European Fungus Flora: Agaricaceae
339 Pages

European Fungus Flora: Agaricaceae


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Project Gutenberg's European Fungus Flora: Agaricaceae, by George Massee
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Title: European Fungus Flora: Agaricaceae
Author: George Massee
Release Date: June 28, 2010 [EBook #33013]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
Produced by Peter Vachuska, Stephen H. Sentoff and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at
To my friend Dr M. C. Cooke, to whom in matters Mycological I cannot sufficiently express my indebtedness; I have much pleasure in dedicating this attempt to introduce to British Mycologists, the Agarics of European countries.
Dedication Preface
PAGE iii v
[Pg iii]
[Pg iv]
Agaricaceae, definition of
Agaricaceae, definition of sections of Leucosporae, analysis of genera Abbreviations
Chlorosporae, analysis of genera
Rhodosporae, analysis of genera Ochrosporae, analysis of genera Melanosporae, analysis of genera Addenda Corrections
Bibliography Index
1 1 1 3 118 118 138 203
241 244 245 248
Observations extending over a period of twenty-five years, made at Fungus Forays and kindred meetings where Mycologists assemble together, has led to the conviction that familiarity with the Fungi and literature pertaining thereto, of one country only, leads to a false impression as to the significance of the term 'species.'
It conveys the idea that species are much more sharply defined than proves to be the case, when the entire Fungus Flora of Europe is included.
In all large genera common to European countries, the continental species can be sandwiched between British species. Even in large genera there are as a rule not more than eight or ten primary differentiating specific characters present, and it is the constant correlation of two or three of those primary characters that constitute a species, as understood at the present day.
If two British species are characterised respectively by the marks 1, 2, and 3, 4, then we find that two continental species belonging to the same genus will be indicated by the characters 1, 3, and 2, 4, respectively.
Primary specific characters should include only those features that are constant, and not materially modified by geographical or exceptional local conditions as to environment, etc., and such alone should constitute a specific diagnosis. Trivial or local characteristics should follow the essential diagnosis as a rider.
With the introduction of characters due to local conditions, a description ceases to be a specific diagnosis in the proper sense, and is merely a description of a certain state of a species occurring under a given set of conditions. Such, however, is too frequently the nature of so-called specific characters given in local Floras.
[Pg v]
[Pg vi]
A lengthy and laboured description suggests lack of power to grip essentials on the part of the compiler, and does not as a rule facilitate the recognition of the species intended.
The idea of this work is to give the essential characters of each species as presented by pileus, gills, stem and spores respectively. This, however, owing to the views of some authors as to the predominant value of one feature to the exclusion of others, has not always been possible. For this reason the species of Britzelmayr are not included, as his descriptions, even when aided by what are presumably intended as figures, could not in many instances be construed into an intelligible diagnosis.
In Cooke and Quélet'sClavis Synoptica Hymenomycetum Europaeorum (1878), 1943 species of Agarics are recorded as European, and of these 939 are given as British. The present work includes descriptions of 2750 European species, of which 1553 are British, a number considerably in excess of that recorded for the species of any other European country.
The species indicated by brackets have not been recorded as British.
KEW,June, 1902.
G. M.
Hymenium covering the entire surface of radiating lamellae or gills. Spores one-celled.
Primary divisions of the Agaricaceae depend on the colour of the spores as seen in the mass, when deposited on an opaque substance; and not as seen under the microscope by transmitted light.
Spores white. In some cases with a tinge of yellow or pink. In some species of Russulaspores are clear ochre, but such species belong obviously to the Russulanotwithstanding.
Spores clear green or bluish-green.
Spores salmon-colour or pink.
[Pg 1]
Spores ochraceous or rust-colour.
Spores black, blackish-brown, or black with a purple tinge.
I. HAPLOPHYLLAE. Margin of gills acute; i.e. not longitudinally split or grooved.
* MOLLES. More or less fleshy, soft, and soon decaying or shrivelling (not corky, woody, or rigid).
+Ring, or volva, or both present, or gills free.
Amanita. Volva and ring present. Gills usually free, rarely adnexed or adnate. (Volva sometimes not evident round base of stem, but loose patches on pileus prove its presence.)
