Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 4 - "Cincinnatus" to "Cleruchy"
360 Pages
English

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 4 - "Cincinnatus" to "Cleruchy"

-

Downloading requires you to have access to the YouScribe library
Learn all about the services we offer

Description

! ! ! ! " ! " ! ! ! " ! # $% # " & ! ! ' ! " ! """$ $ ( )* !) )* ) + ( ! , ! - ( . /0 0 1 23 4 ' ( ! * ! ( 5 6&7789& ::: +, 6; ? , 66@ ?*%*$ ,5 +??5*+ 6' ' ::: . ! . ! - @ A = 6 - ! (BB"""$ $ ! " ! "# !

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 08 December 2010
Reads 60
Language English

Exrait

The Project Gutenberg EBook of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 4, by Various
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net
Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 4  "Cincinnatus" to "Cleruchy"
Author: Various
Release Date: March 14, 2010 [EBook #31641]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ENCYC. BRITANNICA, VOL 6, SL 4 ***
Produced by Marius Masi, Don Kretz, Juliet Sutherland and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net
Transcriber's note:
A few typographical errors have been corrected. They appear in the text like this, and the explanation will appear when the mouse pointer is moved over the marked passage. Sections in Greek will yield a transliteration when the pointer is moved over them, and words using diacritic characters in the Latin Extended Additional block, which may not display in some fonts or browsers, will display an unaccented version.
Links to other EB articles: Links to articles residing in other EB volumes will be made available when the respective volumes are introduced online.
THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA
A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL INFORMATION
ELEVENTH EDITION
VOLUME VI SLICE IV
Cincinnatus to Cleruchy
Articles in This Slice
CINCINNATUS, LUCIUS QUINCTIUS CINDERELLA CINEAS CINEMATOGRAPH CINERARIA CINGOLI CINNA(Roman family) CINNA, GAIUS HELVIUS CINNABAR CINNAMIC ACID CINNAMON CINNAMON-STONE CINNAMUS CINNOLIN CINO DA PISTOIA CINQ-MARS, D’EFFIAT CINQUE CENTO CINQUE PORTS CINTRA CIPHER CIPPUS CIPRIANI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA CIRCAR CIRCASSIA CIRCE CIRCEIUS MONS CIRCLE CIRCLEVILLE CIRCUIT CIRCULAR NOTE CIRCULUS IN PROBANDO CIRCUMCISION CIRCUMVALLATION, LINES OF CIRCUS CIRENCESTER
CLARINA
CLARINET CLARK, SIR ANDREW CLARK, FRANCIS EDWARD CLARK, GEORGE ROGERS CLARK, SIR JAMES CLARK, JOHN BATES CLARK, JOSIAH LATIMER CLARK, THOMAS CLARK, WILLIAM GEORGE CLARKE, ADAM CLARKE, SIR ANDREW CLARKE, CHARLES COWDEN CLARKE, EDWARD DANIEL CLARKE, SIR EDWARD GEORGE CLARKE, JAMES FREEMAN CLARKE, JOHN SLEEPER CLARKE, MARCUS ANDREW HISLOP CLARKE, MARY ANNE CLARKE, SAMUEL CLARKE, THOMAS SHIELDS CLARKE, WILLIAM BRANWHITE CLARKSON, THOMAS CLARKSVILLE CLASSICS CLASSIFICATION CLASTIDIUM CLAUBERG, JOHANN CLAUDE, JEAN CLAUDE OF LORRAINE CLAUDET, ANTOINE FRANÇOIS JEAN CLAUDIANUS, CLAUDIUS CLAUDIUS(Nero Germanicus) CLAUDIUS(famous Roman gens.) CLAUDIUS, MARCUS AURELIUS
