Chips from a German Workshop - Volume IV - Essays chiefly on the Science of Language
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Chips from a German Workshop - Volume IV - Essays chiefly on the Science of Language

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Project Gutenberg's Chips from a German Workshop - Volume IV, by Max Müller This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: Chips from a German Workshop - Volume IV Essays chiefly on the Science of Language Author: Max Müller Release Date: October 6, 2009 [EBook #30192] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK CHIPS--GERMAN WORKSHOP--V. IV *** Produced by Louise Hope, Geetu Melwani, Chuck Greif, moogsi and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (This file was produced from images generously made available by The Internet Archive/Canadian Libraries) This text uses characters that require UTF-8 (Unicode) file encoding, including accented Greek and a number of letters used in Sanskrit transliteration: œ† θεός, Ζεύς, ἐπίῤῥημα śŚ ṭḍṇṛḷṃḥṚ ấ î́ û́ ṛ́ āēīōū oe ligature, dagger Greek s with “acute” accent letters with under-dots letters with multiple diacritics, especially vowels with both acute and circumflex vowel with macron or “long” mark The book generally used circumflex accents to represent long vowels. Anomalies are individually noted. vowel with breve or “short” mark u with small o, used in one Middle High German passage e with cedilla, used in this e-text to represent an unavailable Old Norse letter ăĕĭŭĬ ů ȩ If any of these characters do not display properly, or if the apostrophes and quotation marks in this paragraph appear as garbage, you may have an incompatible browser or unavailable fonts. First, make sure that the browser’s “character set” or “file encoding” is set to Unicode (UTF-8). You may also need to change your browser’s default font. In the combined forms ấ ế û́ ṛ́ the acute accent may display after (to the right of) the main letter; this by itself is not a problem. The text also contains the single Hebrew word ‫ ,גּ ְר ֵיים‬and one brief passage uses Devanagari letters: (k) (c, the voiceless palatal) (j, the voiced palatal) (ś) These may be ignored if everything else displays as intended. All Greek words and word elements include mouse-hover transliterations. It is assumed that you and your computer can deal with single Greek letters. A few Sanskrit and Hebrew letters are similarly transliterated. These are extemely rare; the transliterations should appear even if your computer cannot display the characters themselves. The chapters numbered VI–IX in the Contents are called VII–X in the body text; there is no Chapter VI. Tags in the form A or text, referring to the “Notes” at the end of some chapters, were added by the transcriber. Contents Chapters I–IV (separate file) Chapters V–IX (separate file) Index Transcriber’s Notes CHIPS FROM A GERMAN WORKSHOP. VOL. IV. CHIPS FROM A GERMAN WORKSHOP. BY F. MAX MÜLLER, M.A., FOREIGN MEMBER OF THE FRENCH INSTITUTE, ETC. VOLUME IV. ESSAYS CHIEFLY ON THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE WITH INDEX TO VOLS III. AND IV. N E W CHARLES SCRIBNER’S SONS, 1881. [Published by arrangement with the Author. ] Y O R K RIVERSIDE, CAMBRIDGE: S T E R E O T Y P E D A H. O. HOUGHTON AND COMPANY. To ARTHUR PENRHYN STANLEY, D.D., DEAN OF WESTMINSTER, AS A TOKEN OF GRATITUDE AND FRIENDSHIP FROM ONE WHO HAS FOR MANY YEARS ADMIRED HIS LOYALTY TO TRUTH, HIS SINGLENESS OF PURPOSE, HIS CHIVALROUS COURAGE, AND HIS UNCHANGING DEVOTION TO HIS FRIENDS. CONTENTS OF FOURTH VOLUME. vii The articles are distributed among two files, for chapters I–IV and V–IX (called V, VII–X in the body text). The Index is in this main file. PAGE I. INAUGURAL LECTURE, ON THE