Amanitopsis. Volva present, ring absent; gills free.
Lepiotasp. the ring is. Ring present, volva absent; gills free. (In some imperfect, and in a few the gills are slightly attached.)
Hiatula. Gills free; volva and ring absent.
Armillaria. Ring present, volva absent; gills attached.
++Gills adnexed or adnate; ring and volva absent.
Tricholoma. Gills sinuate; stem fleshy.
Russula. Pileus fleshy; gills very rigid, brittle.
Mycena. Pileus slender, campanulate, usually striate, margin straight and adpressed to stem when young.
Collybia. Pileus rather fleshy, more or less plane, margin incurved when young; stem cartilaginous outside.
Marasmiusls often. Tough, drying up and reviving when moistened; gil connected by veins.
+++Gills decurrent.
Lactarius. Gills and flesh exuding milk when broken. (In some sp. the gills are adnate.)
[Pg 2]
Hygrophorus. Gills thick at the base, edge acute, rather waxy, often branched; pileus often hygrophanous. (In some sp. the gills are adnate or even free.)
Clitocybe. Gills thin, pliant, sometimes powdered with the spores; stem fibrous outside.
Omphalia. Gills thin, pliant, stem cartilaginous outside.
Pleurotus. Growing on wood. Stem lateral or excentric when present.
Cantharellus. Gills narrow, edge thick, rather waxy, forking.
Arrhenia. Gills reduced to very slight wrinkles or veins.
Nyctalis. Gills thick, edge blunt. Parasitic on fungi, or among dead leaves, &c.
** TENACES. Coriaceous, corky, or woody, persistent, rigid when dry.
Lentinus. Pileus coriaceous; gills decurrent, edge toothed or eroded.
Panus. Pileus coriaceous; gills decurrent, edge quite entire.
Xerotus. Pileus coriaceous; gills forking, edge thick.
Lenzites. Horizontal, sessile, woody or corky; gills radiating from behind.
II. SCHIZOPHYLLAE. Margin of gills split open.
Trogia. Gills resembling folds or wrinkles, edge grooved. (In the only European species the edge of gills not grooved.)
Schizophyllum. Margin of gills split, the split portions rolling outwards.
Cm. = centimetres; compr. = compressed; decur. = decurrent; depr. = depressed; exp. = expanded; g. = gills; hygr. = hygrophanous; infundib. = infundibuliform; mm. = millimetres; p. = pileus; s. = stem; sp. = spores; umb. = umbonate; umbil. = umbilicate.
The measurement given of the stem is that of its average length; that of the pileus, its average breadth when expanded. The measurement of the spores is given in micro-millimetres, usually indicated by the Greek letter µ.
*Margin of volva free, persistent.
+Pileus red or deep orange.
[caesarea, Scop. P. hemispherical then exp. orange or red, edge striate, flesh
[Pg 3]
yellowish; g. yellow; s. stout, yellow, ring and volva lax; sp. 8-10 × 6. Edible.
++Pileus white, sometimes tinged yellow or green.
virosa, Fr. Entirely white. P. 8-11 cm. conical, then expanded; viscid when moist; g. free, crowded; s. 10-12 cm. slightly thinner upwards, squamulose, ring near apex, torn, volva large, lax; sp. subglobose, 8-10. Poisonous.
phalloides, Fr. P. 7-10 cm. viscid, obtuse, white, tinted yellow or greenish; g. free, white; s. 7-10 cm. white, tapering upwards, bulbous, ring large, volva large, margin irreg. free; sp. subglobose, 7-8. Poisonous.
mappa, Fr. Smell strong. P. 6-9 cm. convex then expanded, dry, white or yellowish, usually with patches of the volva; g. adnexed, white; s. 5-8 cm. white, bulbous, ring torn, volva without a large, free margin; sp. subglobose, 7-9. Poisonous.
Differs fromA. phalloidesin shorter equal stem.
[ovoidea, Bull. White. P. silky, margin incurved, even; s. squamulose.
[coccola, Scop. White; margin of p. incurved, sulcate; s. villose; sp. 11-12 × 8.
[lepiotoides, Barla. At first entirely closed in brown volva. P. exp. edge striate, squamulose, whitish, cuticle broken into greyish tawny areolae or scales; g. broad, whitish, brownish when bruised; s. yellowish-white, squamulose, ring thin, fugacious.
