Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 1 - Prependix
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Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 1 - Prependix

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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 1  Prependix Author: Various Release Date: January 15, 2010 [EBook #30976] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA ***
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THE
ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA
ELEVENTH EDITION
FIRST edition, published in three SECOND " " ten THIRD " " eighteen FOURTH " " twenty FIFTH " " twenty
volumes,11777618.-" 1777-1784. " 1788-1797. " 1801-1810. " 1815-1817.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SIXTH""twenty"11882243.--SEVENTH""twenty-one"11884320 . EIGHTH""twenty-two"11885630-. NINTH""twenty-five"11887859-. TENTH " ninth edition and eleven supplementary 1902-volumes, 1903. ELEVENTH " published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910-1911.
COPYRIGHT in all countries subscribing to the Bern Convention by THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS of the UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE
All rights reserved
THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA
A DICTIONARY OF
  
   
  
 
 
ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL INFORMATION
ELEVENTH EDITION
VOLUME VII CONSTANTINE PAVLOVICH to DEMIDOV
New York
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 342 Madison Avenue
Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910, by The Encyclopædia Britannica Company.
INITIALS USED IN VOLUME VII. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS, 1 WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.
 A. B. F. Y. A LEXANDER B ELL F ILSON Y OUNG . ce ( in p F CW o oa r lgu m n e me rl br y u  Sst ;E o  r d i i e t Ms o a ;r  s & t o e cf. r  -s t i h n e g  eOrust ; l  ooTkh . e Au C th o o m r pl o e f t  eC hriMstootoprhisetr ; { Dan art ). A. Bo.* A UGUSTE B OUDINHON , D.D., D.C.L. Professor of Canon Law in the Catholic University of Paris. contemporain . { a Romana; Decretals. Honorary Canon of Paris. Editor of the Canoniste Curi A. Ca. A RTHUR C AYLEY , LL.D., F.R.S. See the biographical article: C AYLEY , A RTHUR . { Curve ( in part ). A. E. B. R EV . A NDREW E WBANK B URN , M.A., D.D.
A. E. J. A. F. P.
A. G. A. Go.*
A. H. J. G.
A. H. P.
A. J. B. A. J. B.* A. J. E.
A. L.
A. Mw. A. M. C.
A. M. Cl.
Vicar of Halifax and Prebendary of Lichfield. Author of An Introduction to the Creeds and the Te Deum; Niceta of Remesiana ; &c. A RTHUR E RNEST J OLLIFFE , M.A. Fellow of, and Tutor and Mathematical Lecturer at, Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Senior Mathematical Scholar, 1892. A LBERT F REDERICK P OLLARD , M.A., F.R.H IST .S OC . Fellow of All Souls’ College, Oxford. Professor of English History in the University of London. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography , 1893-1901. Author of England under the Protector Somerset ; Life of Thomas Cranmer ; &c. M AJOR A RTHUR G EORGE F REDERICK G RIFFITHS (d. 1908). H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878-1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate ; Secrets of the Prison House ; &c. R EV . A LEXANDER G ORDON , M.A. Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.
A BEL H ENDY J ONES G REENIDGE , M.A., D.LITT. (Oxon.) (d. 1905). Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Hertford College, Oxford, and of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Infamia in Roman Law ; Handbook of Greek Constitutional History ; Roman Public Life ; History of Rome . Joint-author of Sources of Roman History, 133-70 B.C . R EV . A RNOLD H ILL P AYNE , M.A. Chaplain, Oxford Diocesan Mission to the Deaf and Dumb. Late Normal Fellow, National Deaf Mute College, Washington, U.S.A. Author of The Mental Development of the Orally and Manually taught Deaf ; The Pure Oral Method of necessity a Comparative Failure ; &c. A LFRED J OSHUA B UTLER , M.A., D.L ITT . Fellow and Bursar of Brasenose College, Oxford. Fellow of Eton College. Author o f The Ancient Coptic Churches of Egypt ; The Arab Conquest of Egypt ; &c. A RTHUR J OHN B UTLER , M.A. (1844-1910). Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Professor of Italian Language and Literature, University College, London. Author of a prose translation of Dante’s Divine Comedy ; Dante and his Times ; &c. A RTHUR J OHN E VANS , M.A., D.L ITT ., LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A. Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford. Keeper of Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 1884-1908. Hon. Keeper since 1908. Made archaeological discoveries in Crete, 1893; excavated the Palace of Knossos. Author of Through Bosnia on Foot ; Cretan Pictographs and Prae-Phoenician Script ; and other works on archaeology. A NDREW L ANG . See the biographical article: L ANG , A NDREW .