CIRILLO, DOMENICO CIRQUE CIRTA CISSEY, ERNEST COURTOT DE CISSOID CIS-SUTLEJ STATES CIST CISTERCIANS CITATION CÎTEAUX CITHAERON CITHARA CITIUM CITIZEN CITOLE CITRIC ACID CITRON CITTADELLA CITTÀ DELLA PIEVE CITTÀ DI CASTELLO CITTÀ VECCHIA CITTERN CITY CIUDAD BOLÍVAR CIUDAD DE CURA CIUDAD JUAREZ CIUDAD PORFIRIO DIAZ CIUDAD REAL(province of Spain) CIUDAD REAL(city in Spain) CIUDAD RODRIGO CIVERCHIO, VINCENZO CIVET CIVIDALE DEL FRIULI CIVILIS, CLAUDIUS CIVILIZATION CIVIL LAW CIVIL LIST CIVIL SERVICE CIVITA CASTELLANA CIVITA VECCHIA CLACKMANNAN CLACKMANNANSHIRE CLACTON-ON-SEA CLADEL, LÉON CLAFLIN, HORACE BRIGHAM CLAIRAULT CLAIRON, LA CLAIRVAUX CLAIRVOYANCE CLAMECY CLAN CLANRICARDE, DE BURGH(Earl) CLANRICARDE, DE BURGH (Marquess)
CLAUDIUS, MATTHIAS CLAUSEL CLAUSEN, GEORGE CLAUSEWITZ, KARL VON CLAUSIUS, RUDOLF EMMANUEL CLAUSTHAL CLAVECIN CLAVICEMBALO CLAVICHORD CLAVICYTHERIUM CLAVIE, BURNING THE CLAVIÈRE, ÉTIENNE CLAVIJO, RUY GONZALEZ DE CLAVIJO Y FAJARDO, JOSÉ CLAY, CASSIUS MARCELLUS CLAY, CHARLES CLAY, FREDERIC CLAY, HENRY CLAY(substance) CLAY CROSS CLAYMORE CLAYS, PAUL JEAN CLAYTON, JOHN MIDDLETON CLAYTON-BULWER TREATY CLAY-WITH-FLINTS CLAZOMENAE CLEANTHES CLEARCHUS CLEARFIELD CLEARING-HOUSE CLEAT CLEATOR MOOR CLEAVERS CLEBURNE CLECKHEATON CLEETHORPES CLEFT PALATE CLEISTHENES CLEITARCHUS CLEITHRAL CLEITOR CLELAND, WILLIAM CLEMATIS CLEMENCEAU, GEORGES CLEMENCÍN, DIEGO CLEMENT(popes) CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA CLÉMENT, FRANÇOIS CLÉMENT, JACQUES CLEMENTI, MUZIO CLEMENTINE LITERATURE CLEOBULUS CLEOMENES
CLANVOWE, SIR THOMAS CLAPARÈDE, JEAN LOUIS CLAPPERTON, HUGH CLAQUE CLARA, SAINT CLARE(English family) CLARE, JOHN(English poet) CLARE, JOHN FITZGIBBON CLARE(county in Ireland) CLAREMONT CLARENCE, DUKES OF CLARENDON, EDWARD HYDE
CLARENDON, GEORGE VILLIERS
CLARENDON, HENRY HYDE
CLARENDON, CONSTITUTIONS OF CLARES, POOR
CLARET CLARETIE, JULES ARNAUD CLARI, GIOVANNI CARLO MARIA
CLEON CLEOPATRA CLEPSYDRA CLERESTORY CLERFAYT CLERGY CLERGY, BENEFIT OF CLERGY RESERVES CLERK CLERKE, AGNES MARY CLERKENWELL CLERMONT-EN-BEAUVAISIS CLERMONT-FERRAND CLERMONT-GANNEAU, CHARLES SIMON CLERMONT-L’HERAULT
CLERMONT-TONNERRE(French family) CLERMONT-TONNERRE, STANISLAS CLERUCHY
1 CINCINNATUS,LUCIUS QUINCTIUS, (b. c. 519B.C.), one of the heroes of early Rome, a model of old Roman virtue and simplicity. A persistent opponent of the plebeians, he resisted the proposal of Terentilius Arsa (or Harsa) to draw up a code of written laws applicable equally to patricians and plebeians. He was in humble circumstances, and lived and worked on his own small farm. The story that he became impoverished by paying a fine incurred by his son Caeso is an attempt to explain the needy position of so distinguished a man. Twice he was called from the plough to the dictatorship of Rome in 458 and 439. In 458 he defeated the Aequians in a single day, and after entering Rome in triumph with large spoils returned to his farm. The story of his success, related five times under five different years, possibly rests on an historical basis, but the account given in Livy of the achievements of the Roman army is obviously incredible.
1
See Livy iii. 26-29; Dion. Halic. x. 23-25; Florus i. 11. For a critical examination of the story see Schwegler,Römische Geschichte, bk. xxviii. 12; Sir G. Cornewall Lewis,Credibility of early Roman History, ch. xii. 40; W. Ihne,History of Rome, i.; E. Pais,Storia di Roma, i. ch. 4 (1898).
I.e. the “curly-haired.”
