Early English Meals and Manners
64 Pages
English
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Early English Meals and Manners

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Learn all about the services we offer
64 Pages
English

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Contents
Full Table of Contents (separate file) Preface (separate file) The Boke of Nurture (separate file) Shorter Selections (separate file) General Index 286 POSTSCRIPT: To Serve a Lord and A Feste for a Bride 349, 358 Suffer, and hold your tongue 361 The Houshold Stuff occupied at the Lord Mayor’s Feast, A.D. 1505 362 The Ordre of goyng or sittyng 365 Latin Graces 366 SYMON’S Lesson of Wysedome for all maner Chyldryn 381 The Birched School-Boy of about 1500 A.D. 385 The Song of the School-Boy at Christmas 387 The Boar’s Head 388 Collected Sidenotes (separate file)
INDEX.
All links in this section are external. Where possible, links lead directly to the word referenced. At a minimum, prose selections are broken into blocks of a half-page or less, and verse lines go by multiples of 4. Line numbers in prose are not used. Footnote numbers are left as printed, so the number used in the e-text will generally be different. References in the form “line B” are to the “ABC“ selections, Lerne or be Lewde and Aristotle, pages 258-261. In the Index, words in I and J are treated together, while U and V are separately listed. Most words in yogh ȝ are alphabetized as Y. A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z 286
INDEX.
To save the repetition of p. and l. for page and line, I have adopted Mr Morris’s plan, in his Chaucer Glossary, of putting a / between the numbers of the page and line, so that 5 / 115 stands for page 5, line 115. Where no line is named, then p. for ...

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Published 08 December 2010
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286
Contents Full Table of Contents(separate file) Preface(separate file) The Boke of Nurture(separate file) Shorter Selections(separate file) General Index286 POSTSCRIPT: To Serve a LordandA Feste for a Bride349,358 Suffer, and hold your tongue361 The Houshold Stuff ’s Feast,occupied at the Lord MayorA.D. 1505362 The Ordre of goyng or sittyng365 Latin Graces366 SYMONSLesson of Wysedome for all maner Chyldryn381 The Birched School-Boy of about 1500A.D.385 The Song of the School-Boy at Christmas387 The Boar ’s Head388 Collected Sidenotes(separate file)
INDEX.
All links in this section are external. Where possible, links lead directly to the word referenced. At a minimum, prose selections are broken into blocks of a half-page or less, and verse lines go by multiples of 4. Line numbers in prose are not used. Footnote numbers are left as printed, so the number used in the e-text will generally be different. References in the form “line B” are to the “ABC“ selections, Lerne or be LewdeandArtoislte, pages 258-261. In the Index, words in I and J are treated together, while U and V are separately listed. Most words in yogh ȝ are alphabetized as Y. A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   K   L   M  N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   Y   Z
INDEX.
To save the repetition ofp.andl.forpageandline, I have adopted Mr Morris’s plan, in his Chaucer Glossary, of putting a / between the numbers of the page and line, so that 5 / 115 stands for page 5, line 115. Where no line is named, thenp.forpageis prefixed. The French references are to Cotgrave, except where otherwise specified. The Index, though long, does not pretend to completeness. The explanations of words given in the notes to the text are not repeated here.  Abbots of Westminster & Tintern not to sit together,76/1141-4. Abbot with a mitre,70/1013,72/1051; without one,l. 1015;72/1059. A B C of Aristotle,p. 260, p. 261. A bofe,216/9, above. Abrayde,277/52, upbraid. Abremon, a fish,p. 113. A-brode,62/906, spread open. Abstinence,8/108;153/6. Abylle,267/44, fit, convenient, beseeming; L.habilis, suitable, fit. Accounts, yearly, taken to the Auditor,196/590. Achatis,201/555, purchases. Fr.achet, a bargaine, or purchase. Cotgrave. Addes,153/11, adze. Aduertence, p. 277, attention, respect, reverence. Affeccion,52/763, disposition. After-dinner nap,65/947-54to be taken standing against a cupboard,, p. 128. Ages of man, the four,p. 53,p. 104. Ahuna, a monster of the sea,p. 114. Alay,16/232, temper. Alaye,p. 151, carve. Aldermen, the old, rank above the young,77/1157. Ale; is to be 5 days old,12/178;p. 92;154/19. Fr.GutaleouGuttale. Ale, good Ale. Cot.
