by Bryan Ness, Turgut Dincer and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (This file was produced from images generously made available by The Internet Archive/Million Book Project)
Book cover.
BYZANTINE CHURCHES IN CONSTANTINOPLE
Printers mark.
MACMILLAN AND CO., Limited
LONDON · BOMBAY· CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY NEW YORK · BOSTON · CHICAGO DALLAS · SAN FRANCISCO
THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, Ltd. TORONTO
PLATE I.
Mediaeval Map of Constantinople by Bondelmontius.
Mediaeval Map of Constantinople by Bondelmontius.
Cover.
Frontispiece.
NOTE ON THE MAP OF CONSTANTINOPLE For the map forming the frontispiece and the following note I am greatly indebted to Mr. F. W. Hasluck, of the British School at Athens. The map is taken from the unpublishedInsularium Henrici Martelli Germani(B.M. Add. MSS.15,760) f. 40. Ashort note on the MS., which may be dated approximately 1490, is given in theAnnual of the British School at Athens, xii. 199. The map of Constantinople is a derivative of the Buondelmontius series, which dates from 1420, and forms the base of all known maps prior to the 1 Conquest. Buondelmontius' map of Constantinople has been published from several MSS., varying considerably in legend and other details: the best account of these publications is to be found in E. Oberhummer'sKonstantinopel unter Suleiman dem Grossen, pp. 18 ff. The map in B.M.Arundel, 93, has since been published inAnnual B.S.A.xii. pl. i. In the present map the legends are as follows. Those marked with a dagger do not occur on hitherto published maps. Reference is made below to the Paris MS. (best published by Oberhummer,loc. cit.), the Venetian (Mordtmann,Esquisse, p. 45, Sathas, Μνημεῖα, iii., frontispiece), and the Vatican (Mordtmann,loc. cit.p. 73). Tracie pars—Galatha olim nvnc Pera—Pera—S. Dominicus—Arcena—Introitus Euxini Maris. Asie minorus pars nvnc tvurchia.—Tvrchia.
Tracie pars—Porta Vlacherne—฀Ab hec (sic) porta Vlacherne usque ad portam Sancti Demetri 6 M.P. et centum et decem turres—฀Porta S. Iohannis 1 2 —Porta Chamici —Porta Crescu—Porta Crescea—฀Ab hec (sic) porta que dicitur Crescea usque ad portam Sancti Demetri septem M. passuum et 3 turres centum nonaginta octo. Et ad portam Vlacherne 5 M. passuum et turres nonaginta sex—Receptaculum Conticasii -Porta olim palacii Imperatoris 4 5 6 —Porta S. Dimitri—Iudee —Pistarie p. —Messi p.—Cheone p. —S. Andreas—S. Iohannes de Petra—Hic Constantinus genuflexus—฀Ad S. 7 Salvatorem—฀Columna Co(n)s?—Hic Iustinianus in equo —Sancta Sophia—Hippodromus—S. Demetrius—S. Georgius-S. Lazarus—Domus Pape— 8 9 Domus S. Constantini—Sanctorum Apostolorum—Porta antiquissima mire (sic) arte constructa —S. Marta —S. Andreas—S. Iohannes de Studio— Perleftos.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
S. Romani? Porta Camidi,Vat. Receptaculum fustarum dein Condoscalli,Par. Porta Judea,Par. Porta Piscarii,Par. Porta Lacherne,Par., delle Corne, Vat., del Chinigo (i.e. Κυνηγίου in the xvi. cent. Venetian maps. Theodosius in aequo eneo,Ven.In hoc visus imp. Teod. equo sedens,Vat. Porta antiquissima pulcra,Par. St. Mam (as?)Ven.Sts. Marcus,Vat.