374
CINDERELLA (i.e. little cinder girl), the heroine of an almost universal fairy-tale. Its essential features are (1) the persecuted maiden whose youth and beauty bring upon her the jealousy of her step-mother and sisters, (2) the intervention of a fairy or other supernatural instrument on her behalf, (3) the prince who falls in love with and marries her. In the English version, a translation of Perrault’sCendrillon, theglass slipper which she drops on the palace stairs is due to a mistranslation ofpantoufle en vair (afur slipper), mistaken foren verre. It has been suggested that the story originated in a nature-myth, Cinderella being the dawn, oppressed by the night-clouds (cruel relatives) and finally rescued by the sun (prince).
See Marian Rolfe Cox,Cinderella; Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants (1893); A Lang,Perrault’s Popular Tales(1888).
CINEAS, a Thessalian, the chief adviser of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus. He studied oratory in Athens, and was regarded as the most eloquent man of his age. He tried to dissuade Pyrrhus from invading Italy, and after the defeat of the Romans at Heraclea (280B.C.) was sent to Rome to discuss terms of peace. These terms, which are said by Appi an (De Rebus Samniticis, 10, 11) to have included the freedom of the Greeks in Italy and the restoration to the Bruttians, Apulians and Samnites of all that had been taken from them, were rejected chiefly through the vehement and patriotic speech of the aged Appius Claudius Caecus the censor. The withdrawal of Pyrrhus from Italy was demanded, and Cineas returned to his master with the report that Rome was a temple and its senate an assembly of kings. Two years later Cineas was sent to renew negotiations with Rome on easier terms. The result was a cessation of hostilities, and Cineas crossed over to Sicily, to prepare the ground for Pyrrhus’s campaign. Nothing more is heard of him. He is said to have made an epitome of theTactica of Aeneas, probably referred to by Cicero, who speaks of a Cineas as the author of a treatiseDe Re Militari.
See Plutarch,Pyrrhus, 11-21; Justin xviii. 2; Eutropius ii. 12; Cicero,Ad Fam.ix. 25.
CINEMATOGRAPHK, or INEMATOGRAPH (fromκίνημα, motion, and γράφειν, to depict), an apparatus in which a series of views representing closely successive phases of a moving object are exhibited in rapid
sequence, giving a picture which, owing to persistence of vision, appears to the observer to be in continuous motion. It is a development of the zoetrope or “wheel of life,” described by W.G. Horner about 1833, which consists of a hollow cylinder turning on a vertical axis and having its surface pierced with a number of slots. Round the interior is arranged a series of pictures representing successive stages of such a subject as a galloping horse, and when the cylinder is rotated an observer looking through one of the slots sees the horse apparently in motion. The pictures were at first drawn by hand, but photography was afterwards applied to their production. E. Muybridge about 1877 obtained successive pictures of a running horse by employing a row of cameras, the shutters of which were opened and closed electrically by the passage of the horse in front of them, and in 1883 E.J. Marey of Paris established a studio for investigating the motion of animals by similar photographic methods.
The modern cinematograph was rendered possible by the invention of the celluloid roll film (employed by Marey in 1890), on which the serial pictures are impressed by instantaneous photography, a long sensitized film being moved across the focal plane of a camera and exposed intermittently. In one apparatus for making the exposures a cam jerks the film across the field once for each picture, the slack being gathered in on a drum at a constant rate. In another four lenses are rotated so as to give four images for each rotation, the film travelling so as to present a new portion in the field as each lens comes in place. Sixteen to fifty pictures may be taken per second. The films are developed on large drums, within which a ruby electric light may be fixed to enable the process to be watched. A positive is made from the negative thus obtained, and is passed through an optical lantern, the images being thus successively projected through an objective lens upon a distant screen. For an hour’s exhibition 50,000 to 165,000 pictures are needed. To regulate the feed in the lantern a hole is punched in the film for each picture. These holes must be extremely accurate in position; when they wear the feed becomes irregular, and the picture dances or vibrates in an unpleasant manner. Another method of exhibiting cinematographic effects is to bind the pictures together in book form by one edge, and then release them from the other in rapid succession by means of the thumb or some mechanical device as the book is bent backwards. In this case the subject is viewed, not by projection, but directly, either with the unaided eye or through a magnifying glass.