+++Pileus yellow, sometimes tinged red.
[junquillea, Q. P. pale orange or lemon yellow, viscid, deeply striate; g. adnexed; s. and fugacious ring yellowish-white, base ovoid-bulbous, volva circumscissile.
[vernalis, Gillet. P. exp. pale dingy yellow with tinge of red, with scattered white scales; g. free, white, broadest in front; s. white, squamulose below the ring, base bulbous, volva ample margin free. In early spring.
[lutea, Otth. P. conical, exp. yellow or yellowish ochre, edge invol. slightly striate, disc papillose, viscid, usually with broad scattered scales; g. white, crowded; s. rather narrowed upwards, base bulbous, ring thin, white, volva membranous.
++++Pileus brownish or grey.
[porphyria, A. & S. P. brownish or with a violet tinge; g. adnexed; s. slender, ring distant brownish; sp. 8-10.
recutita, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. soon expanded, dry, glabrous, fragments of volva present as a rule, grey or brownish; g. forming lines down the stem; s. narrowed upwards, silky, white, ring distant, white, edge of volva not free; sp. ——.
Differs fromA. porphyriain ring not being tinged brown.
[cinerea, Bresad. Small. P. conico-campan. edge striate, livid-grey; g. free,
[Pg 4]
crowded, white, edge fimbriate; s. equal, almost glabrous, partly hollow, colour of p., ring apical, persistent, white; volva free, sheathing, limb lobed, whitish; sp. 10-12 × 8.
**Volva without a free loose margin, or almost obsolete.
+Pileus red, reddish-brown or dingy brown.
muscaria, Fr. P. 12-18 cm. soon plane, striate, viscid, scarlet or orange with white patches; gills forming lines down the stem, white; s. 10-14 cm. stout, white, ring lax, volva broken up into concentric ridges; sp. 8 × 5. Poisonous.
var.regalis, Fr. Large. P. liver-colour.
v a r .formosa, Pers. P. yellow or tawny orange, scales usually absent; s. elongated, yellowish.
var.umbrina, Viv. P. umber or livid, disc fuscous; s. hollow. A slender form.
rubescens, Fr. P. 8-12 cm. convex then expanded, dingy red-brown, sprinkled with small pale warts, flesh brownish when broken; g. whitish, forming lines down the stem; s. 7-10 cm. stout, narrowed upwards, squamulose, whitish, ring large, bulbous base concentrically grooved; sp. 8 × 6. Edible.
[roseola, Steinh. P. exp. rosy, with rosy mealy warts or naked, flesh rosy; g. crowded, adnexed, white; s. cylindrical, somewhat bulbous, with rufous squamules below ring, volva obsolete; sp. 8-9 × 5-6.
[Eliae, Q. P. reddish-lilac, margin sulcate; g. adnexed; s. white, striate, volva obsolete; sp. 11 long.
magnifica, Fr. P. 8-12 cm. soon almost plane, striate, reddish-brown or bay, with mealy patches, flesh reddish; g. slightly decurrent; s. 10-14 cm. bulbous, nearly equal, scaly and coloured like pileus up to the large ring; sp. 7-8 × 5.
Very close toArmillaria.
megalodactyla, Berk. Strong scented. P. 5-8 cm. soon expanded, subgibbous, reddish-grey; g. free, becoming tinged red; s. 8-12 cm. rather bulbous, fibrillose, white, ring large; sp. 5 × 3.
aspera, Fr. P. 6-8 cm. soon plane, dusky olive, livid, or brownish, with small, crowded, angular warts, flesh reddish under the cuticle; g. free; s. 5-8 cm. white, squamulose, bulb rugulose, ring entire; sp. 8 × 6.
var.Francheti, Boud. P. pale yellowish-green with golden warts; sp. 10 × 8.
excelsa, Fr. P. 9-12 cm. soon plane, viscid, brownish-grey, warts greyish, soon disappearing; g. free, white; s. 10-12 cm. squamose up to the imperfect ring, and base bulbous, no free edge to volva; sp. 8-9 × 5-6. Poisonous.
pantherina, Fr. P. 7-10 cm. soon plane, viscid, striate, yellow-brown, grey, or whitish, with flat mealy warts; g. free but close to stem, white; s. 10-14 cm. bulbous, whitish, silky, ring distant, extreme edge of volva free, sp. 8 × 5.
