Camp-Fire and Cotton-Field - Southern Adventure in Time of War. Life with the Union Armies, and - Residence on a Louisiana Plantation
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Camp-Fire and Cotton-Field - Southern Adventure in Time of War. Life with the Union Armies, and - Residence on a Louisiana Plantation

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Camp-Fire and Cotton-Field, by Thomas W. Knox This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: Camp-Fire and Cotton-Field Southern Adventure in Time of War. Life with the Union Armies, and Residence on a Louisiana Plantation Author: Thomas W. Knox Release Date: April 17, 2004 [EBook #12068] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK CAMP-FIRE AND COTTON-FIELD *** Produced by Suzanne Shell, Michel Boto and PG Distributed Proofreaders CAMP-FIRE AND COTTON-FIELD: SOUTHERN ADVENTURE IN TIME OF WAR. LIFE WITH THE UNION ARMIES, AND RESIDENCE ON A LOUISIANA PLANTATION. BY THOMAS W. KNOX, HERALD CORRESPONDENT WITH ILLUSTRATIONS. TO THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE PRESS, WHO FOLLOWED THE FORTUNES OF THE NATIONAL ARMIES, AND RECORDED THE DEEDS OF VALOR THAT SECURED THE PERPETUITY OF THE REPUBLIC, THIS VOLUME IS SYMPATHETICALLY INSCRIBED. THE REBEL RAM ARKANSAS RUNNING THROUGH OUR FLEET. TO THE READER. A preface usually takes the form of an apology. The author of this volume has none to offer. The book owes its appearance to its discovery of a publisher.

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Camp-Fire and Cotton-Field, by Thomas W. Knox
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net
Title: Camp-Fire and Cotton-Field
Southern Adventure in Time of War. Life with the Union Armies, and
Residence on a Louisiana Plantation

Author: Thomas W. Knox
Release Date: April 17, 2004 [EBook #12068]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK CAMP-FIRE AND COTTON-FIELD ***
Produced by Suzanne Shell, Michel Boto and PG Distributed Proofreaders
CAMP-FIRE AND COTTON-FIELD:
SOUTHERN ADVENTURE
IN
TIME OF WAR.
LIFE WITH THE UNION ARMIES,
AND
RESIDENCE ON A LOUISIANA PLANTATION.
BY
THOMAS W. KNOX,
HERALD CORRESPONDENT
WITH ILLUSTRATIONS.TO
THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE PRESS,
WHO FOLLOWED THE
FORTUNES OF THE NATIONAL ARMIES,
AND RECORDED
THE DEEDS OF VALOR THAT SECURED THE PERPETUITY OF THE REPUBLIC,
THIS VOLUME
IS SYMPATHETICALLY INSCRIBED.
THE REBEL RAM ARKANSAS RUNNING THROUGH OUR FLEET.
TO THE READER.
A preface usually takes the form of an apology. The author of this volume has none to offer.
The book owes its appearance to its discovery of a publisher. It has been prepared from materials
gathered during the Campaigns herein recorded, and from the writer's personal recollections.
Whatever of merit or demerit it possesses remains for the reader to ascertain. His judgment will be
unprejudiced if he finds no word of promise on the prefatory page.
NEW YORK, September 15th, 1865.
ILLUSTRATIONS.
THE RAM Arkansas RUNNING THROUGH OUR FLEET ABOVE VICKSBURG
HAULING DOWN A REBEL FLAG AT HICKMAN, KENTUCKY
THE OPENING GUN AT BOONEVILLE
THE DEATH OF GENERAL LYON
GENERAL SIGEL'S TRANSPORTATION IN MISSOURI
SHELLING THE HILL AT PEA RIDGE
GENERAL NELSON'S DIVISION CROSSING THE TENNESSEE
RUNNING THE BATTERIES AT ISLAND NUMBER TEN
THE REBEL CHARGE AT CORINTH, MISSISSIPPI
ASSAULTING THE HILL AT CHICKASAW BAYOU
STRATEGY AGAINST GUERRILLASTHE STEAMER Von Phul RUNNING THE BATTERIES
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER I.