VALUE OF C OMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY AS A BRANCH OF ACADEMIC STUDY, DELIVERED BEFORE THE U NIVERSITY OF 1 43 45 47 63 111 139 181 188 OXFORD, 1868 A. ON THE FINAL D ENTAL OF THE PRONOMINAL STEM tad B. D ID FEMININE BASES IN â TAKE s IN THE N OMINATIVE SINGULAR? C. GRAMMATICAL FORMS IN SANSKRIT CORRESPONDING TO SO -CALLED INFINITIVES IN GREEK AND LATIN II. R EDE LECTURE, PART I. ON THE STRATIFICATION OF LANGUAGE, DELIVERED BEFORE THE U NIVERSITY OF C AMBRIDGE, 1868 R EDE LECTURE, PART II. ON C URTIUS’ C HRONOLOGY OF THE INDO -GERMANIC LANGUAGES, 1875 III. LECTURE ON THE MIGRATION OF FABLES, DELIVERED AT THE R OYAL INSTITUTION, JUNE 3, 1870 (C ONTEMPORARY R EVIEW, JULY, 1870) APPENDIX. ON PROFESSOR BENFEY’ S D ISCOVERY OF A SYRIAC TRANSLATION OF THE INDIAN FABLES N OTES IV. LECTURE ON THE R ESULTS OF THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE, D ELIVERED BEFORE U NIVERSITY OF STRASSBURG , MAY 23, 1872 (C ONTEMPORARY R EVIEW, JUNE, 1872) THE 199 227 230 A. θεός AND Deus B. THE VOCATIVE OF Dyaús AND Ζεύς C. ARYAN WORDS OCCURRING IN ZEND BUT NOT IN SANSKRIT V. LECTURE ON MISSIONS, DELIVERED IN WESTMINSTER ABBEY, D ECEMBER 3, 1873 A. PASSAGES SHEWING THE MISSIONARY SPIRIT OF BUDDHISM B. THE SCHISM IN THE BRAHMA-SAMÂJ C. EXTRACTS FROM KESHUB C HUNDER SEN’ S LECTURES D R. STANLEY’ S INTRODUCTORY SERMON (FORTNIGHTLY R EVIEW, JULY, 1874) VI. ADDRESS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF ORIENTAL STUDIES, DELIVERED AT THE INTERNATIONAL C ONGRESS OF ORIENTALISTS IN LONDON, 1874 N OTES VII. LIFE OF C OLEBROOKE, WITH EXTRACTS FROM HIS MANUSCRIPT N OTES ON C OMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY (EDINBURGH R EVIEW, OCTOBER, 1872) VIII. R EPLY TO MR. D ARWIN (C ONTEMPORARY R EVIEW, JANUARY, 1875) IX. IN SELF-DEFENSE INDEX TO VOLS. III. AND IV. ON 235 238 267 269 272 276 296 317 355 359 417 456 533 viii C HRISTIAN MISSIONS ON THE VITALITY OF BRAHMANISM , POSTSCRIPT TO THE LECTURE ON MISSIONS INDEX The Index of the published book covered Volumes III and IV. For this e-text it is given in two separate forms. The first contains only references to Volume IV; the second is complete as published. In addition, each separate file has an index for that file only. All links lead to the top of the page, except that references to footnotes (“note”) in Volume IV lead to the individual note. Because of the author’s transliteration system, many Sanskrit words in c ( j ( ) will be alphabetized as k and g. ) and Spelling and capitalization of verb roots from the Colebrooke appendix has been regularized. The original forms are noted like this or this, depending on whether the printed text is wrong or simply different. To use the complete index: Download the html version of Volume III (Project Gutenberg e-text 26572) and put it in the same directory (folder) as the files for Volume IV. Volume III is a single large file. Rename it chips_volIII.htm (one lowercase ell, three upper-case Eyes). In the combined Index, links to Volume III are underlined; this may be overridden by your personal browser settings. INDEX Volume IV only A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A Abdallah ibn Almokaffa, author of “Kalilah and Dimnah,” 151, 184. Abdorrhaman, 155. Ablative in as, as infinitive, 50. —— in d , 225. —— in toḥ, as infinitive, 55. Accusative in am, as infinitive, 50. —— in tum, as infinitive, 55. —— with the infinitive, 38. Ad-venire = l’avenir, 37. Adverb, the infinitive as an, 31. —— ἐπίῤῥημα, 30. Adverbs, previous to Aryan separation, 135. —— Aryan, 415. “Æsopus alter,” 161. Affixing languages, 85. ἀγγέλλω = ἀναγαρίω, 91. Agglutinative languages, 79, see Combining languages. Agni, god of fire, 47. Agricola, not agrum-cola, 133. Agriculture of Bengal, 