Cinematograph films produced by ordinary photographic processes, being in black and white only, fail to reproduce the colouring of the subjects they represent. To some extent this defect has been remedied by painting them by hand, but this method is too expensive for general adoption, and moreover does not yield very satisfactory results. Attempts to adapt three-colour photography, by using simultaneously three films, each with a source of light of appropriate colour, and combining the three images on the screen, have to overcome great difficulties in regard to maintenance of register, because very minute errors of adjustment between the pictures on the films are magnified to an intolerable extent by projection. In a process devised by G.A. Smith, the results of which were exhibited at the Society of Arts, London, in December 1908, the number of colour records was reduced to two. The films were specially treated to increase their
sensitiveness to red. The photographs were taken through two colour filters alternately interposed in front of the film; both admitted white and yellow, but one, of red, was in addition specially concerned with the orange and red of the subject, and the other, of blue-green, with the green, blue-green, blue and violet. The camera was arranged to take not less than 16 pictures a second through each filter, or 32 a second in all . The positive transparency made from the negative thus obtained was used in a lantern so arranged that beams of red (composed of crimson and yellow) and of green (composed of yellow and blue) issued from the lens alternately, the mechanism presenting the pictures made with the red filter to the red beam, and those made with the green filter to the green beam. A supplementary shutter was provided to introduce violet and blue, to compensate for the deficiency in those colours caused by the necessity of cutting them out in the camera owing to the over-sensitiveness of the film to them, and the result was that the successive pictures, blending on the screen by persistence of vision, gave a reproduction of the scene photographed in colours which were sensibly the same as those of the original.
The cinematograph enables “living” or “animated pictures” of such subjects as an army on the march, or an express train at full speed, to be presented with marvellous distinctness and completeness of detail. Machines of this kind have been devised in enormous numbers and used for purposes of amusement under names (bioscope, biograph, kinetoscope, mutograph, &c.) formed chiefly from combinations of Greek and Latin words for life, movement, change, &c., with suffixes taken from such words as σκοπεῖν, to see,γράφειν, to depict; they have also been combined with phonographic apparatus, so that, for example, the music of a dance and the motions of the dancer are simultaneously reproduced to ear and eye. But when they are used in public places of entertainment, owing to the extreme inflammability of the celluloid film and its employment in close proximity to a powerful source of light and heat, such as is required if the pictures are to show brightly on the screen, precautions must be taken to prevent, as far as possible, the heat rays from reaching it, and effective means must be provided to extinguish it should it take fire. The production of films composed of non-inflammable material has also engaged the attention of inventors.
See H.V. Hopwood,Living Pictures1899), containing a (London, bibliography and a digest of the British patents, which is supplemented in the Optician, vol. xviii. p. 85; Eugène Trutat,La Photographie animée (1899), which contains a list of the French patents. For th e camera see also PHOTOGRAPHY:Apparatus.
CINERARIA. The garden plants of this name have originated from a species ofSenecio,S. cruentus (nat. ord. Compositae), a native of the Canary Isles, introduced to the royal gardens at Kew in 1777. It was known originally asCineraria cruenta, but the genusCinerariais now restricted to
375
a group of South African species, and the Canary Island species has been transferred to the large and widespread genusSenecio. Cinerarias can be raised freely from seeds. For spring flowering in England the seeds are sown in April or May in well-drained pots or pans, in soil of three parts loam to two parts leaf-mould, with one-sixth sand; cover the seed thinly with fine soil, and press the surface firm. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out in pans or pots of similar soil, and when more advanced pot them singly in 4-in. pots, using soil a trifle less sandy. They should be grown in shallow frames facing the north, and, if so situated that the sun shines upon the plants in the middle of the day, they must be slightly shaded; give plenty of air, and never allow them to get dry. When well established with roots, shift them into 6-in. pots, which should be liberally supplied with manure water as they get filled with roots. In winter remove to a pit or house, where a little heat can be supplied whenever there is a risk of their getting frozen. They should stand on a moist bottom, but must not be subjected to cold draughts. When the flowering stems appear, give manure water at every alternate watering. Seeds sown in March, and grown on in this way, will be in bloom by Christmas if kept in a temperature of from 40° to 45° at night, with a little more warmth in the day; and those sown in April and May will succeed them during the early spring months, the latter set of plants being subjected to a temperature of 38° or 40° during the night. If grown much warmer than this, the Cineraria maggot will make its appearance in the leaves, tunnelling its way between the upper and lower surfaces and making whitish irregular markings all over. Such affected leaves must be picked off and burned. Green fly is a great pest on young plants, and can only be kept down by fumigating or vaporizing the houses, and syringing with a solution of quassia chips, soft soap and tobacco.