ANTE BELLUM.
At the Rocky Mountains.--Sentiment of the People.--Firing the Southern Heart.--A Midwinter Journey across the Plains.--An Editor's
Opinion.--Election in Missouri.--The North springing to Arms.--An amusing Arrest.--Off for the Field.--Final Instructions.--Niagara.--
Curiosities of Banking.--Arrival at the Seat of War.
CHAPTER II.
MISSOURI IN THE EARLY DAYS.
Apathy of the Border States.--The Missouri State Convention.--Sterling Price a Union Man.--Plan to take the State out of the Union.--Capture
of Camp Jackson.--Energy of General Lyon.--Union Men organized.--An Unfortunate Collision.--The Price-Harney Truce.--The Panic
among the Secessionists.--Their Hegira from St. Louis.--A Visit to the State Capital.--Under the Rebel Flag.--Searching for Contraband
Articles.--An Introduction to Rebel Dignitaries.--Governor Jackson.--Sterling Price.--Jeff. Thompson.--Activity at Cairo.--Kentucky
Neutrality.--The Rebels occupy Columbus.
CHAPTER III.
THE BEGINNING OF HOSTILITIES.
General Harney Relieved.--Price's Proclamation.--End of the Truce.--Conference between the Union and Rebel Leaders.--The First Act of
Hostility.--Destruction of Railway Bridges.--Promptness of General Lyon.--Capture of the State Capital.--Moving on the Enemy's Works.--
The Night before Battle.--A Correspondent's Sensation.
CHAPTER IV.
THE FIRST BATTLE IN MISSOURI.
Moving up the River.--A Landing Effected.--The Battle.--Precipitous Retreat of the Rebels.--Spoiling a Captured Camp.--Rebel Flags
Emblazoned with the State Arms.--A Journalist's Outfit.--A Chaplain of the Church Militant.--A Mistake that might have been
Unfortunate.--The People of Booneville.--Visiting an Official.--Banking-House Loyalty.--Preparations for a Campaign.
CHAPTER V.
TO SPRINGFIELD AND BEYOND.
Conduct of the St. Louis Secessionists.--Collisions between Soldiers and Citizens.--Indignation of the Guests of a Hotel.--From St. Louis to
Rolla.--Opinions of a "Regular."--Railway-life in Missouri.--Unprofitable Freight.--A Story of Orthography.--Mountains and Mountain
Streams.--Fastidiousness Checked.--Frontier Courtesy.--Concentration of Troops at Springfield.--A Perplexing Situation.--The March to
Dug Spring.--Sufferings from Heat and Thirst.
CHAPTER VI.
THE BATTLE OF WILSON CREEK.
The Return from Dug Spring.--The Rebels follow in Pursuit.--Preparations to Attack them.--The Plan of Battle.--Moving to the Attack--A
Bivouac--The Opening Shot.--"Is that Official?"--Sensations of a Spectator in Battle.--Extension of Distance and Time.--Characteristics of
Projectiles.--Taking Notes under Fire.--Strength and Losses of the Opposing Armies.--A Noble Record.--The Wounded on the Field.--
"One More Shot."--Granger in his Element.--General Lyon's Death.CHAPTER VII.
THE RETREAT FROM SPRINGFIELD.
A Council of War.--The Journalists' Council.--Preparations for Retreat.--Preceding the Advance-Guard.--Alarm and Anxiety of the People.--
Magnificent Distances.--A Novel Odometer.--The Unreliable Countryman.--Neutrality.--A Night at Lebanon.--A Disagreeable Lodging-
place.--Active Secessionists.--The Man who Sought and Found his Rights.--Approaching Civilization.--Rebel Couriers on the Route.--
Arrival at Rolla.
CHAPTER VIII.