369. Agriologists, 453. Ahanâ, same as Daphne, 148. Ahura-Mazda, name of, 430. Ak, the root, 28. Aksh-an, or ak-an, 26. Ak-sh-i, eye, 25. Alam, with infinitive, 48. Alexander’s conquest, brings Greek stories to India, 149. Alexandria ad Caucasum, Buddhist priests sent to, 244. Algebra with Arithmetic and Mensuration, from the Sanskrit of Brahmagupta and Bhâskara, 391. Ali, the son of Alshah Farési, 153. Alight, to, its etymology, 467. Alpha privativum, 213. Alphabet, origin of the Phenician, 450, 468. American, polysynthetic dialects, 70. An, a suffix, 33, 34. And, Aryan words for, 412. Andanemja, Gothic, to be accepted, 94. Ane, dative in, 34. 533b 534 Angenehm, agreeable, to be accepted, 94. Anglo-Saxon, chair of, 12, 13. —— MSS. collected, 12. —— grammar, by March, 447. Animals are automata, the hypothesis that, 448. —— their mind, terra incognita, 442. —— nearest to man, have very imperfect phonetic organs, 440. —— have sensuous images, but no words, 487. An-ti, those and he, 113. Antiquary, the, 335. “Anvári-Suhaili,” by Husain ben Ali, 159. Ἀπαρέμφατον (ῥῆμα), 30, 31. Arabian Algebra, likeness to Indian, 391. Arabic, difficulty of, 368. —— lectureship of, 11. —— lectureship of, not aided by Henry VIII., 12. —— lectureship of, supported by Archbishop Laud, 12. —— MSS. collected by Laud, 12. —— translation of fables, 154. Archæological survey of India, 346. Aristotle, 327. —— his knowledge of language, 64. Arnold, Matthew, 505. Arnyia dialects, 349. Aryan family, 16, 70, 71. Aryan language, seven periods of, 118. —— first period, 119. —— second period, 124. —— third period, 124. —— fourth period, 129. —— fifth period, 131. —— sixth period, 135. —— seventh period, 135. —— three strata only, 136, 137. —— inflectional, 80. —— no word for law in, 220. Aryan nations, Benfey’s protest against their Eastern origin, 212. —— religions, three historical, 240. —— skulls, 211. —— suffixes, 33. —— words for father, mother, brother, etc, 401. seq. —— words found in Zend, and not in Sanskrit, 235. Aryan and Semitic languages, common origin of, 96. Aryans, Southern division of, 212. As, root, to be, Aryan words for, 414. Ascoli, on gutturals, 61, 104. -ασι for -αντι, 112. Asiatic literature, catalogue raisonné of, 385. —— Researches, 370. —— Society of Calcutta, 14. —— Society of Calcutta, Colebrooke, President of, 385. Asita’s prophecy about Buddha, 171. Aspirates, the, 495. 534b 535 Ass, Aryan words for, 408. Asti, with infinitive, 48. Astori dialects of Shinâ, 349. Astrological terms borrowed by Hindus from Greeks, 367. Astronomical Society, Colebrooke, President of, 391. Astronomy, antiquity of Hindu, 387. Aśvais = equis, 84. Aśvebhis = equobus, 84. Attic future, 94 note. Augâ, O.H.G., 26. αὐγή, Auge, 25. Augment, in Greek and Sanskrit, 114. Avadhûta, sect of the, 257. Avenir, the future, ad-venire, 38. Avesta, two or three bulky volumes on the, 515. Avranches, Bishop of, on Barlaam and Josaphat, 178. Ayase, to go, 36. B Bacon, Lord, observations on the disposition of men for philosophy and science, 97. Bactria, Buddhist priests sent to, 244. Baldo, his translation of “Kalila and Dimnah,” 161. Bancroft, “On the Native Races of America,” 526. Bântu family of language, 70. Barahut, Buddhist remains at, 346. Barlaam and Joasaph, 168. Barlaam and Josaphat, 177. —— changed into Christian saints, 177. —— Laboulaye, Liebrecht, Beal, on, 176, 177. —— Leo Allatius on, 178. —— Billius and Bellarminus on, 178. —— the Bishop of Avranches on, 178. Barzuyeh, author of Pehlevi translation of fables, 152, 184. βασιλεῦ, vocative, 233. Basilius and Gregorius Nazianzenus, quoted by author of “Barlaam and Josaphat,” 169. Bask, derivative adjectives in, 94. Bathybios, 457. Bayard, 90. Beal, on the story of Barlaam and Josaphat, 176. Bear, Aryan words for, 410. βέεσθαι = vayodhai, 56. Beget, to, root, Jan, Aryan words for, 415. Beieinander, Das, in the development of language, 33. Bekker, on the Digamma in Homer, 225. Benfey, Professor, his discovery of the old Syriac translation of the fables, 181. —— his history of the Science of Language, 325. —— his protest against the eastern origin of the Aryan nation, 212. Bengal, agriculture of, 370. —— Colebrooke, on the husbandry of, 373. Bengali, plural in, 74. Bentley, on the antiquity of Hindu astronomy, 387. 