A LLEN M AWER , M.A. Professor of English Language and Literature, Armstrong College, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Formerly Lecturer in English at the University of Sheffield. A GNES M ARY C LERKE . See the biographical article: C LERKE , A. M.
A GNES M URIEL C LAY (M RS . W ILDE ). Formerly Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford.
{ Creeds. { Continued Fractions. overdale; Cox, Richard; Craig, John; Cranmer; { CCrowley. Cromwell, Thomas; { Crime; Criminology. { Coornhert. { Consul: Roman.
{ Deaf and Dumb. { Copts: The Coptic Church . { Dante. Crete: Archaeology and { Ancient History . { Crystal-Gazing. { Danelagh. { CDoelpiselren, iJc.u Ns.; Delambre;   
A. N.
A. N.*
A. N. M.
A. van M. A. W. H.* A. Wi. A. W. R. A. W. W.
C. E.*
C. E. N.
C. F. A. C. F. B. C. K. C. K. S.
Joint-author of Sources of Roman History, 133-70 B.C. A LFRED N EWTON , F.R.S. See the biographical article: N EWTON , A LFRED .
R EV . A LEXANDER N AIRNE , M.A. Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis in King’s College, London. Examining Chaplain to the Bishop of St Albans. Fellow of King’s College, London. Formerly Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge. Crosse Scholar, 1886. Author of The Bible Doctrine of Atonement ; &c. A. N. M ONKHOUSE . Member of Editorial Staff of Manchester Guardian .
A LEXANDER  VAN M ILLINGEN , M.A., D.D. Professor of History, Robert College, Constantinople. Author of Byzantine Constantinople ; Constantinople ; &c. A RTHUR W ILLIAM H OLLAND . Formerly Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray’s Inn, 1900. A NEURIN W ILLIAMS , M A., M.P. Barrister-at-Law of the Inner Temple. Chairman of Executive, International Cooperative Alliance. M.P. for Plymouth, 1910. Author of Twenty-eight Years of Co-partnership at Guise ; &c. A LEXANDER W OOD R ENTON , M.A, L.L.B. Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England . A DOLPHUS W ILLIAM W ARD , L ITT .D., LL.D. See the biographical article: W , A. W.
RAD
C HARLES E VERITT , A.M., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S. Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford.
C HARLES E LIOT N ORTON , LL.D. See the biographical article: N ORTON , C HARLES E.
C HARLES F RANCIS A TKINSON . Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour . C HARLES F RANCIS B ASTABLE , M.A., LL.D. Regius Professor of Law and Professor of Political Economy in the University of Dublin. Author of Public Finance ; Commerce of Nations ; Theory of International Trade ; &c. W ILLIAM C HARLES M ARK K ENT . Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Edited the London Sun for twenty-five years; t h e Weekly Register , 1874-1881. Author of The Humour and Pathos of Charles Dickens ; &c. C LEMENT K ING S HORTER . Editor of the Sphere . Author of Sixty Years of Victorian Literature ; Immortal Memories ; The Brontës: Life and Letters ; &c.