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Ale or wine, the sauce for capons,26/411. Algate,26/400, always. Aliene,75/1109, foreigners. Alle,p. 216, No. ix. hall. Allhallows Day, fires in hall begin on,189/393. Allhallowsday,205/837. Alloft,69/996, above, over the vessel of herbs. Almandes,5/74, almonds. Almond,44/625, a whelk’s operculum. Almonds, good against sour food,8/102; eat it with raw fruit,153/1. Almond, iardyne, cream of,52/744; cream and milk of,35/520; cream of,49/705;56/825;157/8;p. 167, last line. Almoner, his duties,201/729; to remove a towel,204/814. Alms to be given to the poor,p. 216, No. viii. Alms-dish,23/346;200/687;201/730; loaf for,202/731; it has the leavings in the lord’s cup,203/787, and a piece of everything he is served with,204/799. See John Fitz Roberts’s account for altering and ornamenting an almsdish for Hen. VI., that belonged to theDuk d’Excestre, in Rymer X. 388, col. 1. Aloes epatick,135/12; Fr.hepatique, Liuer-helping; comforting a whole, or curing a diseased, liuer. Cot. Als,197/599, also. Altar, minister at the high, with both hands,182/167. Alycaunt,p. 86,p. 89, a wine. Amber,141/3;adj. 49/699. Amberdegrece,132/9, a scent. Angel and 3 Shepherds, device of,49/702. Anger, avoid,236/764. Anhonest,180/96, unmannerly, improper;180/124, unpolite. Annaunciande,201/705, announcing, who announces guests? Answer sensibly,252/71. Answer, servants mustn’t,215/13. Ape tied with a clog,180/108. Apparel, rules for,214/159, &c. Apple fritter,33/502, &c. Apple, a raw, cures indigestion,153/5; and the fumes of drink,8/105. Apples,52/757;55/813;152/19. “The dyvell choke hym, he hath eaten all theappelsalone.” Palsgrave, p. 484, col. 2. Apples and pears roasted, 164/17, &c. Citation could not be identified. Roast apples and pears are mentioned together at6/80and152/26. Apprentise of lawe, rank of,73/1070. Apprentices, thievish, hanging good for,p. 125. Apys mow,179/59; apes grimace. Aquarius,p. 199, the Ewerer or Water-bearer. Aquetons,197/597, acquittance. Ar,201/710, before. Archbishop,72/1047. Archbishop ranks with a prince,70/1010; is to dine alone,171/4. Archdeacon, rank of,70/1016;72/1060. Areche,19/290, retch? Areise,43/609, tear off? Arere,26/407, cut. Areyse,27/418, 425;28/429, &c.; tear or cut off. Aristotle’s A B C,p. 260, p. 261. Arm, don’t claw it,193/329. Armes, servauntes of,156/28, ? in livery, or men-at-arms. Artificers, rich; rank of,71/1037. Asche,45/643, ask. Ashore,5/71, slantwise, aslope;20/299, astraddle. Asise,60/879, way, manner. Aslout,39/560; aslant. Aspidochelon, a great whale-fisshe,p. 114. Assaying bread, by the panter,200/691; water,201/702; meat, by the sewer,202/764. SeeCredence, and Tasting.