[valida, Fr. P. dark, with mucronate dark pointed warts; g. running down stem in
[Pg 5]
spissa, Fr. P. 7-10 cm. soon plane, umber or grey with small grey warts, flesh persistently white; g. running in lines down stem, white; s. 6-8 cm. white, bulbous, slightly rooting, concentrically cracked or squamulose, ring large; sp. 9-10 × 6.
++Pileus clear yellow or orange.
aureola, Kalchb. P. 7-10 cm. soon plane, orange or golden, viscid, naked; g. free; s. 8-12 cm. slender, white, floccosely-squamulose, ring sup. volva marginate; sp. ——.
citrina, Gon. & Rab. P. convex, obtuse, 8-12 cm. bright yellow with white patches; g. white, broad, free; s. 10-12 cm. long, stout, white, volva imperfect, ring large; sp. globose, warted, 6-7.
[amici, Gill. P. conical, then obtusely umb., striate, slightly viscid, yellowish ochre, disc brownish and covered with large irreg. greyish persistent patches; g. free, ventricose, narrowed at both ends; s. hollow, bulbous, ring small inf., no free edge to volva.
+++Pileus whitish or greyish.
nitida, Fr. P. 8-10 cm. hemispherical, whitish, with thick, angular, brownish warts; g. free, crowded; s. 7-9 cm. conical, bulbous, squamulose, white, ring torn; sp. ——.
solitaria, Bull. 8-12 cm. soon plane, whitish or tinged rufous, warts angular, small, floccose, easily removed; g. white, broad, narrowed behind and adnexed; s. 7-10 cm. with imbricated scales below, ring torn, base swollen, rooting, volva marginate; sp. 7-12 × 5-6.
echinocephala, Vitt. White. P. convex then plane, shining, bristling with acute, deciduous pyramidal warts; g. adnexed; s. solid, scaly, base bulbous, rooting, ring distant; sp. 10 diam.
[Persoonii, Fr. P. greyish-white, margin even; g. free; s. solid, nearly equal, rooting.
[arida, Fr. P. soon plane, grey, margin sulcate; g. adnexed; s. subglabrous, ring distant, volva absent.
strobiliformis, Vitt. P. 10-20 cm. convex then expanded, white, grey, or dingy ochre, with large pyramidal, hard warts; g. free; s. floccosely scaly, bulbous, ring large, torn, volva forming concentric rings; sp. 13-14 × 8-9.
[cariosa, Fr. P. soft, even, umber or dark grey, with mealy patches; g. adnate; s. equal throughout; sp. 10 long.
*Pileus coloured.
[Pg 6]
vaginata, Bull. P. 6-10 cm. plane, margin striate, grey, yellow, brown, or white; g. pallid; s. 10-12 cm. narrowed upwards, minutely squamulose, volva large, margin free; sp. 10 × 7-8.
The grey form is edible, the brown form is unpalatable.
strangulata, Fr. P. 8-10 cm. soon plane, livid-bay or grey, with patches of the volva, margin striate; g. free, white; s. 10-14 cm. stout, thinner upwards, pale, volva breaking up and forming 2-4 ring-like ridges on the stem; sp. 9-15 × 7.
Perhaps a vigorous form ofA. vaginata.
[urceolata, Viv. P. thin, hemispher. then slightly depr. umb. viscid, mouse-colour, edge striate; g. adnate, shining white; s. white, even, naked, volva urceolate.
[friabilis, Karst. P. exp. thin, rather viscid, greyish, edge sulcate, with broad crowded warts or scales; g. free, white, edge darker, crenulate; s. conical, everywhere floccosely scaly, white or greyish; volva broken up into fragments; sp. glob. 11-12.
Differs fromA. vaginatain smaller size and imperfect volva.