GENERAL FREMONT'S PURSUIT OF PRICE.
Quarrel between Price and McCulloch.--The Rebels Advance upon Lexington.--A Novel Defense for Sharp-shooters.--Attempt to Re-enforce
the Garrison.--An Enterprising Journalist.--The Surrender.--Fremont's Advance.--Causes of Delay.--How the Journalists Killed Time.--
Late News.--A Contractor "Sold."--Sigel in Front.--A Motley Collection.--A Wearied Officer.--The Woman who had never seen a Black
Republican.--Love and Conversion.
CHAPTER IX.
THE SECOND CAMPAIGN TO SPRINGFIELD.
Detention at Warsaw.--A Bridge over the Osage.--The Body-Guard.--Manner of its Organization.--The Advance to Springfield.--Charge of
the Body-Guard.--A Corporal's Ruse.--Occupation of Springfield.--The Situation.--Wilson Creek Revisited.--Traces of the Battle.--
Rumored Movements of the Enemy.--Removal of General Fremont.--Danger of Attack.--A Night of Excitement.--The Return to St. Louis.-
-Curiosities of the Scouting Service.--An Arrest by Mistake.
CHAPTER X.
TWO MONTHS OF IDLENESS.
A Promise Fulfilled.--Capture of a Rebel Camp and Train.--Rebel Sympathizers in St. Louis.--General Halleck and his Policy.--Refugees
from Rebeldom.--Story of the Sufferings of a Union Family.--Chivalry in the Nineteenth Century.--The Army of the Southwest in Motion.-
-Gun-Boats and Transports.--Capture of Fort Henry.--The Effect in St. Louis.--Our Flag Advancing.
CHAPTER XI.
ANOTHER CAMPAIGN IN MISSOURI.
From St. Louis to Rolla.--A Limited Outfit.--Missouri Roads in Winter.--"Two Solitary Horsemen."--Restricted Accommodations in a
Slaveholder's House.--An Energetic Quartermaster.--General Sheridan before he became Famous.--"Bagging Price."--A Defect in the Bag.-
-Examining the Correspondence of a Rebel General.--What the Rebels left at their Departure.
CHAPTER XII.
THE FLIGHT AND THE PURSUIT.
From Springfield to Pea Ridge.--Mark Tapley in Missouri.--"The Arkansas Traveler."--Encountering the Rebel Army.--A Wonderful Spring.-
-The Cantonment at Cross Hollows.--Game Chickens.--Magruder vs. Breckinridge.--Rebel Generals in a Controversy.--Its Result.--An
Expedition to Huntsville.--Curiosities of Rebel Currency.--Important Information.--A Long and Weary March.--Disposition of Forces
before the Battle.--Changing Front.--What the Rebels lost by Ignorance.
CHAPTER XIII.
THE BATTLE OF PEA RIDGE.
The Rebels make their Attack.--Albert Pike and his Indians.--Scalping Wounded Men.--Death of General McCulloch.--The Fighting at
Elkhorn Tavern.--Close of a Gloomy Day.--An Unpleasant Night.--Vocal Sounds from a Mule's Throat.--Sleeping under Disadvantages.--
A Favorable Morning.--The Opposing Lines of Battle.--A Severe Cannonade.--The Forest on Fire.--Wounded Men in the Flames.--TheRebels in Retreat.--Movements of our Army.--A Journey to St. Louis.
CHAPTER XIV.
UP THE TENNESSEE AND AT PITTSBURG LANDING.
At St. Louis.--Progress of our Arms in the Great Valley.--Cairo.--Its Peculiarities and Attractions.--Its Commercial, Geographical, and
Sanitary Advantages.--Up the Tennessee.--Movements Preliminary to the Great Battle.--The Rebels and their Plans.--Postponement of the
Attack.--Disadvantages of our Position.--The Beginning of the Battle.--Results of the First Day.--Re-enforcements.--Disputes between
Officers of our two Armies.--Beauregard's Watering-place.