 . { CCCrouorolste;s wbC.ilol;r mCroorawn;t ;C Curcaknoeo;; { Creatianism and Traducianism. { Cotton ( in part ) . { Constantinople. { Curia Regis. { Co-operation. { CCoorvpeonraanl tP.unishment; { C Dr u a m m b a e ti r s l t a . nd, Richard: { Constellation. { Curtis, George William. Crimean War; Cromwell, { Oliver ( in part ) { Decimal Coinage.
{ Dalling, Lord. { CGoeowrpgeer., William; Crabbe,
C. L. C. Pf. C. R. B.
D. C. T. D. F. T. D. G. H.
D. H.
D. Mn. E. Br. E. B. El. E. B. P. E. C. Q. E. F. S.
H. C ALDWELL L IPSETT . Formerly Editor of the Civil and Military Gazette , Lahore, India. Author of Lord Curzon in India . C HRISTIAN P FISTER , D. ÈS L. Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Étude sur le règne de Robert le Pieux ; Le Duché merovingien d’Alsace et la legende de Sainte-Odile . C HARLES R AYMOND B EAZLEY , M.A., D.L ITT ., F.R.G.S., F.R.H IST .S. Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Henry the Navigator ; The Dawn of Modern Geography ; &c. D AVID C ROAL T HOMSON . Formerly Editor of the Art Journal . Author of The Brothers Maris ; The Barbizon School of Painters ; Life of Phiz” ; Life of Bewick ; &c. D ONALD F RANCIS T OVEY . Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analyses, comprising Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations ; and analyses of many other classical works. D AVID G EORGE H OGARTH , M.A. Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naukratis, 1899 a nd 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Athens, 1897-1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. D AVID H ANNAY . Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal Navy, 1217-1688 ; Life of Emilio Castelar ; &c.
R EV . D UGALD M ACFADYEN , M.A. Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Director of the London Missionary Society. E RNEST B ARKER , M.A. Fellow of, and Lecturer in Modern History at, St John’s College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895. E DWIN B AILEY E LLIOTT , M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. Waynflete Professor of Pure Mathematics and Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Queen’s College, Oxford. President of London Mathematical Society, 1896-1898. Author of Algebra of Quantics ; &c. E DWARD B AGNALL P OULTON , M.A., D.S C ., F.R.S., LL.D. Hope Professor of Zoology in the University of Oxford. Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford. Author of The Colours of Animals ; Essays on Evolution ; Darwin and the Original Species ; &c. E DMUND C ROSBY Q UIGGIN , M.A. Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge; Lecturer in Modern Languages, and Monro Lecturer in Celtic. E DWARD F AIRBROTHER S TRANGE . Assistant Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. Member of Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art subjects. Joint-editor of Bell’s “Cathedral” Series.
{ Coolie. { Dagobert. Conti, Nicolo de’; Cook, { Captain; Dampier; Daniel of Kiev; Davis, John. { Corot; Daubigny. puntal Forms; { CCoountnrtaerpoint. { Cyrenaica; Cyrene. Convoy ( in part ) ; { FCCeoorrpndeaonnbhdaae, gzG edone,n ;z BDaaltathlel gorfe;n, o John Adolf. { Cruden, Alexander. { Crusades. { Curve ( in part ) . { Darwin. { Cuchulinn. { Della Quercia.
E. G.
E. Gr.
E. Ma. Ed. M. E. M. W. E. Pr. E. R. B. E. Tn.
E. V. F. E. W.
F. G. M. B. F. Lu. F. Ll. G.
F. Po.
E DMUND G OSSE , LL.D. See the biographical article: G OSSE , E DMUND .
E RNEST A RTHUR G ARDNER , M.A. See the biographical article: G ARDNER , P ERCY .