[praetoria, Paul. P. thin, campan. then exp. naked, pectinately sulcate, maroon or brownish; g. annulato-adnexed; s. ventricose, volva large, lax.
lenticularis, Fr. P. 7-10 cm. globose, then convex, even, naked, reddish-tan; g. free, crowded, pallid; s. 10-14 cm. subbulbous, white, ring large; sp. ——.
[Godeyi, Gillet. P. pale honey-colour, naked, striate; g. free, crowded; s. cylind., volva large, torn; sp. 15-18 long.
[scobinella, Trog. P. exp. fuscescent, pellicle broken up into minute, deciduous, darker wart-like squamules, near margin even and silky; g. white; s. conical, base white-squamulose.
[gemmata, Paul. Exp. vermilion with angular warts; g. pure white; s. solid, bulbous, whitish, no distinct volva.
adnata, W. G. Sm. P. 6-8 cm. yellowish-buff with patches of the volva; g. adnate, crowded, white; s. 5-9 cm. fibrillose, buff, volva almost obsolete; sp. subglobose, 7-8.
[insidiosa, Letell. P. exp. even, glabrous, lurid, greenish-olive, &c.; g. free, white; s. solid, slightly thinner upwards, edge of volva free; sp. ——.
Differs fromA. baccataeven p. and free margin of volva. Fries suggests in A. phalloideswithout the ring.
[Bresadolae, Sacc. Volva subglobose, not sheathing, edge stellate, tinged brown; p. exp. glabrous, whitish, often with angular umber warts; g. almost free, whitish; s. cylindr. whitish; sp. subg. 5-7.
Superficially resemblesVolvaria parvula.
**Pileus white.
[Pg 7]
[leiocephala, D. C. Shining white. P. convex then plane, silky, edge even; g. free; s. solid, short, firm, volva very large, lax.
[cygnea, Schulz. White. P. soon plane; g. attenuato-adnexed; s. clothed with adnate patches above the ample sheathing volva.
[hyperborea, Karst. (=Ag. gemmatusvar.lapponicusKarst.). Entirely white. P. thin, convex, exp. covered with angular warts, edge pectinato-sulcate; g. free, shining white; s. bulbous, attenuated upwards, ring absent; sp. glob. 10-14.
Perhaps a var. ofA. vaginatus.
[leccina, Scop. P. exp. obtuse, naked, whitish or yellowish, edge even; g. adnate; s. equal, edge of ring reddish; sp. 10 × 6.
[baccata, Fr. P. white, covered with globose warts; g. free; s. equal, volva obtusely marginate; sp. 11 × 7.
[Boudieri, Barla. P. globose then exp. or depr., satiny, white, disc tinged, warted, edge even; g. broad, white then tinged yellow, subadnexed; s. long, subcylindrical, white and scurfy at apex, rest yellowish-white, bulb turbinate, volva obliterated, brownish, ring thin, caducous; sp. ellipsoid, elongated.
Differs fromA. baccatain longer sp.
A.Epidermis dry.
*Ring free, distinct from the volva.
procera, Scop. P. soon expanded, umbonate, with brownish scales, 10-25 cm.; g. free, crowded; s. 12-20 cm., base thickened, brownish, transversely cracked, ring free; sp. 12-15 × 8-9. Edible.
rachodes, Vitt. P. 10-18 cm. soon expanded, not umbonate, with brown scales, flesh brownish when broken; gills free; s. white, not cracked, 12-15 cm., ring free; sp. 14 × 8. Edible.
Differs fromL. procerain the flesh turning brown when cut.
var.puellaris, Fr. Small, entirely white, stem flocculose.
[Olivieri, Barla. P. convex, then exp. or depr., whitish tinged fawn at disc, covered with fawn adpr. fibrillose scales; g. broad, free yellowish-white; s. whitish, base swollen, ring cottony, caducous; flesh white, brick-red then brownish when broken.
Allied toL. rachodeswith which it agrees in size.
prominens, Viv. P. 4-6 cm., umbo very strong, ochraceous, scaly; g. white; s. 9-15 cm. slender, base swollen, ring free; sp. 10 × 8.
permixta, Barla. P. convex, more or less umb. campan. then exp. silky, greyish fawn, centre darker, with adpr. brown scales and becoming deprived of cuticle at edge; g. pale wax or tinged red; s. cylindr. dingy white cracked into brown
[Pg 8]