BYZANTINE CHURCHES IN CONSTANTINOPLE
THEIR HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE
BY
ALEXANDER VAN MILLINGEN, M.A., D.D. PROFESSOR OF HISTORY, ROBERT COLLEGE, CONSTANTINOPLE AUTHOR OF 'BYZANTINE CONSTANTINOPLE,' 'CONSTANTINOPLE'
ASSISTED BY
RAMSAY TRAQUAIR, A.R.I.B.A. LECTURER ON ARCHITECTURE, COLLEGE OF ART, EDINBURGH
W. S. GEORGE, A.R.C.A., AND A. E. HENDERSON, F.S.A.
WITH MAPS, PLANS, AND ILLUSTRATIONS
MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON 1912
PREFACE
F. W. H.
This volume is a sequel to the work I published, several years ago, under the title,Byzantine Constantinople: the Walls of the City, and adjoining Historical Sites. In that work the city was viewed, mainly, as the citadel of the Roman Empire in the East, and the bulwark of civilization for more than a thousand years. But the city of Constantine was not only a mighty fortress. It was, moreover, the centre of a great religious community, which elaborated dogmas, fostered forms of piety, and controlled an ecclesiastical administration that have left a profound impression upon the thought and life of mankind. New Rome was a Holy City. It was crowded with churches, hallowed, it was believed, by the remains of the apostles, prophets, saints, and martyrs of the Catholic Church; shrines at which men gathered to worship, from near and far, as before the gates of heaven. These sanctuaries were, furthermore, constructed and beautified after a fashion which marks a distinct and important period in the history of art, and have much to interest the artist and the architect. We have, consequently, reasons enough to justify our study of the churches of Byzantine Constantinople.
Of the immense number of the churches which once filled the city but a small remnant survives. Earthquakes, fires, pillage, neglect, not to speak of the facility with which a Byzantine structure could be shorn of its glory, have swept the vast majority off the face of the earth, leaving not a rack behind. In most cases even the sites on which they stood cannot
be identified. The places which knew them know them no more. Scarcely a score of the old churches of the city are left to us, all with one exception converted into mosques and sadly altered. The visitor must, therefore, be prepared for disappointment. Age is not always a crown of glory; nor does change of ownership and adaptation to different ideas and tastes necessarily conduce to improvement. We are not looking at flowers in their native clime or in full bloom, but at flowers in a herbarium so to speak, or left to wither and decay. As we look upon them we have need of imagination to see in faded colours the graceful forms and brilliant hues which charmed and delighted the eyes of men in other days.
In the preparation of this work I have availed myself of the aid afforded by previous students in the same field of research, and I have gratefully acknowledged my debt to them whenever there has been occasion to do so. At the same time this is a fresh study of the subject, and has been made with the hope of confirming what is true, correcting mistakes, and gathering additional information. Attention has been given to both the history and the architecture of these buildings. The materials for the former are, unfortunately, all too scanty. No continuous records of any of these churches exist. A few incidents scattered over wide tracts of time constitute all that can be known. Still, disconnected incidents though they be, they give us glimpses of the characteristic thoughts and feelings of a large mass of our humanity during a long period of history.