CHAPTER XV.
SHILOH AND THE SIEGE OF CORINTH.
The Error of the Rebels.--Story of a Surgeon.--Experience of a Rebel Regiment.--Injury to the Rebel Army.--The Effect in our own Lines.--
Daring of a Color-Bearer.--A Brave Soldier.--A Drummer-Boy's Experience.--Gallantry of an Artillery Surgeon.--A Regiment
Commanded by a Lieutenant.--Friend Meeting Friend and Brother Meeting Brother in the Opposing Lines.--The Scene of the Battle.--
Fearful Traces of Musketry-Fire.--The Wounded.--The Labor of the Sanitary Commission.--Humanity a Yankee Trick.--Besieging
Corinth.--A Cold-Water Battery.--Halleck and the Journalists.--Occupation of Corinth.
CHAPTER XVI.
CAPTURE OF FORT PILLOW AND BATTLE OF MEMPHIS.
The Siege of Fort Pillow.--General Pope.--His Reputation for Veracity.--Capture of the "Ten Thousand."--Naval Battle above Fort Pillow.--
The John H. Dickey.--Occupation of the Fort.--General Forrest.--Strength of the Fortifications.--Their Location.--Randolph, Tennessee.--
Memphis and her Last Ditch.--Opening of the Naval Combat.--Gallant Action of Colonel Ellet.--Fate of the Rebel Fleet.--The People
Viewing the Battle.--Their Conduct.
CHAPTER XVII.
IN MEMPHIS AND UNDER THE FLAG.
Jeff. Thompson and his Predictions.--A Cry of Indignation.--Memphis Humiliated.--The Journalists in the Battle.--The Surrender.--A Fine
Point of Law and Honor.--Going on Shore.--An Enraged Secessionist.--A Dangerous Enterprise.--Memphis and her Antecedents.--Her
Loyalty.--An Amusing Incident.--How the Natives learned of the Capture of Fort Donelson.--The Last Ditch.--A Farmer-Abolitionist.--
Disloyalty among the Women.--"Blessings in Disguise."--An American Mark Tapley.
CHAPTER XVIII.
SUPERVISING A REBEL JOURNAL.
The Press of Memphis.--Flight of The Appeal.--A False Prediction.--The Argus becomes Loyal.--Order from General Wallace.--Installed in
Office.--Lecturing the Rebels.--"Trade follows the Flag."--Abuses of Traffic.--Supplying the Rebels.--A Perilous Adventure.--Passing the
Rebel Lines.--Eluding Watchful Eyes.
CHAPTER XIX.
THE FIRST SIEGE OF VICKSBURG.
From Memphis to Vicksburg.--Running the Batteries.--Our Inability to take Vicksburg by Assault.--Digging a Canal.--A Conversation with
Resident Secessionists.--Their Arguments pro and con, and the Answers they Received.--A Curiosity of Legislation.--An Expedition up
the Yazoo.--Destruction of the Rebel Fleet.--The Arkansas Running the Gauntlet.--A Spirited Encounter.--A Gallant Attempt.--Raising the
Siege.--Fate of the Arkansas.
CHAPTER XX.
THE MARCH THROUGH ARKANSAS.--THE SIEGE OF CINCINNATI.General Curtis's Army reaching Helena.--Its Wanderings.--The Arkansas Navy.--Troops and their Supplies "miss Connection."--Rebel
Reports.--Memphis in Midsummer.--"A Journey due North."--Chicago.--Bragg's Advance into Kentucky.--Kirby Smith in Front of
Cincinnati.--The City under Martial Law.--The Squirrel Hunters.--War Correspondents in Comfortable Quarters.--Improvising an Army.--
Raising the Siege.--Bragg's Retreat.
CHAPTER XXI.
THE BATTLE OF CORINTH.
New Plans of the Rebels.--Their Design to Capture Corinth.--Advancing to the Attack.--Strong Defenses.--A Magnificent Charge.--Valor vs.
