Conversations on Chemistry, V. 1-2 - In Which the Elements of that Science Are Familiarly - Explained and Illustrated by Experiments

Conversations on Chemistry, V. 1-2 - In Which the Elements of that Science Are Familiarly - Explained and Illustrated by Experiments

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Project Gutenberg's Conversations on Chemistry, V. 1-2, by Jane Marcet This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org Title: Conversations on Chemistry, V. 1-2 In Which the Elements of that Science Are Familiarly Explained and Illustrated by Experiments Author: Jane Marcet Release Date: October 13, 2008 [EBook #26908] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK CONVERSATIONS ON CHEMISTRY, V. 1-2 *** Produced by Louise Hope Caution: DO NOT TRY THIS AT HOME. This text uses utf-8 (unicode) file encoding. If the apostrophes and quotation marks in this paragraph appear as garbage, you may have an incompatible browser or unavailable fonts. First, make sure that the browser’s “character set” or “file encoding” is set to Unicode (UTF-8). You may also need to change your browser’s default font. The original book was published in two volumes. The format is reproduced for this e-text, except that the author’s preface (originally in Volume I) and the combined index (Volume II) are in this introductory file. See the end of this file for notes on scientific terminology, spelling, Plates and chapter numbering.

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Project Gutenberg's Conversations on Chemistry, V. 1-2, by Jane MarcetThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.orgTitle: Conversations on Chemistry, V. 1-2       In Which the Elements of that Science Are Familiarly              Explained and Illustrated by ExperimentsAuthor: Jane MarcetRelease Date: October 13, 2008 [EBook #26908]Language: EnglishCharacter set encoding: UTF-8*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK CONVERSATIONS ON CHEMISTRY, V. 1-2 ***Produced by Louise HopeCaution: DO NOT TRY THIS AT HOME.This text uses utf-8 (unicode) file encoding. If the apostrophes andquotation marks in this paragraph appear as garbage, you may have anincompatible browser or unavailable fonts. First, make sure that thebrowser’s “character set” or “file encoding” is set to Unicode (UTF-8). Youmay also need to change your browser’s default font.The original book was published in two volumes. The format is reproducedfor this e-text, except that the author’s preface (originally in Volume I) andthe combined index (Volume II) are in this introductory file.See the end of this file for notes on scientific terminology, spelling, Platesand chapter numbering.Contents (Chapter titles only)Volume I: Conversations I-X with detailed ContentsVolume II: Conversations XIII-XXVI with detailed ContentsGeneral IndexCONVERSATIONSNOEHCIN WHICHTHE ELEMENTS OF THAT SCIENCEMISTRY;