The student of the architecture of these churches likewise labours under serious disadvantages. Turkish colour-wash frequently conceals what is necessary for a complete survey; while access to the higher parts of a building by means of scaffolding or ladders is often impossible under present circumstances. Hence the architect cannot always speak positively, and must leave many an interesting point in suspense. Care has been taken to distinguish the original parts of a building from alterations made in Byzantine days or since the Turkish conquest; while, by the prominence given to the variety of type which the churches present, the life and movement observable in Byzantine ecclesiastical art has been made clear, and the common idea that it was a stereotyped art has been proved to be without foundation. Numerous references to the church of S. Sophia occur in the course of this volume, but the reader will not find that great monument of Byzantine architectural genius dealt with in the studies here offered. The obstacles in the way of a proper treatment of that subject proved insuperable, while the writings of Salzenberg, Lethaby, and Swainson, and especially the splendid and exhaustive monograph of my friend Mr. E. M. Antoniadi, seemed to make any attempt of mine in the same direction superfluous if not presumptuous. The omission will, however, secure one advantage: the churches actually studied will not be overshadowed by the grandeur of the 'Great Church,' but will stand clear before the view in all the light that beats upon them. I recall gratefully my obligations to the Sultan's Government and to the late Sir Nicholas O'Conor, British Ambassador at Constantinople, for permission to make a scientific examination of the churches of the city. To the present British Ambassador, Sir Gerard Lowther, best thanks are due for the facilities enjoyed in the study of the church of S. Irene. I have been exceedingly fortunate in the architects who have given me the benefit of their professional knowledge and skill in the execution of my task, and I beg that their share in this work should be recognized and appreciated as fully as it deserves. To the generosity of the British School at Athens I am indebted for being able to secure the services of Mr. Ramsay Traquair, Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects and Lecturer on Architecture at the College of Art in Edinburgh. Mr. Traquair spent three months in Constantinople for the express purpose of collecting the materials for the plans, illustrations, and notes he has contributed to this work. The chapter on Byzantine Architecture is entirely from his pen. He has also described the architectural features of most of the churches; but I have occasionally introduced information from other sources, or given my own personal observations. I am likewise under deep obligation to Mr. A. E. Henderson, F.S.A., for the generous kindness with which he has allowed me to reproduce his masterly plans of the churches of SS. Sergius and Bacchus, S. Mary Panachrantos, and many of his photographs and drawings of other churches in the city. I am, moreover, indebted to the Byzantine Research and Publication Fund for courteous permission to present here some of the results of the splendid work done by Mr. W. S. George, F.S.A., under unique circumstances, in the study of the church of S. Irene, and I thank Mr. George personally for the cordial readiness with which he consented to allow me even to anticipate his own monograph on that very interesting fabric. It is impossible to thank Professor Baldwin Brown, of the University of Edinburgh, enough, for his unfailing kindness whenever I consulted him in connection with my work. Nor do I forget how much I owe to J. Meade Falkner, Esq., for kindly undertaking the irksome task of revising the proofs of the book while going through the press. I cannot close without calling attention to the brighter day which has dawned on the students of the antiquities of Constantinople since constitutional government has been introduced in the Ottoman Empire. Permission to carry on excavations in the city has been promised me. The archaeology of New Rome only waits for wealthy patrons to enable it to reach a position similar to that occupied by archaeological research in other centres of ancient and mediaeval civilizations. But the monuments of the olden time are perishable. Of the churches described by Paspates in his Byzantine Studies, published in 1877, nine have either entirely disappeared or lost more of their original features. It was no part of wisdom to let the books of the cunning Sibyl become rarer and knowledge poorer by neglecting to secure all that was obtainable when she made her first or even her second offer. ALEXANDER VAN MILLINGEN.  Robert College, Constantinople.
CHAPTER V
CHAPTER I
CONTENTS
CHAPTER IV
CHAPTER III
CHAPTER VIII
CHAPTER XI
CHAPTER IX
CHAPTER XIV
CHAPTER XII
CHAPTER XV
Church of S. Theodore
Church of S. Saviour Pantepoptes
Church of S. Saviour Pantokrator
Church of S. John the Baptist in Trullo
Church of S. Thekla
Church of SS. Peter and Mark
Church of S. Andrew in Krisei
Church of S. Mary Panachrantos
Church of S. Mary Panachrantos
Church of S. John the Baptist of the Studion
CHAPTER X
Church of S. Mary Diaconissa
Church of S. Irene
Church of S. Theodosia
Byzantine Architecture
Church of SS. Sergius and Bacchus
Πόλις ἐκκλησιῶν γαλουχέ, πίστεως ἀρχηγέ, ὀρθοδοξίας ποδηγέ
Monastery of Manuel
Monastery of Manuel
Church of the Myrelaion
CHAPTER VII
CHAPTER VI
CHAPTER XIII
1
62
122
106
35
84
138
CHAPTER XVIII
CHAPTER XIX
CHAPTER II
262
253
243
219
212
207
201
196
191
183
164
Page
Nicetas Choniates.