Breast-Works.--The Repulse.--Retreat and Pursuit.--The National Arms Triumphant.
CHAPTER XXII.
THE CAMPAIGN FROM CORINTH.
Changes of Commanders.--Preparations for the Aggressive.--Marching from Corinth.--Talking with the People.--"You-uns and We-uns."--
Conservatism of a "Regular."--Loyalty and Disloyalty.--Condition of the Rebel Army.--Foraging.--German Theology for American
Soldiers.--A Modest Landlord.--A Boy without a Name.--The Freedmen's Bureau.--Employing Negroes.--Holly Springs and its People.--
An Argument for Secession.
CHAPTER XXIII.
GRANT'S OCCUPATION OF MISSISSIPPI.
The Slavery Question.--A Generous Offer.--A Journalist's Modesty.--Hopes of the Mississippians at the Beginning of the War.--Visiting an
Editress.--Literature under Difficulties.--Jacob Thompson and his Correspondence.--Plans for the Capture of Vicksburg.--Movements of
General Sherman.--The Raid upon Holly Springs.--Forewarned, but not Forearmed.--A Gallant Fight.
CHAPTER XXIV.
THE BATTLE OF CHICKASAW BAYOU.
Leaving Memphis.--Down the Great River.--Landing in the Yazoo.--Description of the Ground.--A Night in Bivouac.--Plan of Attack.--
Moving toward the Hills.--Assaulting the Bluff.--Our Repulse.--New Plans.--Withdrawal from the Yazoo.
CHAPTER XXV.
BEFORE VICKSBURG.
Capture of Arkansas Post.--The Army returns to Milliken's Bend.--General Sherman and the Journalists.--Arrest of the Author.--His Trial
before a Military Court.--Letter from President Lincoln.--Capture of Three Journalists.
CHAPTER XXVI.
KANSAS IN WAR-TIME.
A Visit to Kansas.--Recollections of Border Feuds.--Peculiarities of Kansas Soldiers.--Foraging as a Fine Art.--Kansas and Missouri.--
Settling Old Scores.--Depopulating the Border Counties.--Two Examples of Grand Strategy.--Capture of the "Little-More-Grape" Battery.-
-A Woman in Sorrow.--Frontier Justice.--Trial before a "Lynch" Court.--General Blunt's Order.--Execution of Horse-Thieves.--Auction
Sale of Confiscated Property.--Banished to Dixie.
CHAPTER XXVII.
GETTYSBURG.
A Hasty Departure.--At Harrisburg.--En route for the Army of the Potomac.--The Battle-Field at Gettysburg.--Appearance of the Cemetery.--Importance of the Position.--The Configuration of Ground.--Traces of Battle.--Round Hill.--General Meade's Head-Quarters.--Appearance
of the Dead.--Through the Forests along the Line.--Retreat and Pursuit of Lee.
CHAPTER XXVIII.
IN THE NORTHWEST.
From Chicago to Minnesota.--Curiosities of Low-Water Navigation.--St. Paul and its Sufferings in Earlier Days.--The Indian War.--A Brief
History of our Troubles in that Region.--General Pope's Expeditions to Chastise the Red Man.--Honesty in the Indian Department.--The
End of the Warfare.--The Pacific Railway.--A Bold Undertaking.--Penetrating British Territory.--The Hudson Bay Company.--Peculiarities
of a Trapper's Life.
CHAPTER XXIX.
INAUGURATION OF A GREAT ENTERPRISE.
Plans for Arming the Negroes along the Mississippi.--Opposition to the Movement.--Plantations Deserted by their Owners.--Gathering
Abandoned Cotton.--Rules and Regulations.--Speculation.--Widows and Orphans in Demand.--Arrival of Adjutant-General Thomas.--
Designs of the Government.
CHAPTER XXX.
COTTON-PLANTING IN 1863.