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Asseles,196/566, sets the lord’s seal to. Astate,185/276; rank. At,256/182, with;184/242, that. Aþer,200/689, either, each. Attend at school,209/21. Attirling, 287/41, shrew; A.S.Attor,Ater, poison. Atwytynge,18/274, twitting, blaming others. Audibly, speak,235/687. Auditor, the lord’s, all officers to account to, once a year,196/587-94. Aunterose,p. 260, l. A, venturesome. Aurata (a fish),p. 114. Autumn, the device of,53/766;p. 54. Ave,48/692. Ave-Maria,181/147. Aveyner, his duties,p. 197. Avise,35/525, opinion, learning. Awoydes,204/821, removes, puts off. Ayselle,42/596, a kind of vinegar. Return to Top Baase (the fish),58/842. SeeBase. Babulle,1/12. Au fol la marotte. Prov. We say also, Giue the foole hisbable; or what’s a foole without abable? Cotgrave, underfol. Back; turn it on no one,253/90; not on him you give a cup to,180/121. Backbite no man,272/99. Bacon and peas,54/797. Bailiffs of a city, rank of,71/1033. Bailiffs of farms, &c., to be talked to pleasantly,p. 218, No. xvi. Baked herrings with sugar,166/7. Bakemete,54/802, meat-pie. Bake metes,30/476-7, game pies, &c.; ? sweet pies,54/809; how to carve,159/19; how assayed,203/771-6. Baker, gets money from the treasurer,196/582; his duties,198/623-28. Bakes,179/60, asbokes, bulges, stuffs. Balena, a whale or mermaid, pp.115,123,119, last line. Banker,63/924, cloth to cover a bench. Barbe,p. 151, cut up. Barme,61/891, bosom. Barnard’s blowe,p. 126, a secret blow by a highwayman. Baron,70/1013,72/1051; of the Exchequer,70/1014;72/1061. Baron of the Exchequer, appeal lies to, from an Auditor,196/594. Base, the fish,51/735;166/13;167/6. Bason,63/926, washing basin. Basshe,45/645, be abashed, ashamed. Bastard,9/119;89/7;153/20; a sweet wine. Bate,182/188, quarrelling. Bath, how to make one,p. 66-7; a medicated one,p. 67-9. Bayle,196/576, bailiff. Bearer of meat to stand or kneel as the sewer does,203/777. Beastlynes,232/460; nasty practise, t.i., gnawing bones. Beaver, considered as a fish,37/547. “The beuer, whose hinder feet and taile onlie are supposed to be fish. Certes the taile of this beast is like vnto a thin whetstone, as the bodie vnto a monsterous rat.... It is also reported that their said tailes are a delicate fish.” Harrison,Desc. Brit., i. 225, col. 2. See Giraldus Cambrensis,Works, vol. v. p. 59, ed. 1867. Beckoning, don’t use it,184/249. Bed, how to undress a lord for,p. 65-6. Bed and Bedroom, how to air and prepare,63/919-30. Bed, offer your bed-fellow his choice of place in,185/293. Bed, prayer on going to,240/987-8. Bedchamber, how to prepare your master’s, pp.63,65.
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Bedchamber door, lights stuck on,193/509. Bedes, for church service,63/918. Bedrooms, don’t sleep in ratty ones, or those deprived of sun,p. 132. Beds of straw, &c., to be 9 ft. long and 7 ft. broad,191/436-7. Beef,34/517;48/688;p. 105; powdered,p. 102, note to l. 694; stewed,54/798; how to carve,25/393. “Touchyng thebefeestymate him of nature melancolyke, and engendre and produce grosse blode well: I do norisshyng folkes robustes and of stronge complexion, whiche occupy them in great busynesse and payne.” Du Guez’s Introductorie, p. 1071. Behight,41/605, direct. Behoveable,54/804, necessary. Belch not,178/113. Believe fair words, don’t,183/205. Bengwine,p. 134; Fr.Benjoin, the aromaticall gumme called Benjamin or Benzoin. Cot. Benym,24/368, deprive. Be-sene,21/318, become, suit. Bete,63/930, feed, nourish. Bete,67/990, remedy, cure. Betowre,37/541, the bittern, q.v.;49/696; how to carve,27/421;p. 162. Better, give place to your,253/89. Bilgres,69/994; bugloss?p. 110. Birds, how to carve, pp.25-8,30-1,161-62. Birth to be looked to first,74/1105. Bishop, rank of,70/1012. Bisketes,231/389, biscuits. Bite not thy bread,178/49. Bithe,47/678, are. Biting your lips is bad,178/89. Bittern, to unjoint or carve,p. 