CHAPTER XVI
CHAPTER XVII
Balaban Aga Mesjedi
Balaban Aga Mesjedi
Church of the Gastria
Church of S. Mary of the Mongols
Bogdan Serai
Church of S. Saviour in the Chora
Mosaics and Frescoes in the Church of S. Saviour in the Chora
Dating and Classification of the Churches
BIBLIOGRAPHY
LIST OF EMPERORS
INDEX
CHAPTER XIX
CHAPTER XX
CHAPTER XXI
CHAPTER XXII
CHAPTER XXIII
CHAPTER XXIV
CHAPTER XXV
PLANS AND ILLUSTRATIONS
FIG. Ka1s.r Ibn Wardan De2r.é Aghsy De3r.é Aghsy (Section) S.4N.icholas, Myra Ch5u.rch of the Koimesis, Nicaea Ch6u.rch of the Koimesis, Nicaea (Section) Ma7p. of Byzantine Constantinople Th8e. Saucer Dome or Dome-Vault Th9e. Dome on Pendentives T1h0e. Drum Dome D1i1a.gramofVaultinginOuterNarthexofS.SaviourintheChora.
Church of S. John the Baptist of the Studion
P1la2.noftheChurch L1o3n.g Section C1r4o.ss Section, looking east C1r5o.ss Section, looking west El1e6v.ationoftheNarthex L1o7n.gitudinal Section of western portion of the Nave—Half-cross Section of the Nave D1e8t.ailsoftheNarthex,Colonnade,Doors,Windows D1e9t.ailsofDoors;DetailsfromChurchofS.Theodore;DetailsfromS.SaviourintheChora
Church of SS. Sergius and Bacchus
In2s0.criptionontheFriezeintheChurch E2xt1e.riorViewoftheDome B2ri2c.kStampsintheChurch G2r3o.und Plan (looking up) G2y4n.aeceum Plan (looking up) Pl2a5n. at base of Dome (Cross Section) T2ra6n. sverse Section S2e7c.tion through South Aisle C2o8n.structive Section of the Interior Arrangement, showing Gynaeceum Floor, Vaulting, Roof, and Springing of Dome C2o9n.structive Section of the Rear, with Gynaeceum, Floor, and Roof removed
265
265
268
272
280
288
321
332
337
341
343
Page 4 6 6 7 8 9 facing15 16 16 17 22
56 57 58 58 59 59 60 61
74 77 79 80 80 81 81 81 82 82
S3e0c.tions of Mouldings
G3r1o.und Plan of the Atrium and Church G3a2l.leryPlan L3o3n.gitudinal Section S3o4u.th Elevation W3e5s. t Elevation
Pl3a6.noftheChurch(restored) P3la7n.oftheChurch 3398. ,Longitudinal Sections Is4o0.metricalSection(restored)
Church of S. Irene
Church of S. Andrew in Krisei
Church of S. Mary Panachrantos
D4e1t.ailsoftheShaftsinEastWindowsofSouthChurch In4s2c.ription on Apse of North Church Pl4a3.noftheChurch(conjectural) Pl4a4n. of the Church S4e5c.tion through the North Church S4e6c.tion through the South Church
Church of S. Mary Pammakaristos
P4la7.noftheChurch(conjectural) B4ri8c.kDetailsfromtheParecclesion In4s9.cribedString-courseonApseoftheParecclesion P5la0.noftheChurchPlanoftheParecclesionPlanoftheGynaeceumintheParecclesion C5r1o.ss Section of the Church, looking east T5h2e. Parecclesion, east end of south side S5e3c.tions in the Parecclesion—Plan of Dome in the Gynaeceum
Church of S. Theodosia
In5t4e.rior of the Church, looking west D5e5t.ailsfromtheChurchDetailsfromChurchofS.TheodoreCapitalandShaftfoundnearUnkapanGate G5r6o.und Plan Pl5a7n. of the Gynaeceum S5e8c.tion in the Gynaeceum L5o9n.gitudinal Section of the Church Is6o0.metricalSection,showingscheme