535b 536 Bernard, derivation of the word, 90. Bernhard, bearminded, 90. Besmah, Rajah of, Giriprasâdasinha, 335. Bhaginî, sister, in Sanskrit, 110 note. Bhagvat Geeta, i.e. Bhagavad-Gîtâ, 368. Bhaiami, maker or cutter out, 342, 343. Bhaṇḍarkar, Prof., 335. Bhao Daji, Dr., 334. Bhâskara, Brahmagupta, Âryabhaṭṭa, 392. βία, not connected with jyâni, 62. Bickell, Professor, 184. Bidpai, mentioned by Ali, 153; see Pilpay . —— or Sendebar, 158. Billius, on Barlaam and Josaphat, 178. Birma, Buddhist priests sent to, 244. Blackbird, 503. Bleek, Dr., 343, 522. —— Whitney on, 515. Boar, Aryan words for, 410. Bodhisattva, corrupted to Youdasf and Youasaf, 176. Boeckh, on Comparative Grammar, 209. Boehtlingk and Roth, Sanskrit Dictionary published by, 511. Bohinî, Bengali, for sister, 110 note. Bologna, University of, 11. Bombay, Parsis of, 305. Bonaventure des Periers, his “Contes et Nouvelles,” 164. Bone, Aryan words for, 405. Book of Sindbad, 106. Book-religions, 301. Bopp, his Comparative Grammar, 17, 319. —— Whitney on, 515. βοῦ, vocative, 233. Bow-wow, Pooh-pooh theories, 469. Brahma, as the Supreme Spirit, 315. Brahma-Dharma, the, 269. Brahma-Samaj, 258, 259, 335. Brahma-Samaj, schism in, 260, 269. —— of India, 269 note. Brahman, the, and the rice, 142. Brahmanism, its vitality, 296, 308. Brahmans, their sacred cord, 260. —— do not proselytize, 242. —— sent to Benares to copy Vedas, 357. Breast, Aryan words for, 406. Bribu, leader of the Rathakaras, 307. Broad, Aryan words for, 411. Broad degrees of heat, light, and sound, 437. Brockhaus, Professor, 351. Brossard, 90. Brother, Aryan words for, 402. Brvat, Zend, brow, 236. Bud Periodeutes, his translation of fables, 181, 183. Buddha, life of, 171. 536b 537 —— his four drives, 172. —— identity with Josaphat, 174, 180. —— his driver, 175. —— his disciples, 267. —— his interview with Mâra, 268. Buddhism, its history, 242 seq. Buddhism, countries professing it, 252. Buddhist fables, 141. —— —— carried by Mongolians to Russia, 149. —— Missionaries, sent to Cashmere, etc., 243. Bühler, Dr., 345. Buffon, his view of plants, 222. Building of altars, 330. Bundobel, for Bidpay, 161. Bunsen, 318. —— his views on German professors, 204. —— his “Christianity and Mankind,” 320. Burgess, Mr., 335. Burnell, Dr., 345. Burning of widows, 303. Burnouf, Eugène, 318, 515. Bushmen, their traditional literature, 344. —— their language, 344. Butler’s Analogy, 287. By night, Aryan words for, 404. 537b C Cabul, Buddhist priests sent to, 243. Cadaver, 24. Calcutta, city of Kali, 251. —— its goddess, 309. —— Colebrooke goes to, 365. —— Colebrooke at, 381. Caldwell, Dr., 74 note. —— on Infinitive, 60. Call, to, not from calare, 104. Callaway, Remarks on the Zulu language, 122. Camel, Aryan words for, 408. Campbell, Sir George, on the Hindu religion, 297. Cap-so, 94 note. Caput = Haubida, 26. Care, not from cura, 104. Carriere, Professor, 451. Carrosse, 425. Case-terminations, traced back, 131. Cashmere, Buddhist priests sent to, 243. Caskets, story of the, in Merchant of Venice, 170 note. Caste, 374 note. —— Colebrooke on, 376, 377. Castigare, 217. Catalogue raisonné of Asiatic literature, 385. Catalogues of MSS. still existing in India, 345. Catechism of the Adi Brahma-Samâj, 275.