162;165/1. SeeBetowre. Blaknes,278,277/49, black dirt. Blamanger and Blanchmanger,p. 101, bottom. SeeBlanger mangere and Blaunche manger. Blandrelles,157/10, white apples. SeeBlaundrelles. Blanger mangere,49/693. Blanked,169/23. SeeBlanket. Blanket,64/935. Fr.blanchet.A blanket for a bed; also, white woollen cloth. Cot. Is to be kept in the privy. Blasting,20/304; cp. Fr.Petarrade: f. Gunshot of farting. Cotgrave. Blaunche manger,157/3. Blaunche powder,6/80, note;p. 85,p. 10, note 3;152/26. Blaunderelle,50/714; Blawnderelles,6/79;p. 85, white apples. Blaynshe powder,p. 10, note 3. Blow and puff not,20/303. Blow not like a broken-winded horse,210/53. Blow, don’t, on your food to cool it,180/111. Blood Royal, Babees of,The Babees Book, addressed to,250/15. Blood Royal ranks above property,74/1094;171/16. Blush or change colour, don’t,187/337. Blysse,266/12make the sign of the cross on or over., 23, Blythe,178/47, joy? = (in) faith. Boar pasty,31/489. Boar,48/686. Boards of the privy to be covered with green cloth,63/932. Body to be kept upright,235/676. Bof,202/750, ? not “boeuf, an ox, a beefe,” Cot.; buta-bof(dishes), above, up. Boke, the,185/261. Bold, don’t be too,p. 258,p. 260, l. B. Bolde,192/454, finely? Bole Armoniake. 134.
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Fr.Armoniac, a gumme spring from the CyrenianFerulaorFennell-giant. Bolkynge,19/298, belching. A.S.bealcian, to belch; to bolke belche,roucter. Palsgrave. Bombace,p. 139, cotton; cp. bombast. Boner,183/191. Fr.bonaire, gentle, courteous, affable. Cot. Bones not to be thrown on the floor,269/79; to be put into voyders,230/358. Bonet,169/29, nightcap. Book, stick to it well,227/168. Boorde,p. 260, l. B, joke, play. “Tobourdeor iape with one in sporte,truffler,border,iouncher.” Palsgrave. Boorde, bourde,p. 258,p. 260, l. B; Fr.bourdertrifle, dally; bourd or ieast with. Cot., to toy, Borbotha, a slippery fish,p. 115. Borclothe,30/468, table-cloth. Bordclothe,4/62, table-cloth. “The table clothes and towelles shoulde be chaunged twyes every weeke at the leste; more if neede require.” H. Ord. p. 85. Borde,178/31, table. Borde, Andrew, extracts from, pp.89,91, &c.; onSleep, Rising, and Dress,p. 128-32. Border,p. 151, carve. Botery,12/176-7. Botre,193/489, buttery. Bouȝt,13/188,189n,191, fold;268/27, 29;269/17; Mal feru, A malander in theboughtof a horse’s knee.’ Cot. Bow when you answer,253/83. Boxyng,p. 124, smacking the face. Boys to walk two and two from school, not hooping and hallooing,228/238-264. Boystous,257/195, rude; Boystows,rudis. Prompt. Boystousnesse,256/182; Ruditas.Prompt. Brade,199/666, broad. Bragot,55/817;p. 107. Brandrels,152/24, blaundrels, white apples. Brawn of boar,48/686;54/796. this was the first dish at dinner in Harrison’s time, 1577-87; see hisDescriptionof Britain, bk. iii, ch. 1 (N. Sh. Soc.).Reference added by editor. Brawn of a capon,163/27. Brawn, how to carve,24/378; pp.94,156. Brayd, at a,15/226, sharply, quickly. Brayde,13/188, instant, same time. Brayde,11/146, start, slip. Brayde, at a,200/678, quickly. Bread to be cut, not broken,255/141;267/24; at dinner to be cut in two,178/35. Bread, how to chop,p. 4; how assayed,200/691-2. Bread and cheese,55/815. Break your bread,178/51. Break not wind,20/304. Bream,51/736;58/841; pp.108,115. Bream, sea-,40/578;49/698;52/746;58/848. Breath, as it may smell, keep your mouth shut,211/69. Breche (? drawers), clean,60/871. Brede,13/192, breadth. Breke,21/315;p. 151, carve venison. Breke a cony,29/448. Bresewort,68/993. “In the curious treatise of the virtues of herbs, Royal MS. 18 A. vi., fol. 72 b, is mentionedbryse-wort, or bon-wort, or daysye,consolida minor, good to breke bocches.’” Way, Promptorium, p. 52, note1. Brest,19/288, ? for fist. Bret, Brett, a fish,41/583;51/735;59/852. Fr.Limaude, f. A Burt orBret-fish. Cot. Breue,190/413, book, score-up. Breuet,194/536, briefed (with green wax). Breve,195/553, set down in writing, keep accounts of.