Leasing the Plantations.--Interference of the Rebels.--Raids.--Treatment of Prisoners.--The Attack upon Milliken's Bend.--A Novel Breast-
Work.--Murder of our Officers.--Profits of Cotton-Planting.--Dishonesty of Lessees.--Negroes Planting on their own Account.
CHAPTER XXXI.
AMONG THE OFFICIALS.
Reasons for Trying an Experiment.--Activity among Lessees.--Opinions of the Residents.--Rebel Hopes in 1863.--Removal of Negroes to
West Louisiana.--Visiting Natchez.--The City and its Business.--"The Rejected Addresses".
CHAPTER XXXII.
A JOURNEY OUTSIDE THE LINES.
Passing the Pickets.--Cold Weather in the South.--Effect of Climate upon the Constitution.--Surrounded and Captured.--Prevarication and
Explanation.--Among the Natives.--The Game for the Confederacy.--Courtesy of the Planters.--Condition of the Plantations.--The Return.
CHAPTER XXXIII.
ON THE PLANTATION.
Military Protection.--Promises.--Another Widow.--Securing a Plantation.--Its Locality and Appearance.--Gardening in Louisiana.--How
Cotton is Picked.--"The Tell-Tale."--A Southerner's Opinion of the Negro Character.--Causes and Consequences.
CHAPTER XXXIV.
RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE OLD AND NEW SYSTEMS.
The Plantation Record.--Its Uses.--Interesting Memoranda.--Dogs, Jail, and Stocks.--Instructions to the Overseer.--His Duties and
Responsibilities.--The Order of General Banks.--Management of Plantations in the Department of the Gulf.--The two Documents.
Contrasted.--One of the Effects of "an Abolition War".
CHAPTER XXXV.OUR FREE-LABOR ENTERPRISE IN PROGRESS.
The Negroes at Work.--Difficulties in the Way.--A Public Meeting.--A Speech.--A Negro's Idea of Freedom.--A Difficult Question to
Determine.--Influence of Northern and Southern Men Contrasted.--An Increase of Numbers.--"Ginning" Cotton.--In the Lint-Room.--Mills
and Machinery of a Plantation.--A Profitable Enterprise.
CHAPTER XXXVI.
WAR AND AGRICULTURE.
Official Favors.--Division of Labor.--Moral Suasion.--Corn-gathering in the South.--An Alarm.--A Frightened Irishman.--The Rebels
Approaching.--An Attack on Waterproof.--Falstaff Redivivus.--His Feats of Arms.--Departure for New Orleans.
CHAPTER XXXVII.
IN THE COTTON MARKET.
New Orleans and its Peculiarities.--Its Loss by the Rebellion.--Cotton Factors in New Orleans.--Old Things passed away.--The Northern
Barbarians a Race of Shopkeepers.--Pulsations of the Cotton Market.--A Quarrel with a Lady.--Contending for a Principle.--Inharmony of
the "Regulations."--An Account of Sales.
CHAPTER XXXVIII.
SOME FEATURES OF PLANTATION LIFE.
Mysteries of Mule-trading.--"What's in a Name?"--Process of Stocking a Plantation.--An Enterprising White Man.--Stratagem of a Yankee.--
Distributing Goods to the Negroes.--The Tastes of the African.--Ethiopian Eloquence.--A Colored Overseer.--Guerrillas Approaching.--
Whisky vs. Guerrillas.--A Hint to Military Men.
CHAPTER XXXIX.
VISITED BY GUERRILLAS.
News of the Raid.--Returning to the Plantation.--Examples of Negro Cunning.--A Sudden Departure and a Fortunate Escape.--A Second
Visit.--"Going Through," in Guerrilla Parlance.--How it is Accomplished.--Courtesy to Guests.--A Holiday Costume.--Lessees
Abandoning their Plantations.--Official Promises.
CHAPTER XL.
PECULIARITIES OF PLANTATION LABOR.