CINGOLI(anc.Cingulum), a town of the Marches, Italy, in the province of Macerata, about 14 m. N.W. direct, and 17 m. by road, from the town of Macerata. Pop. (1901) 13,357. The Gothic church of S. Esuperanzio contains interesting works of art. The town occupies the site of the ancient Cingulum, a town of Picenum, founded and strongly fortified by Caesar’s lieutenant T. Labienus (probably on the site of an earlier village) in 63B.C.at his own expense. Its lofty position (2300 ft.) made it of some importance in the civil wars, but otherwise little is heard of it. Under the empire it was a municipium.
CINNA, a Roman patrician family of the gens Cornelia. The most prominent member was LUCIUSCORNELIUSCINNA, a supporter of Marius in his
contest with Sulla. After serving in the war with the Marsi as praetorian legate, he was elected consul in 87B.C.Breaking the oath he had sworn to Sulla that he would not attempt any revolution in the state, Cinna allied himself with Marius, raised an army of Italians, and took possession of the city. Soon after his triumphant entry and the massacre of the friends of Sulla, by which he had satisfied his vengeance, Marius died. L. Valerius Flaccus became Cinna’s colleague, and on the murder of Flaccus, Cn. Papirius Carbo. In 84, however, Cinna, who was still consul, was forced to advance against Sulla; but while embarking his troops to meet him in Thessaly, he was killed in a mutiny. His daughter Cornelia was the wife of Julius Caesar, the dictator; but his son, L. CORNELIUSCINNA, praetor in 44B.C., nevertheless sided with the murderers of Caesar and publicly extolled their action.
The hero of Corneille’s tragedyCinna(1640) was Cn. Cornelius Cinna, surnamedMagnus (after his maternal grandfather Pompey), who was magnanimously pardoned by Augustus for conspiring against him.
CINNA, GAIUS HELVIUS, Roman poet of the later Ciceronian age. Practically nothing is known of his life except that he was the friend of Catullus, whom he accompanied to Bithynia in the suite of the praetor Memmius. The circumstances of his death have given rise to some discussion. Suetonius, Valerius Maximus, Appian and Dio Cassius all state that, at Caesar’s funeral, a certain Helvius Cinna was killed by mistake for Cornelius Cinna, the conspirator. The last three writers mentioned above add that he was a tribune of the people, while Plutarch, referring to the affair, gives the further information that the Cinna who was killed by the mob was a poet. This points to the identity of Helvius Cinna the tribune with Helvius Cinna the poet. The chief objection to this view is based upon two lines in the 9th eclogue of Virgil, supposed to have been written 41 or 40 B.C.reference is made to a certain Cinna, a poet of such importance Here that Virgil deprecates comparison with him; it is argued that the manner in which this Cinna, who could hardly have been any one but Helvius Cinna, is spoken of implies that he was then alive; if so, he could not have been killed in 44. But such an interpretation of the Virgilian passage is by no means absolutely necessary; the terms used do not preclude a reference to a contemporary no longer alive. It has been suggested that it was really Cornelius, not Helvius Cinna, who was slain at Caesar’s funeral, but this is not borne out by the authorities. Cinna’s chief work was a mythological epic poem calledSmyrna, the subject of which was the incestuous love of Smyrna (or Myrrha) for her father Cinyras, treated after the manner of the Alexandrian poets. It is said to have taken nine years to finish. A Propempticon Pollionis, a send-off to [Asinius] Pollio, is also attributed to him. In both these poems, the language of which was so obscure that they required special commentaries, his model appears to have been Parthenius of Nicaea.
See A. Weichert,Poëtarum Latinorum VitaeL. Müller’s edition of (1830); Catullus (1870), where the remains of Cinna’s poems are printed; A. Kiessling, “De C. Helvio Cinna Poëta” inCommentationes Philologicae in honorem T. MommsenO. Ribbeck, (1878); Geschichte der römischen Dichtung, i. (1887); Teuffel-Schwabe,Hist. of Roman Lit.(Eng. tr. 213, 2-5); Plessis,Poésie latine(1909).