ERAFAMILIARLY EXPLAINEDDNAILLUSTRATED BY EXPERIMENTS.IN TWO VOLUMES.The Fifth Edition, revised, corrected, and considerably enlarged. LONDON:PRINTED FOR LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN,PATERNOSTER-ROW..7181PPrirnintteersd- bStyr eAe. t,S tLroanhdaon,n.ADVERTISEMENT.The Author, in this fifth edition, has endeavoured to give an account of theprincipal discoveries which have been made within the last four years inChemical Science, and of the various important applications, such as the gas-lights, and the miner’s-lamp, to which they have given rise. But in regard todoctrines or principles, the work has undergone no material alteration.London, July, 1817.PREFACE.In venturing to offer to the public, and more particularly to the female sex, anIntroduction to Chemistry, the author, herself a woman, conceives that someexplanation may be required; and she feels it the more necessary to apologisefor the present undertaking, as her knowledge of the subject is but recent, andas she can have no real claims to the title of chemist.v
On attending for the first time experimental lectures, the author found it almostimpossible to derive any clear or satisfactory information from the rapiddemonstrations which are usually, and perhaps necessarily, crowded intopopular courses of this kind. But frequent opportunities having afterwardsoccurred of conversing with a friend on the subject of chemistry, and ofrepeating a variety of experiments, she became better acquainted with theprinciples of that science, and began to feel highly interested in its pursuit. Itwas then that she perceived, in attending the excellent lectures delivered at theRoyal Institution, by the present Professor of Chemistry, the great advantagewhich her previous knowledge of the subject, slight as it was, gave her overothers who had not enjoyed the same means of private instruction. Every fact orexperiment attracted her attention, and served to explain some theory to whichshe was not a total stranger; and she had the gratification to find that thenumerous and elegant illustrations, for which that school is so muchdistinguished, seldom failed to produce on her mind the effect for which theywere intended.Hence it was natural to infer, that familiar conversation was, in studies of thiskind, a most useful auxiliary source of information; and more especially to thefemale sex, whose education is seldom calculated to prepare their minds forabstract ideas, or scientific language.As, however, there are but few women who have access to this mode ofinstruction; and as the author was not acquainted with any book that couldprove a substitute for it, she thought that it might be useful for beginners, as wellas satisfactory to herself, to trace the steps by which she had acquired her littlestock of chemical knowledge, and to record, in the form of dialogue, those ideaswhich she had first derived from conversation.But to do this with sufficient method, and to fix upon a mode of arrangement,was an object of some difficulty. After much hesitation, and a degree ofembarrassment, which, probably, the most competent chemical writers haveoften felt in common with the most superficial, a mode of division was adopted,which, though the most natural, does not always admit of being strictly pursued—it is that of treating first of the simplest bodies, and then gradually rising to themost intricate compounds.It is not the author’s intention to enter into a minute vindication of this plan. Butwhatever may be its advantages or inconveniences, the method adopted in thiswork is such, that a young pupil, who should occasionally recur to it, with aview to procure information on particular subjects, might often find it obscure orunintelligible; for its various parts are so connected with each other as to forman uninterrupted chain of facts and reasonings, which