Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 1 - "Calhoun" to "Camoens"

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 1 - "Calhoun" to "Camoens"

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition,
Volume 5, Slice 1, by Various
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net
Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 1
"Calhoun" to "Camoens"
Author: Various
Release Date: June 25, 2010 [EBook #32975]
Language: English
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ENCYC. BRITANNICA, VOL 5 SL 1 ***
Produced by Marius Masi, Don Kretz and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net
Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected. They appear in the text like this, and the
explanation will appear when the mouse pointer is moved over the marked passage.
Sections in Greek will yield a transliteration when the pointer is moved over them, and
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THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL
INFORMATION
ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME V SLICE I
Calhoun to Camoens

Articles in This Slice
CALHOUN, JOHN CALDWELL CALW
CALI ...

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Informations

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Published 08 December 2010
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 1, by Various This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 1 "Calhoun" to "Camoens" Author: Various Release Date: June 25, 2010 [EBook #32975] Language: English *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ENCYC. BRITANNICA, VOL 5 SL 1 *** Produced by Marius Masi, Don Kretz and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected. They appear in the text like this, and the explanation will appear when the mouse pointer is moved over the marked passage. Sections in Greek will yield a transliteration when the pointer is moved over them, and words using diacritic characters in the Latin Extended Additional block, which may not display in some fonts or browsers, will display an unaccented version. Links to other EB articles: Links to articles residing in other EB volumes will be made available when the respective volumes are introduced online. THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL INFORMATION ELEVENTH EDITION VOLUME V SLICE I Calhoun to Camoens Articles in This Slice CALHOUN, JOHN CALDWELL CALW CALI CALYDON CALIBRATION CALYPSO CALICO CAM (CÃO), DIOGO CALICUT CAMACHO, JUAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA CAMALDULIANS CALIFORNIA, LOWER CAMARGO, MARIE ANNE DE CUPIS DE CALIFORNIA, UNIVERSITY OF CAMARGUE CALIPASH and CALIPEE CAMARINA CALIPH CAMBACÉRÈS, JEAN JACQUES RÉGIS DE CALIPHATE CAMBALUC CALIVER CAMBAY CALIXTUS (popes) CAMBAY, GULF OF CALIXTUS, GEORG CAMBER CALL CAMBERT, ROBERT CALLANDER CAMBERWELL CALLAO CAMBIASI, LUCA CALLCOTT, SIR AUGUSTUS WALL CAMBODIA CALLCOTT, JOHN WALL CAMBON, PIERRE JOSEPH CALLIAS CAMBON, PIERRE PAUL CALLIAS and HIPPONICUS CAMBORNE CALLIMACHUS (Athenian sculptor) CAMBRAI CALLIMACHUS (Greek poet) CAMBRIA CALLINUS CAMBRIAN SYSTEM CALLIOPE CAMBRIC CALLIRRHOE CAMBRIDGE, EARLS AND DUKES OF CALLISTHENES CAMBRIDGE, RICHARD OWEN CALLISTO CAMBRIDGE (of England) CALLISTRATUS (Alexandrian grammarian) CAMBRIDGE (Maryland, U.S.A.) CALLISTRATUS (Athenian poet) CAMBRIDGE (Massachusetts, U.S.A.) CALLISTRATUS (Greek sophist) CAMBRIDGE (Ohio, U.S.A.) CALLISTRATUS (of Aphidnae) CAMBRIDGE PLATONISTS CALLOT, JACQUES CAMBRIDGESHIRE CALLOVIAN CAMBUSLANG CALM CAMBYSES CALMET, ANTOINE AUGUSTIN CAMDEN, CHARLES PRATT CALNE CAMDEN, JOHN JEFFREYS PRATT CALOMEL CAMDEN, WILLIAM CALONNE, CHARLES ALEXANDRE DE CAMDEN (New Jersey, U.S.A.) CALORESCENCE CAMDEN (South Carolina, U.S.A.) CALORIMETRY CAMEL CALOVIUS, ABRAHAM CAMELFORD, THOMAS PITT CALPURNIUS, TITUS CAMELLIA CALTAGIRONE CAMEO CALTANISETTA CAMERA CALTROP CAMERA LUCIDA CALUIRE-ET-CUIRE CAMERA OBSCURA CALUMET CAMERARIUS, JOACHIM (German classical scholar) CALUMPIT CAMERARIUS, JOACHIM (German botanist) CALVADOS CAMERARIUS, RUDOLF JAKOB CALVART, DENIS CAMERINO CALVARY CAMERON, JOHN CALVÉ EMMA CAMERON, RICHARD CALVERLEY, CHARLES STUART CAMERON, SIMON CALVERT (English artists) CAMERON, VERNEY LOVETT CALVERT, FREDERICK CRACE CAMERON OF LOCHIEL, SIR EWEN CALVERT, SIR HARRY, BART CAMERONIANS CALVES' HEAD CLUB CAMEROON CALVI CAMILING CALVIN, JOHN CAMILLUS, MARCUS FURIUS CALVINISTIC METHODISTS CAMILLUS and CAMILLA CALVISIUS, SETHUS CAMISARDS CALVO, CARLOS CAMOENS, LUIS VAZ DE CALHOUN, JOHN CALDWELL (1782-1850), American statesman and