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Brewe,36/540, a bird;49/706;157/8; how to carve,27/422; to untache or carve,p. 160. Bridelid,278/33, ? a wrong reading; or, with food in one’s mouth; Fr.boire sa bride, A horse to draw vp his bit into his mouth with his tongue. Cot. Broach a pipe of wine, how to,5/69,p. 152, 121/69. Broche?,161/6. Broiled herrings,52/748. Broke-lempk,69/994;p. 68, note. Broken,214/158, with hernia?, E. Engl.bursten. Broken meat or food for the poor,202/739. Brothellis,267/38, low rude people. Fr.bordeau, a brothell or bawdie house;bordelier, a wencher, haunter of baudie-houses. Cotgrave. Adulterous friars are calledbrothelsin Piers Plowman’s Crede, l. 1540, v. 2, p. 496, ed. Wright. See Arth. and Merlin, &c., in Halliwell;—a blackguard, Towneley Mysteries, p. 142, “stynt,brodels, youre dyn.” Browers,199/663;browermust be a napkin or doyley. “Can it be a bib put on when takingbrooor broth in, against the spilling of what is supped up? (Or rather, wiping the fingers from thebroo, sauce, or gravy, that men dipped their bits of meat into.) Halliwell curiously explains broothe rute and alle, & sethe it in water; take the, top of anything. ‘Tak a knyf & shere it smal, brooof that, and late it go thorow a clowte’—evidently the juice. Ital.broda, broth, swill for swine, dirt or mire;brodare, to cast broth upon.”—H. Wedgwood. Browes,p. 160, last line;p. 173. A.S.briwm. Brewis, the small pieces of meat in broth; pottage, frumenty, &c.,, es.; briwan, to brew. Somner. Brows, how to use the,210/29;213/132. Browynge,179/75, broth, grease. SeeBrowes. Brush your master well,62/913; all robes lightly,64/940-3; your cap,228/78. Brushed (well), breeches,60/873. Brydelynge,19/288, ? the passage seems corrupt. Brytte, a fish,166/12. Buche,31/492, in squares. Sloane MS. 1315, reads “Custarde, enche square checke hit with your knyfe.” Buffe,p. 133, leather made of buck’s skin. Bulch not,212/113. Bulk,267/47. A.S.bealcian, to belch. “Bolkyn,ructo, eructo, orexo.” Prompt. Bulke,29/452, thorax, breast;159/16. BULLEYN, Wilyam; on Boxyng and Neckeweede,p. 124-7. Bultelle clothe,12/164. Bun,14/211;15/218. Bushel of flour to make 20 loaves,198/625-6. Business, attend to your own, 268/56. Bustard,28/433;37/541;p. 97;49/695;p. 102;157/4. Butler and Panter’s duties,152/1. Butler, his duties,196/423-30; is the panter’s mate,/425. Butt or fresh-water flounder,p. 115. Butter, sweet, of Claynos or hakeney,39/559. Butter, one of thefruitsto be eaten before dinner,46/667-8. Butter and fruits to be eaten before dinner,152/22. Butter, wholesome first and last,7/89;152/31. Butter,7/89-92;p. 85;152/20, 22. Buttiler,p. 3, l. 40-1. ‘Butler, the officer in charge of thebutteryor collection of casks; as Pantler, the officer in charge of the pantry.’ Wedgwood. Buying, swear & lie not in,270/76. Bydene,4/62, properly. Return to Top Cabages,35/521;p. 97;159/29. Calf, boiled, on Easter-day,p. 160. Calves-foot jelly,34/515. Calves-skin garments to be worn in summer,p. 139. Camamelle,68/992, chamomile. Camelyne sauce,p. 36, note6. Camphire,135/13. Campolet wine,153/20,p. 174. Cancer, the creuyce or cray-fish,p. 115. Candelarius,204/822-3, the chandler.