E DWARD M ANSON . Barrister-at-Law. Joint-editor of Journal of Comparative Legislation . Author of Debentures and Debenture Stock ; &c. E DUARD M EYER , D.L ITT . (Oxon.), LL.D., P H .D. Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des Alterthums ; Forschungen zur alten Geschichte ; Geschichte des alten Ägyptens ; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstämme ; &c. R EV . E DWARD M EWBURN W ALKER , M.A. Fellow, Senior Tutor and Librarian of Queen’s College, Oxford. E DGAR P RESTAGE . Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Commendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy of Sciences and Lisbon Geographical Society, &c. E DWYN R OBERT B EVAN , M.A. Formerly Scholar of New College, Oxford. Author of House of Seleucus ; Jerusalem under the High Priests . R EV . E THELRED L EONARD T AUNTON (d. 1907). Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict ;
iHtsory of the Jesuisti  nnElgnad.
R EV . E DMUND V ENABLES , M.A., D.D. (1819-1895). Canon and Precentor of Lincoln. Author of Episcopal Palaces of England . R EV . F REDERICK E DWARD W ARREN , M.A., B.D., F.S.A. Rector of Bardwell, Bury St Edmunds. Fellow of St John’s College, Oxford, 1865-1882. Author of The Old Catholic Ritual done into English and compared with the Corresponding Offices in the Roman and Old German Manuals ; The Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church ; &c. F REDERICK G EORGE M EESON B ECK , M.A. Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge. F RIEDRICH L UCKWALDT , P H .D. Professor of History at the Royal Technical High School, Danzig. Author of Österreich und die Anfänge des Befreiungskriege von 1813 ; &c. F RANCIS L LEWELLYN G RIFFITH , M.A., P H .D., F.S.A. Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Editor of the Archaeological Survey  and Archaeological Reports  of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial German Archaeological Institute. S IR F REDERICK P OLLOCK , B ART ., LL.D., D.C.L. See the biographical article: P OLLOCK : Family .
Conte; Couplet; Cowley; { DSECiradr anwsiWaehillr,la idaS wD;am o;mC uruDiwteeileck;i sksD.emar,;venant, { I CDC st roe h ilrsfp m auh; u i ( . si D  no a fp p ;  a h r C t n ) o;e s;C  ( i Do n re  il p no a ts r h t ; ) :; De Debenture { Stobcekn.tures and C siphon; Cyaxares; { Dteemetrius of Bactria. Cyrus; Darius; Deioces; { Constitution of Athens. { CCrourtze -e RSeilavl,a .Jeronymo; { Demetrius of Macedonia. { Cullen, Paul; Curci. { Crypt. { Dedication. { Deira. { Dahlmann. { Copts ( in part ) . { Contract.
F. S. P. F. T. M. F. W. Ha. F. W. R.* G. A. B. G. C. B. G. C. C. G. C. W. G. F. Z. G. H. Fo. G. J. T. G. P. R. G. Sa.
G. Sn. G. W. T. H. Br. H. B. W.
F RANCIS S AMUEL P HILBRICK , A.M., B.S C . Formerly Scholar and Resident Fellow of Harvard University. Member of American Historical Association. S IR F RANK T HOMAS M ARZIALS , K.C.B. Formerly Accountant-General of the Army. Editor of “Great Writers” Series. F REDERICK W ILLIAM H ASLUCK , M.A. Assistant Director, British School of Archaeology, Athens. Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge. Browne’s Medallist, 1901. F REDERICK W ILLIAM R UDLER , I.S.O., F.G.S. Curator and Librarian at the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. President of the Geologists’ Association, 1887-1889. G EORGE A. B OULENGER , F.R.S. In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London. G ILBERT C HARLES B OURNE , M.A., D.S C ., F.R.S. Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Oxford. Fellow of Merton College, Oxford. Author of An Introduction to the Study of Comparative Anatomy of Animals ; &c. G. C. C HUBB . G EORGE C HARLES W ILLIAMSON , L ITT . D. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures ; Life of Richard Cosway, R.A. ; George Engleheart ; Portrait Drawings ; &c. Editor of new edition of Bryan’s Dictionary of Painters and Engravers . G. F. Z IMMER , A.M.I NST .C.E., F.Z.S. Author of Mechanical Handling of Material . G EORGE H ERBERT F OWLER , F.Z.S., F.L.S., P H .D. Formerly Berkeley Fellow of Owens College, Manchester, and Assistant Professor of Zoology at University College, London. G EORGE J AMES T URNER . Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln’s Inn. Editor of Select Pleas of the Forest for the Selden Society. G ERALD P HILIP R OBINSON . President of the Society of Mezzotint Engravers. Mezzotint Engraver to Queen Victoria and to King Edward VII. G EORGE S AINTSBURY , L.L.D., L ITT .D. See the biographical article: S AINTSBURY , G. E. B.