parliamentarian, was born, of Scottish-Irish descent, in Abbeville District, South Carolina, on the 18th of March 1782. His father, Patrick Calhoun, is said to have been born in Donegal, in North Ireland, but to have left Ireland when a mere child. The family seems to have emigrated first to Pennsylvania, whence they removed, after Braddock’s defeat, to Western Virginia. From Virginia they removed in 1756 to South Carolina and settled on Long Cane Creek, in Granville (now Abbeville) county. Patrick Calhoun attained some prominence in the colony, serving in the colonial legislature, and afterwards in the state legislature, and taking part in the War of Independence. In 1770 he had married Martha Caldwell, the daughter of another Scottish-Irish settler. The opportunities for obtaining a liberal education in the remote districts of South Carolina at that time were scanty. Fortunately, young Calhoun had the opportunity, although late, of studying under his brother-in-law, the Rev. Moses Waddell (1770-1840), a Presbyterian minister, who afterwards, from 1819 to 1829, was president of the University of Georgia. In 1802 Calhoun entered the junior class in Yale College, and graduated with distinction in 1804. He then studied first at the famous law school in Litchfield, Conn., and afterwards in a law office in Charleston, S.C., and in 1807 was admitted to the bar. He began practice in his native Abbeville District, and soon took a leading place in his profession. In 1808 and 1809 he was a member of the South Carolina legislature, and from 1811 to 1817 was a member of the national House of Representatives. When he entered the latter body the strained relations between Great Britain and the United States formed the most important question for the deliberation of Congress. Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, being eager for war and knowing Calhoun’s hostility to Great Britain, gave him the second place on the committee of foreign affairs, of which he soon became the actual head. In less than three weeks the committee reported resolutions, evidently written by Calhoun, recommending preparations for a struggle with Great Britain; and in the following June Calhoun submitted a second report urging a formal declaration of war. Both sets of resolutions the House adopted. Clay and Calhoun did more, probably, than any other two men in Congress to force the reluctant president into beginning hostilities. In 1816 Calhoun delivered in favour of a protective tariff a speech that was ever after held up by his opponents as evidence of his inconsistency in the tariff controversy. The embargo and the war had crippled American commerce, but had stimulated manufactures. With the end of the Napoleonic wars in Europe the industries of the old world revived, and Americans began to feel their competition. In the consequent distress in the new industrial centres there arose a cry for protection. Calhoun, believing that there was a natural tendency in the United States towards the development of manufactures, supported the Tariff Bill of 1816, which laid on certain foreign commodities duties higher than were necessary for the purposes of revenue. He believed that the South would share in the general industrial development, not having perceived as yet that slavery was an insuperable obstacle. His opposition to protection in later years resulted from an honest change of convictions. He always denied that in supporting this bill he had been inconsistent, and insisted that it was one for revenue. From 1817 to 1825 Calhoun was secretary of war under President Monroe. To him is due the fostering and the reformation of the National Military Academy at West Point, which he found in disorder, but left in a most efficient state. Calhoun was vice-president of the United States from 1825 to 1832, during the administration of John Quincy Adams, and during most of the first administration of Andrew Jackson. This period was for Calhoun a time of reflection. His faith in a strong nationalistic policy was gradually undermined, and he finally became the foremost champion of particularism and the recognized leader of what is generally known as the “States Rights” or “Strict Construction” party. In 1824 there was a very large increase in protective duties. In 1828 a still higher tariff act, the so-called “Bill of Abominations,” was passed, avowedly for the purpose of protection. The passage of these acts caused great discontent, especially among the Southern states, which were strictly agricultural. They felt that the great burden of