CINNABAR (Ger.Zinnober), sometimes written cinnabarite, a name applied to red mercuric sulphide (HgS), or native vermilion, the common ore of mercury. The name comes from the Greekκιννάβαρι, used by Theophrastus, and probably applied to several disti nct substances. Cinnabar is generally found in a massive, granular or earthy form, of bright red colour, but it occasionally occurs in crystals, with a metallic adamantine lustre. The crystals belong to the hexagonal system, and are generally of rhombohedral habit, sometimes twinned. Cinnabar presents remarkable resemblance to quartz in its symmetry and optical characters. Like quartz it exhibits circular polarization, and A. Des Cloizeaux showed that it possessed fifteen times the rotatory power of quartz (seePOLARIZATIONOF LIGHT). Cinnabar has higher refractive power than any other known mineral, its mean index for sodium light being 3.02, whilst the index for diamond—a substance of remarkable refraction—is only 2.42 (seeREFRACTION). The hardness of cinnabar is 3, and its specific gravity 8.998.
Cinnabar is found in all localities which yield qui cksilver, notably Almaden (Spain), New Almaden (California), Idria (Austria), Landsberg, near Ober-Moschel in the Palatinate, Ripa, at the foot of the Apuan Alps (Tuscany), the mountain Avala (Servia), Huancavelica (Peru), and the province of Kweichow in China, whence very fine crystals have been obtained. Cinnabar is in course of deposition at the present day from the hot waters of Sulphur Bank, in California, and Steamboat Springs, Nevada.
Hepatic cinnabar is an impure variety from Idria in Carniola, in which the cinnabar is mixed with bituminous and earthy matter.
Metacinnabarite is a cubic form of mercuric sulphide, this compound being dimorphous.
For a general description of cinnabar, see G.F. Bec ker’sGeology of the Quicksilver Deposits of the Pacific Slope, U.S. Geol. Surv. Monographs, No. xiii. (1888). (F. W. R.*)
CINNAMIC ACID, or PHENYLACRYLICACIDor C H .CH:CH.COOH,, C H O 9 8 2 6 6
376
an acid found in the form of its benzyl ester in Peru and Tolu balsams, in storax and in some gum-benzoins. It can be prepared by the reduction of phenyl propiolic acid with zinc and acetic acid, by heating benzal malonic acid, by the condensation of ethyl acetate with benzaldehyde in the presence of sodium ethylate or by the so-called “Perkin reaction”; the latter being the method commonly employed. In making the acid by this process benzaldehyde, acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate are heated for some hours to about 1800 C, the resulting product is made alkaline with sodium carbonate, and any excess of benzaldehyde removed by a current of steam. The residual liquor is filtered and acidified with hydrochloric acid, when cinnamic acid is precipitated, C H CHO+CH COONa = 6 5 3 C H CH:CH.COONa + H O. It may be purified by recrystallization from hot 6 5 2 water. Considerable controversy has taken place as to the course pursued by this reaction, but the matter has been definitely settled by the work of R. Fittig and his pupils (Annalen, 1883, 216, pp. 100, 115; 1885, 227, pp. 55, 119), in which it was shown that the aldehyde forms an addition compound with the sodium salt of the fatty acid, and that the acetic anhydride plays the part of a dehydrating agent. Cinnamic acid crystallizes in needles or prisms, melting at 133°C; on reduction it givesphenyl propionic acid, C H .CH .CH .COOH. Nitric acid oxidizes it to benzoic acid and acetic 6 5 2 2 acid. Potash fusion decomposes it into benzoic and acetic acids. Being an unsaturated acid it combines directly with hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, bromine, &c. On nitration it gives a mixture of ortho and para nitrocinnamic acids, the former of which is of historical importance, as by converting it into orthonitrophenyl propiolic acid A. Baeyer was enabled to carry out the complete synthesis of indigo (q.v.). Reduction of orthonitrocinnamic acid gives orthoaminocinnamic ac id, C H (NH )CH:CH.COOH, which is of theoretical importance, as it readily 6 4 2 gives a quinoline derivative. An isomer of cinnamic acid known asallo-cinnamic acidis also known.
For the oxy-cinnamic adds seeCOUMARIN.
CINNAMON, the inner bark ofCinnamomum zeylanicum, a small evergreen tree belonging to the natural order Lauraceae, native to Ceylon. The leaves are large, ovate-oblong in shape, and the flowers, which are arranged in panicles, have a greenish colour and a rather disagreeable odour. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity, and it was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a present fit for monarchs and other great potentates. It is mentioned in Exod. xxx. 23, where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Kinnamon) and cassia, and it is alluded to by Herodotus under the nameκιννάμωμον, and by other classical writers. The tree is grown at Tellicherry, in Java, the West Indies, Brazil and Egypt, but the produce of none of these places approaches in quality that grown in Ceylon. Ceylon cinnamon of fine quality is a very thin smooth bark, with a light-yellowish brown colour, a