will appear sufficientlyclear and consistent to those only who may have patience to go through thewhole work, or have previously devoted some attention to the subject.It will, no doubt, be observed, that in the course of these Conversations,remarks are often introduced, which appear much too acute for the youngpupils, by whom they are supposed to be made. Of this fault the author is fullyaware. But, in order to avoid it, it would have been necessary either to omit avariety of useful illustrations, or to submit to such minute explanations andfrequent repetitions, as would have rendered the work tedious, and thereforeless suited to its intended purpose.In writing these pages, the author was more than once checked in her progressby the apprehension that such an attempt might be considered by some, eitheras unsuited to the ordinary pursuits of her sex, or ill-justified by her own recentand imperfect knowledge of the subject. But, on the one hand, she feltiviiviviixi
encouraged by the establishment of those public institutions, open to bothsexes, for the dissemination of philosophical knowledge, which clearly provethat the general opinion no longer excludes women from an acquaintance withthe elements of science; and, on the other, she flattered herself that whilst theimpressions made upon her mind, by the wonders of Nature, studied in thisnew point of view, were still fresh and strong, she might perhaps succeed thebetter in communicating to others the sentiments she herself experienced.The reader will soon perceive, in perusing this work, that he is often supposedto have previously acquired some slight knowledge of natural philosophy,a circumstance, indeed, which appears very desirable. The author’s originalintention was to commence this work by a small tract, explaining, on a plananalogous to this, the most essential rudiments of that science. This idea shehas since abandoned; but the manuscript was ready, and might, perhaps, havebeen printed at some future period, had not an elementary work of a similardescription, under the tide of “Scientific Dialogues,” been pointed out to her,which, on a rapid perusal, she thought very ingenious, and well calculated toanswer its intended object.CONTENTSPage numbers have been retained to give an idea of the relative length ofeach Conversation.CONVERSATION I.ON THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF CHEMISTRY.CONVERSATION II.ON LIGHT AND HEAT.CONVERSATION III.CONTINUATION OF THE SUBJECT.CONVERSATION IV.ON COMBINED CALORIC, COMPREHENDING SPECIFIC HEAT AND LATENT HEAT.CONVERSATION V.ON THE CHEMICAL AGENCIES OF ELECTRICITY.CONVERSATION VI.ON OXYGEN AND NITROGEN.CONVERSATION VII.ON HYDROGEN.CONVERSATION VIII.ON SULPHUR AND PHOSPHORUS.CONVERSATION IX.ON CARBON.CONVERSATION X.Page 16207221061181412652282x
ON METALS.CONVERSATION XIII.ON THE ATTRACTION OF COMPOSITION.CONVERSATION XIV.ON ALKALIES.CONVERSATION XV.ON EARTHS.CONVERSATION XVI.ON ACIDS.CONVERSATION XVII.OFW TITHHE  SSUULLPPHHUURR IAC NADN WD IPTHH OPSHPOHSOPRHIOC RAUCSI;D AS:N OD RO, FT THHE EC SOUMLBPINHAATTISO ANNS DOF OXYGENPHOSPHATS.CONVERSATION XVIII.OFN ITTHREO NGIETNR IAC NADN DW ICTAH RCBAORNBICO NA; CAIDNSD:  OOFR  TTHHEE  NCITORMABTINS AATNIOD NC OAFR BOOXNYAGTESN. WITHCONVERSATION XIX.ON THE BORACIC, FLUORIC, MURIATIC, AND OXYGENATED MURIATIC ACIDS; AND ONMURIATS.CONVERSATION XX.ON THE NATURE AND COMPOSITION OF VEGETABLES.CONVERSATION XXI.ON THE DECOMPOSITION OF VEGETABLES.CONVERSATION XXII.HISTORY OF VEGETATION.CONVERSATION XXIII.ON THE COMPOSITION OF ANIMALS.CONVERSATION XXIV.ON THE ANIMAL ECONOMY.CONVERSATION XXV.ON ANIMALISATION, NUTRITION, AND RESPIRATION.CONVERSATION XXVI.ON ANIMAL HEAT; AND OF VARIOUS ANIMAL PRODUCTS.ERRATA.Vol. I. page 56.last line but one, for “caloric,” read “calorific.”179.Note, for “Plate XII.” r. “Plate XIII.”413191449608010131261202342672792413633ivx.I