G RANT S HOWERMAN , A.M., P H .D. Professor of Latin at the University of Wisconsin. Member of the Archaeological Institute of America. Member of American Philological Association. Author of With the Professor ; The Great Mother of the Gods ; &c. R EV . G RIFFITHES W HEELER T HATCHER , M.A., B.D. Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. H ENRY B RADLEY , M.A., P H .D. Joint-editor of the NewEnglish Dictionary (Oxford). Fellow of the British Academy. Author of The Story of the Goths ; The Making of English ; &c. H ORACE B OLINGBROKE W OODWARD , F.R.S., F.G.S.
{ Cuba. { Daudet. { Cyzicus. { CDoermuanndtuoimd;. Cryolite; { Cyprinodonts. { Coral-reefs. { Cytology. { CCRioocoohppareerrd,,.  ASlaexmaunedl;e rC;osway, { Conveyors. { Ctenophora. { County. { Cousins, Samuel. { TChoronmeiallse., Pierre; Corneille, { Corybantes; Criobolium; Curetes; Cybele. { Damiri. { Cynewulf.
{ Dechen. { Crocodile. { Courbet. { De Bary. { Crusius; Cudworth, R. { C Et o ru stume: Aegean, Greek, scan and Roman . { Cremation. { Danube. { Coutances, Walter of. { Crescas; Delmedigo.
{ Crannog. { Cranach; Cuyp. { CCoulraml.lian; Cornbrash; { Cremation: Statistics . { Crete: Geography and Statistics; and Modern History . { Daniel ( in part ) .
Normans and Angevins ; Charlemagne . I. A. I SRAEL A BRAHAMS , M.A. Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature, University of Cambridge. President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages . J. An. J OSEPH A NDERSON , LL.D. Keeper of the National Museum of Antiquities, Edinburgh. Assistant Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, and Rhind Lecturer, 1879-1882 and 1892. Editor of Drummond’s Ancient Scottish Weapons ; &c. J. A. C. S IR J OSEPH A RCHER C ROWE , K.C.M.G. See the biographical article: C ROWE , S IR J. A. J. A. H. J OHN A LLEN H OWE , B.S C . Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. J. C. S.-H. J OHN C ASTLEMAN S WINBURNE -HANHAM , J.P. Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Hon. Secretary of Cremation Society of England. J. D. B. J AMES D AVID B OURCHIER , M.A., F.R.G.S. King’s College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria. J. D. Pr. J OHN D YNELEY P RINCE , P H .D. Professor of Semitic Languages at Columbia University, New York.