P6la1n.oftheChurch L6o2n.gitudinal Section
Church of S. Mary Diaconissa
Church of Ss. Peter and Mark
F6o3n.t in the street to the west of the Church—AWindow in S. Saviour in the Chora P6la4n.oftheChurch L6o5n.gitudinal Section
Pl6a6.noftheChurch
Church of the Myrelaion
L6o7n.gitudinal Section Church of S. John the Baptist in Trullo D6e8t.ailsfromtheChurchDetailsfromthePammakaristosDetailsfromthePantepoptes D6e9t.ailsfromS.AndrewinKriseiDetailsfromtheChora P7la0n.ofS.JohninTrulloLongitudinalSectionPlanoftheDome
Pl7a1.noftheChurchCrossSection
Church of S. Thekla
Church of S. Saviour Pantepoptes
83
facing104 "104 "104 "104 105
118 119 120 121
124 131 135 136 137 137
152 154 157 facing160 161 162 163
171 174 179 180 181 181 182
189 190
194 195 195
200 200
203 204 206
206
S7k2e.tches from the Church P7la3n.oftheChurchLongitudinalSection D7e4t.ailsfromtheChurch
Church of S. Saviour Pantokrator
D7e5t.ailsfromtheChurchDetailsfromS.SaviourPantepoptes In7l6a.id Marble Pavement in the Pantokrator—Tile Pavement in the Gallery of S. Theodosia Pl7a7n. of the Pantokrator L7o8n.gitudinal Section through the North Church L7o9n.gitudinal Section through through the Central Church L8o0n.gitudinal Section through through the South Church
Church of S. Theodore
D8e1t.ailsfromtheChurch Pl8a2.noftheChurchbyTexier P8a3rt.ofSouthElevationshowingtheSideChapelbyTexier P8la4.noftheChurch L8o5n.gitudinal Section F8ro6n. t Elevation—Half-Plan of Central Dome in the Narthex S8o7u.th Elevation and Section through Vaulted Bay of Narthex—Half-Plan of Central Dome
P8la8.noftheRefectory
Pl8a9n. of the Church—Cross Section
Pl9a0n. of the Building S9e1c.tion
Pl9a2n. of the Church
E9xt3e.riorView In9t4e.rior View T9h5e. Dome (Interior View) Pl9a6n. of Church Pl9a7n. of S. Nicholas Methana
Monastery of Manuel
Monastir Mesjedi
Balaban Mesjedi
Church of the Gastria
Church of S. Mary of the Mongols
Bogdan Serai
P9la8n.ofUpperChapelHalf-SectionofApseHalf-SectionofEastEndLongitudinalSection
Church of S. Saviour in the Chora
D9e9t.ailsfromtheChurch 1D0e0t.ailsofaWindowintheGallery 1P0la1n.ofS.Sophia,Salonica 1Pl0a2n. of the Chora (restored) 1B0a3y.in the Chora (restored) 1Pl0a4.nofChurchoftheArchangels,Sygé 1P0la5.noftheChoraandtheParecclesion 1C0r6o.ss Section, looking west 1Pl0a7n. of Upper Gallery 1S0e8c.tion through Church 1S0e9c.tion through Chapel 1P1la0.nofDome 1S1e1c.tion through Inner Narthex 1Pl1a2.nofGallerybetweentheChurchandtheParecclesion 1S1e3c.tion of North Gallery 1P1la4.noftheNarthexes,indicatingthepositionsoftheirMosaics 1M1o5d.el of the Church in the Mosaic over Main Door in the Inner Narthex 1P1la6.noftheParecclesion,indicatingpositionsofitsFrescoes
213 217 218
225 234 facing240 241 241 242
245 249 249 251 251 252 252
261
261
267 267
267
273 274 276 279 279
287
305 309 313 314 315 316 317 318 318 319 319 320 320 320 320 321 326 328