363INDEX.Index links lead only to the top of the page, not to the exact item referenced.tSo otmhee  wbrroonwgs epras gem, atyh en olitn kdi issp lraigy htp aagned  nthuem vbiesrisb lce oprraegcet lyn.u Imf ba elri nisk  swreoenmg.s to lead L   M    AN      BO      CP      DQ      ER      FS      GT      HV      IJU      KW     Y   Z U, V are alphabetized as shown. J is not separated from I.LAAbsorbent vessels, ii. 304Lac, ii. 358Absorption of caloric, i. 59. 66Lactic acid, ii. 75. 290. 356Acetic acid, ii. 75. 197Lakes, colours, ii. 190Acetous fermentation, ii. 232Latent heat, i. 133—— acid, ii. 193. 232Lavender water, ii. 184. 224Acidulous gaseous mineral waters, ii. 129Lead, i. 14. 318. 330—— salts, ii. 200Leather, ii. 193. 287Leaves, ii. 260AAecirdifso,r i.m ,2 i6. 23. 6ii. 69Life, ii. 159. 168AAfgfiantiet,y ,i ii..  5119. ii. 1LLiiggaht,m ie. n1t2s.,  i2i.6 .3 i0i.3 261AAigr,r iic. u1lt8u2r.e i,i .i i.2 62252LLiigmhet,n iiin. g5, 9i. 248Albumen, ii. 277. 288Lime swtoatneer,,  iiii..  6601368Alburnum, ii. 267Alchemists, i. 4Linseed oil, ii. 178Alcohol, or spirit of wine, ii. 215. 222Liqueurs, ii. 224Alembic, i. 258Liver, ii. 308Alkalies, ii. 19Lobes, ii. 256. 332Alkaline earths, ii. 50. 58Lunar caustic, or nitrat of silver, i. 350.Alloys, i. 344ii. 119Alum, or sulphat of alumine, ii. 55. 95Lungs, ii. 319. 330Lymph, ii. 304AAlluummiinuem,,  iii..  5143Lymphatic vessels, ii. 304AAmmbalegragrmis, ,i .ii .3 34578M Index topAmethyst, ii. 58Magnesia, ii. 44. 66Amianthus, ii. 66Magnium, i. 13Ammonia, or volatile alkali, i. 363. ii. 20. 35Malic acid, ii. 74. 197Ammoniacal gas, ii. 36Malt, ii. 211Ammonium, i. 13Malleable metals, i. 14Analysis, i. 287—— of vegetables, ii. 165MMaannngaa,n iei. s1e,7 i6. 14. 317AAnniimmaall sa, ciii.d s2,7 i6i. 75. 290MMaarnbulree, ,i ii.i . 122437—— colours, ii. 292Marine acid, or muriatic acid, ii. 136—— heat, ii. 337Mastic, ii. 187. 224—— oil, ii. 178. 283Materials of animals, ii. 277Animalization, ii. 276. 297. 315—— of vegetables, ii. 165
463Antidotes, ii. 41. 87Antimony, i. 14Aqua fortis, ii. 105—— regia, i. 340. ii. 144Arrack, ii. 220Argand’s Lamp, i. 208Arsenic, i. 14. 340. 348Arteries, ii. 304. 323Arterial blood, ii. 305. 326. 338Asphaltum, ii. 240Assafœtida, ii. 188Assimilation, ii. 298AAtstmrionsgpehnetr pe,r iin. c9ip0l.e ,1 i8i.1 .1 i9i.8 262Atmospherical air, i. 182Attraction of aggregation, or cohesion,i. 16. ii. 2—— of composition, i. 16. ii. 1Azot, or nitrogen, i. 182, ii. 100Azotic gas, i. 182B Index topBalsams, ii. 165. 188BBaalrlko, oiin. s1, 9i. 32. 42565Barytes, ii. 44. 58. 61Bases of acids, i. 263. ii. 69—— gases, i. 183—— salts, ii. 5Beer, ii. 212. 220Benzoic acid, ii. 74. 197Bile, ii. 308BBiirsdms,u tiih. , 3i.4 174Bitumens, ii. 239Black lead, or plumbago, i. 304Bleaching, i. 32. ii. 89. 140.Blow-pipe, i. 324. ii. 226Blood, ii. 306. 317Blood-vessels, ii. 298Boiling water, i. 93Bombic acid, ii. 75. 