Late Assistant Director, Geological Survey of England and Wales. Wollaston Medallist, Geological Society. Author of The History of the Geological Society of London ; &c. H. F. G. H ANS F RIEDRICH G ADOW , M.A., F.R.S., P H .D. Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. Author of Amphibia and Reptiles (Cambridge Natural History). H. Fr. H ENRI F RANTZ . Art Critic, Gazette des Beaux Arts , Paris. H. M. W. H. M ARSHALL W ARD , M.A., F.R.S., D.S C . (d. 1905). Formerly Professor of Botany in the University of Cambridge. President of the British Mycological Society. Author of Timber and some of its Diseases ; The Oak ; Disease in Plants ; &c. H. St. H ENRY S TURT , M.A. Author of Idola Theatri ; The Idea of a Free Church ; and Personal Idealism . H. S. J. H ENRY S TUART J ONES , M.A. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford, and Director of the British School at Rome. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. Author of The Roman Empire ; &c. H. Th. S IR H ENRY T HOMPSON , B ART . See the biographical article: T HOMPSON , S IR H ENRY . H. Tr. S IR H ENRY T ROTTER , K.C.M.G., C.B. Lieutenant-Colonel, Royal Engineers. H.B.M. Consul-General for Roumania, 1894-1906, and British Delegate on the European Commission of the Danube. Victoria Medallist, Royal Geographical Society, 1878. H. W. C. D. H ENRY W ILLIAM C ARLESS D AVIS , M.A. Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All
ernd undhe t rohtuA algnE fo, 18lege902.95-1oSC lolus
J. E. B. J. Go.* J. G. K.
J. H. F. J. H. M.
J. H. R. J. Hl. R. J. H. Rs. J. L. M. J. Mo. J. McF. J. M. M. J. P. Pe.
J. S. F. J. T. Be.
J OHN E GLINTON B AILEY . Author of John Dee and the Steganographia of Trithemius ; Life of Thomas Fuller . J OSEPH G REGO . Art Critic. Author of A History of Parliamentary Elections ; A History of Dancing ; Thomas Rowlandson ; James Gillray ; &c. J OHN G RAHAM K ERR , M.A., F.R.S. Regius Professor of Zoology in the University of Glasgow. Formerly Demonstrator in Animal Morphology in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of Christ’s College, Cambridge, 1898-1904. Walsingham Medallist, 1898. Neill Prizeman, Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1904. J OHN H ENRY F REESE , M.A. Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge. J OHN H ENRY M IDDLETON , M.A., F.S.A., L ITT .D., D.C.L. (1846-1896). Formerly Slade Professor of Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, and Art Director of the South Kensington Museum. Author of The Engraved Gems of  Classical Times; Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Medieval Times . J OHN H ORACE R OUND , M.A., LL.D. (Edin.). Author of Feudal England ; Studies in Peerage and Family History ; Peerage and Pedigree ; &c. J OHN H OLLAND R OSE , M.A., L ITT .D. Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I. ; Napoleonic Studies ; The Development of the European Nations ; The Life of Pitt ; &c. R EV . J AMES H ARDY R OPES , D.D. Bussey Professor of New Testament Criticism and Interpretation, and Dexter Lecturer on Bible Literature, Harvard University. Author of The Apostolic Age in the Light of Modern Criticism ; &c. J OHN L INTON M YRES , M.A., F.S.A. Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Formerly Gladstone Professor of Greek, and Lecturer in Ancient Geography, University of Liverpool; and Lecturer on Classical Archaeology in University of Oxford. V ISCOUNT M ORLEY  OF B LACKBURN . See the biographical article: M ORLEY , V ISCOUNT . J OHN M ACFARLANE . Formerly Librarian of the Imperial Library, Calcutta. Author of Library Administration ; &c. J OHN M ALCOLM M ITCHELL . Sometime Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote’s History of Greece . R EV . J OHN P UNNETT P ETERS , P H .D., D.D. Canon Residentiary, Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of Hebrew in the University of Pennsylvania. Director of the University Expedition to Babylonia, 1888-1895. Author of Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates . J OHN S MITH F LETT , D.S C ., F.G.S. Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London. J OHN T. B EALBY . Joint-author of Stanford’s Europe . Formerly Editor of the
{ Cryptography. { Cruikshank. { Cyclostomata. { Demeter. { Della Robbia ( in part ) . { Court Baron. { Daru, Count; Decaen. { Corinthians: Epistles to the . { Cyprus ( in part ) . { Danton. { Damien, Father. { Delian League. { Deir. { Crystallite; Dacite.
Crimea ( in part ) ; Daghestan