Resuming Operation.--Difficulties in the Way.--A New Method of Healing the Sick.--A Thief Discovered by his Ignorance of Arithmetic.--
How Cotton is Planted.--The Uses of Cotton-Seed.--A Novel Sleeping-Room.--Constructing a Tunnel.--Vigilance of a Negro Sentinel.
CHAPTER XLI.
THE NEGROES AT A MILITARY POST.
The Soldiers at Waterproof.--The Black Man in Blue.--Mutiny and Desertion.--Their Cause and Cure.--Tendering a Resignation.--No Desire
for a Barber.--Seeking Protection.--Falsehood and Truth.--Proneness to Exaggeration.--Amusing Estimates.
CHAPTER XLII.
THE END OF THE EXPERIMENT.
The Nature of our "Protection."--Trade Following the Flag.--A Fortunate Journey.--Our Last Visit.--Inhumanity of the Guerrillas.--Driving
Negroes into Captivity.--Killing an Overseer.--Our Final Departure.--Plantations Elsewhere.CHAPTER XLIII.
THE MISSISSIPPI AND ITS PECULIARITIES.
Length of the Great River, and the Area it Drains.--How Itasca Lake obtained its Name.--The Bends of the Mississippi.--Curious Effect upon
Titles to Real Estate.--A Story of Napoleon.--A Steamboat Thirty-five Years under Water.--The Current and its Variations.--Navigating
Cotton and Corn Fields.--Reminiscences of the Islands.
CHAPTER XLIV.
STEAMBOATING ON THE MISSISSIPPI IN PEACE AND WAR.
Attempts to Obstruct the Great River.--Chains, Booms, and Batteries.--A Novelty in Piloting.--Travel in the Days Before the Rebellion.--
Trials of Speed.--The Great Race.--Travel During the War.--Running a Rebel Battery on the Lower Mississippi.--Incidents of the
Occasion.--Comments on the Situation.
CHAPTER XLV.
THE ARMY CORRESPONDENT.
The Beginning and the End.--The Lake Erie Piracy.--A Rochester Story.--The First War Correspondent.--Napoleon's Policy.--Waterloo and
the Rothschilds.--Journalistic Enterprise in the Mexican War.--The Crimea and the East Indian Rebellion.--Experiences at the Beginning of
Hostilities.--The Tender Mercies of the Insurgents.--In the Field.--Adventures in Missouri and Kentucky.--Correspondents in Captivity.--
How Battle-Accounts were Written.--Professional Complaints.
CHAPTER XLVI.
THE PRESENT CONDITION OF THE SOUTH.
Scarcity of the Population.--Fertility of the Country.--Northern Men already in the South.--Kansas Emigrants Crossing Missouri.--Change of
the Situation.--Present Disadvantages of Emigration.--Feeling of the People.--Property-Holders in Richmond.--The Sentiment in North
Carolina.--South Carolina Chivalry.--The Effect of War.--Prospect of the Success of Free Labor.--Trade in the South.
CHAPTER XLVII.
HOW DISADVANTAGES MAY BE OVERCOME.
Conciliating the People of the South.--Railway Travel and its Improvement.--Rebuilding Steamboats.--Replacing Working Stock.--The
Condition of the Plantations.--Suggestions about Hasty Departures.--Obtaining Information.--The Attractions of Missouri.
CHAPTER XLVIII.
THE RESOURCES OF THE SOUTHERN STATES.
How the People have Lived.--An Agricultural Community.--Mineral and other Wealth of Virginia.--Slave-Breeding in Former Times.--The
Auriferous Region of North Carolina.--Agricultural Advantages.--Varieties of Soil in South Carolina.--Sea-Island Cotton.--Georgia and her
Railways.--Probable Decline of the Rice Culture.--The Everglade State.--The Lower Mississippi Valley.--The Red River.--Arkansas and its
Advantages.--A Hint for Tragedians.--Mining in Tennessee.--The Blue-Grass Region of Kentucky.--Texas and its Attractions.--Difference
between Southern and Western Emigration.--The End.