290Bones, ii. 298, 299Boracic acid, i. 365. ii. 131Boracium, i. 13. ii. 132Borat of soda, ii. 133Brandy, ii. 218Brass, i. 344Bread, ii. 233Bricks, ii. 56Brittle-metals, i. 14Bronze, i. 341Butter, ii. 351Butter-milk, ii. 352C Index topCalcareous earths, ii. 65Mercury, i. 14. 346——, new mode of freezing, i. 155. 347Metallic acids, i. 340Meta los,x yi.d 1s,2 .i.  331146Meteoric stones, i. 342Mica, ii. 66Milk, ii. 299. 306. 350Minerals, i. 315. ii. 44. 158Mineral waters, i. 296. ii. 129—— acids, ii. 73Miner’s lamp, i. 249Mixture, i. 99Molybdena, i. 14. 340Mordant, ii. 165. 192MMuorctilaar,g iei.,  i5i.3 .1 7605Mucous acid, ii. 74. 171. 197—— membrane, ii. 311Muriatic acid, or marine acid, ii. 136Muriats, ii. 151Muriat of ammonia, ii. 35. 152—— lime, i. 100—— soda, or common salt, ii. 136. 151—— potash, ii. 138Muriatium, i. 13Muscles of animals, ii. 298. 303MMyursrkh,,  iiii..  315898N. Index topNaphtha, i. 357. ii. 240Negative electricity, i. 25. 161. 185Nerves, ii. 279. 298. 308Neutral, or compound salts, i. 333. ii. 4. 22.96Nickel, i. 13. 343Nitre, or nitrat of potash, or saltpetre, ii. 32.104. 116Nitric acid, ii. 100Nitrogen, or azot, i. 181. ii. 100—— gas, i. 182. 211Nitro-muriatic acid, or aqua regia, ii. 144Nitrous acid gas, ii. 101. 106—— air, or nitrit oxyd gas, ii. 107Nitrats, ii. 116Nitra t aomf cmoopnpiae,r i,i .i i.1 513. 118—— potash, or nitre, or saltpetre, ii. 32.104. 116—— silver, or lunar caustic, ii. 19Nomenclature of acids, i. 264. ii. 69—— compound salts, ii. 4. 22—— other binary compounds, i. 278Nut-galls, ii. 98. 199NNuuttr-iotiilo, nii,.  ii1. 72897963
563—— stones, ii. 123Calcium, i. 13Caloric, i. 12. 33,,  caobnsdorupcttioorns  ooff,,  ii..  6760——, combined, i. 122——, expansive power of i. 35,,  reeqflueilxiiborinu omf , oi.f , 5i.4 .5 067——, radiation of, i. 52. 61——, solvent power of, i. 96. 102——, capacity for, i. 124Calorimeter, i. 156Calx, i. 183Camphor, ii. 165. 185CCaaomuptchhooriuc ca, ciii.d ,1 i6i.5 .7 41.8 1997Carbonats, ii. 25. 129Carbonat of ammonia, ii. 41—— lead, i. 320—— lime, ii. 59. 130—— magnesia, ii. 67—— potash, ii. 25Carbonated hydrogen gas, i. 302Carbon, i. 282. ii. 329Carbonic acid, i. 290. 359. ii. 327Carburet of iron, i. 304. 342CCaarrtimlaingee,,  iiii..  239053Castor, ii. 359Cellular membrane, ii. 311CCahualskti, ciis. , 6i.2 .3 41923Charcoal, i. 282Cheese, ii. 356Chemical attraction, i. 15. ii. 9Chemistry, i. 3Chest, ii. 318China, ii. 54CChhlroorimnee,,  ii..  1241. 4340Chyle, ii. 305. 317Chyme, ii. 316Citric acid, ii. 74. 197Circulation of the blood, ii. 322Civet, ii. 359Clay, i. 48. ii. 55Coke, ii. 241Coal, ii. 240. 252Cobalt, i. 14Cochineal, ii. 295Cold, i. 50. 58—— from evaporation, i. 102. 113. 150Colours of metallic oxyds, i. 319Columbium, i. 14. 340. 348Combined caloric, i. 122Combustion, i. 190O Index topOchres, i. 320Oils, i. 285. ii. 306Oil of amber, ii. 241—— vitriol, or sulphuric acid, ii. 80Olive oil, ii. 178Ores, i. 315Organized bodies, ii. 159Organs of animals, ii. 290. 310—— vegetables, ii. 159. 265. 271Osmium, i. 14. 348Oxalic acid, ii. 74. 197Oxyds, i. 198Oxyd of manganese, i. 117. 317—— iron, i. 204. 319—— lead, i. 319—— sulphur, ii. 91Oxydation, or oxygenation, i. 196Oxygen, i. 11. 181. 201. 211—— gas, or vital air, i. 182. 201Oxy-muriatic acid, ii. 140Oxy-muriats, ii. 153Oxy-muriat of potash, ii. 155P Index topPalladium, i. 13. 348Papin’s digester, i. 120. ii. 284Parenchyma, ii. 256. 