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Candle, one to each mess at dinner,205/837. Candlemas-eve, squires’ allowances stop on,189/394;205/837. Aujourd’huy Febvrier demain Chandelier.Prov. (For Candlemas day is euer the second of Februarie.)” Cot. Candles,34/510. Canel,5/66;p. 84, a spout. Canelle,11/142;10/135;153/24, 31; a spice. Canelle-boon,29/449;159/14. Fr.Claviculescraw-bones, extending (on each side ore), f. The kannell bones, channell bones, necke-bones, from the bottom of the throat vnto the top of the shoulder. Cot. The merry-thought of a bird. The haunch-bones below correspond to the clavicles or kannell bones above. Canne,266/4; cunne,265/3, know. Cannelles,152/15, channels, spouts. Canterbury, Bp. of,73/1077. SeeArchbishop. Canterbury, the prior of,77/1145. Cap, take it off before a lord,262/4; before your better,274/137; when speaking to any man,226/80; be free of,229/274, salute every one. Capitaius, a fish,p. 116. Capon,48/689;54/801;p. 106. “Of all meates the best and most utille to the body of man is of capons, chyckyns, faisantes, partriches, yonge partriches,plouuiers,pigeons, quailles, snites (becasses§), wod-cockes, turtell doves, knyghtes (cheualiers†), stares, sparows, orpasseriaux, finches, uerdieres,* frions, gold finches, linotes, thrushe, felde fare, and all kyndes of small byrdes (whereof the names ben without nombre) ben metes norisshyng and of litell degestion, and that engendre good blode.”Du Guez’s Introductorie, p. 1071-2. §cceBessa, f. A Woodcock.Becasse petite, A Snite or Snipe. Chevalier, A daintie Water-fowle, as big as a Stock-doue, and of two kinds, the one red, the other blacke. Cot. *Verdrier, m. The Gold-hammer, Yellow-hammer, Yowlring. Cot. Capon, how to carve,26/409; to sauce or carve,p. 161. Capon, boiled,54/799; verjuice its sauce,36/534. “Capons boyled, and chekyns, ben lykewyse of good nourysshyng, and doth engender good blode, but whan they ben rosted, they ben somewhat more colloryke, and all maner of meates rosted, the tone more the tother lesse.” Du Guez, p. 1071. Capon pie,31/481. Capon, roast, how to carve,161/21. Cappe,65/964, night-cap. Cappe-de-huse,62/909, ? cape for the house, Fr.cappe, a short cloake, or loose and sleeuelesse garment, which hath, instead of a Cape, a Capuche behind it. Cot. Caprik,9/120;p. 91, No. 13, a sweet wine. Caraway, Careawey,6/79, caraway-seeds, (from καρον, cumin; Lat.careum; Ar.karawiya; Mahn,)50/713;152/25; 157/11;231/389. Cardinal, rank of a,70/1008;72/1045. Carding, eschew,234/599. Cariage,p. 280,279, l. 59, act of carrying. Carowayes,231/389, caraway-seed cakes. Carp,40/578;51/735;58/842;p. 116.1 Carpentes,169/9, 18, carpets under foot? Seecarpettes for cupbordes,l. 19. Carpets, about a bed, windows, &c,63/927-8. Carry your body up,213/133. Carver, his duties,p. 24-32; assays the wine?, and carves the lord’s meat,203/789-95. SeeKeruynge. Carving of fish,p. 166-7; of flesh,p. 157. Carving-knives, panter to lay two,200/673. Cast,197/607, armful or pitchfork-full. Cast of bread,198/631, ? armful, lot taken up at one heave. Cast up thy bed,226/61. Castles, the Receiver sees to repairs of,197/601. Castyng,187/336, ? Cat, don’t stroke it at meals,180/107. Cate,274/143, ? cat (hond, hound). Cathedral prior sits above others,77/1150. Cato quoted,232/491. Cats to be turned out of bedrooms,66/969;p. 108,p. 109;169/34. Caucius, a fish,p. 116.