CHAPTER I.
ANTE BELLUM.At the Rocky Mountains.--Sentiment of the People.--Firing the Southern Heart.--A Midwinter Journey across the Plains.--An Editor's
Opinion.--Election in Missouri.--The North springing to Arms.--An amusing Arrest.--Off for the Field.--Final Instructions.--Niagara.--
Curiosities of Banking.--Arrival at the Seat of War.
I passed the summer and autumn of 1860 in the Rocky Mountain Gold Region. At that time the
population of the young Territory was composed of emigrants from Northern and Southern States, those
from the colder regions being in the majority. When the Presidential election took place, there was much
angry discussion of the great questions of the day, and there were threats of violence on the part of the
friends of the "institution." The residents of the Gold Region were unable to cast their votes for the men
of their choice, but their anxiety to know the result was very great.
When it was announced that the Republican candidate had triumphed, there were speedy signs of
discontent. Some of the more impulsive Southerners departed at once for their native States, predicting a
separation of Dixie from the North before the end of the year. Some went to New Mexico, and others to
Texas, while many remained to press their favorite theories upon their neighbors. The friends of the
Union were slow to believe that any serious difficulty would take place. Long after the secession of
South Carolina they were confident our differences could be healed without an appeal to arms.
My visit to the Rocky Mountains was a professional one. During my stay in that region I supplied
several Eastern journals with letters from Colorado and New Mexico. One after another, the editors of
these journals informed me that letters from the Territories had lost their interest, owing to the troubles
growing out of the election. Wishing to take part in the drama about to be enacted, I essayed a midwinter
journey across the plains, and, early in February, stood in the editorial room of The Herald.
I announced my readiness to proceed to any point between the Poles, wherever The Herald desired a
correspondent. The editor-in-chief was busy over a long letter from some point in the South, but his
response was promptly given. Half reading, half pausing over the letter, he briefly said:--
"A long and bloody war is upon us, in which the whole country will be engaged. We shall desire you to
take the field; probably in the West. It may be several weeks before we need you, but the war cannot be
long delayed."
At that time few persons in the North looked upon the situation with any fears of trouble. There were
some who thought a hostile collision was among the possibilities, but these persons were generally in the
minority. Many believed the secession movement was only the hasty work of political leaders, that
would be soon undone when the people of the South came to their senses.
That the South would deliberately plunge the country into civil war was difficult to comprehend, even
after the first steps had been taken. The majority of the Northern people were hoping and believing, day
by day, that something might transpire to quell the excitement and adjust the difficulties threatening to
disturb the country.
Before leaving the Rocky Mountains I did not believe that war was certain to ensue, though I considered
it quite probable. As I passed through Missouri, the only slave State that lay in my route, I found every
thing comparatively quiet. In St. Joseph, on the day of my arrival, the election for delegates to the State
Convention was being held. There was no disorder, more than is usual on election days in small cities.
Little knots of people were engaged in discussion, but the discussions partook of no extraordinary
bitterness. The vote of the city was decidedly in favor of keeping the State in the Union.
Between the 7th of December and the 12th of April, the Northern blood warmed slowly. The first gun at
Sumter quickened its pulsations. When the President issued his call for seventy-five thousand men for
three months, to put down insurrection, the North woke to action. Everywhere the response was prompt,
earnest, patriotic. In the Northern cities the recruiting offices were densely thronged. New York and
Massachusetts were first to send their favorite regiments to the front, but they were not long in the
advance. Had the call been for four times seventy-five thousand, and for a service of three years, there is
little doubt the people would have responded without hesitation.
For a short time after my arrival at the East, I remained in a small town in Southern New Hampshire. A
few days after the first call was issued, a friend invited me to a seat in his carriage for a ride to
Portsmouth, the sea-port of the State. On reaching the city we found the war spirit fully aroused. Two
companies of infantry were drilling in the public square, and the citizens were in a state of great