266Particles, i. 16Pearlash, ii. 24Peat, ii. 242Peculiar juice of plants, ii. 268Perfect metals, i. 14. 324Perfumes, i. 308. ii. 183Perspiration, ii. 333. 329Petrification, ii. 237Pewter, i. 344Pharmacy, i. 14PPhhoosspphhoart aotfe ldi mhey,d iri.o 9g9e.n  2g9a9s, i. 277Phosphorescence, i. 29Phosphoric acid, i. 273. ii. 99Phosphorous acid, i. 274. ii. 99Phosphorus, i. 270Phosphoret of lime, i. 278. 341—— sulphur, i. 279. 341PPlitacsht,e iri,.  ii1. 8675Platina, i. 14. 323Plating, i. 345Plumbago, or black lead, i. 304Plumula, ii. 257Porcelain, ii. 56Positive electricity, i. 25. 161. 185Potassium, i. 13. 357. ii. 15Pottery, ii. 56
——, volatile products of, i. 207PPootttaesrhy,,  ii.i . 35566. ii. 22——, fixed products of, i. 207Precipitate, i. 22——, of alcohol, ii. 225——, of ammoniacal gas, ii. 42PPrrienstesrurse i nokf ,t ihi.e  1a4t4mosphere, i. 112. 116——, of boracium, ii. 133——, by oxymuriatic acid or chlorine, ii. 142Prus spiaott aosf hi,r oii.n ,2 o9r1 prussian blue, ii. 291——, of carbon, i. 289Prussic acid, ii. 75. 290,,  ooff  cchoaalrsc,o i.a l 2b0y7 .n i2tr9ic7 acid, ii. 102PPyurtirtieds f,e ir. m3e4n1t. aiit.i o9n7, ii. 235. 360——, of candles, i. 236. 309. ii. 179Pyrometer, i. 38. 42,,  ooff  edtiahemr,o ini.d 2s,3 i0. 292Q Index top——, of hydrogen, i. 229.Quick lime, ii. 59,,  ooff  irmoent,a il.s ,2 i.0 03.2 3122Quiescent forces, ii. 12——, of oils, i. 208. ii. 178. 309R Index top370——i,i . o6f oil of turpentine by nitrous acid,Radiation of caloric, i. 52——, of phosphorus, i. 272——, Prevost’s theory, i. 52——, of sulphur, i. 261——, Pictet’s explanations, i. 54—— of potassium, i. 358. ii. 132. 138, 139——, Leslie’s illustrations, i. 61Compound bodies, i. 9. ii. 14Radicals, ii. 5. 69—— or neutral salts i. 333. ii. 4Radicle; or root, ii. 257Con,d uscotliodrss,  oi.f  7h3eat, i. 71RRaainnc,i id.i t1y,0 i4i. 182,,  fCluoiudns,t  i.R u78mford’s theory, i. 79RReefclteifxiicoanti oofn ,c iai.l o2r2ic3, i. 54. 64Constituent parts, i. 9Reptiles, ii. 349CCooppaple, rii,.  i.1 1847..  323214RReessipnirs,a tiii.o n1,6 i5i.,  311876..  322666CCootrytilceadl olanys,e rosr,  lioi. b2e6s,5 .ii .2 26576RRheovidviiungm ,o if.  1m4e.t a3l4s,8 i. 327Cream, ii. 351Roasting metals, i. 316Crea2m2 2of tartar, or tartrit of potash, ii. 200.Rock crystal, ii. 61Ruby, ii. 53Cryophorus, i. 154Rum, ii. 219Crystallisation, i. 338. ii. 47Rust, i. 318. 328Cucurbit, i. 258Culinary heat, i. 88S Index topCurd, ii. 351. 354Saccharine fermentation, ii. 208Cuticle, or epidermis, ii. 310Sal ammoniac, or muriat of ammonia, ii. 35D Index top—— polychrest, or sulphat of potash, ii. 91—— volatile, or carbonat of ammonia, ii. 41Decomposition, i. 8. 20—— of atmospherical air, i. 181. 209SSaalliiffiyainblge  pbriansceipsl, eiis.,  5ii. 5—— of water by the Voltaic battery, i. 220Saltpetre, or nitre, or nitrat of potash, ii. 32.  ooff  swaalttes r bbyy t hmee tVaollst,a ii.c  2b2a5tt. e3r3y,4 ii. 14Salt, 1ii.0 49.1 116  of ve gbeyt acablrebso, nii,.  i.2 30021SSaanndd,s tiio. n3e0,. i i5. 151—— of potash, i. 356Sap of plants, ii. 165. 260. 262. 270. 272—— of soda, i. 56Sapphire, ii. 58—— of ammonia, i. 363. ii. 37Saturation, i. 101.366—— of the boracic acid, ii. 132Sapphire, ii. 58—— of the fluoric acid, ii. 136Saturation, i. 101—— of the muriatic acid, ii. 139Seas, temperature of, i. 33.Deflagration, ii. 118Sebacic acid, ii. 75. 182. 290. 353