History of the United Netherlands, 1588-89
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History of the United Netherlands, 1588-89


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The Project Gutenberg EBook History of The United Netherlands, 1588-89 #59 in our series by John Lothrop MotleyCopyright laws are changing all over the world. Be sure to check the copyright laws for your country before downloadingor redistributing this or any other Project Gutenberg eBook.This header should be the first thing seen when viewing this Project Gutenberg file. Please do not remove it. Do notchange or edit the header without written permission.Please read the "legal small print," and other information about the eBook and Project Gutenberg at the bottom of thisfile. Included is important information about your specific rights and restrictions in how the file may be used. You can alsofind out about how to make a donation to Project Gutenberg, and how to get involved.**Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts****EBooks Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971*******These EBooks Were Prepared By Thousands of Volunteers*****Title: History of the United Netherlands, 1588-89Author: John Lothrop MotleyRelease Date: January, 2004 [EBook #4859] [Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule] [This file was firstposted on April 5, 2002]Edition: 10Language: English*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HISTORY UNITED NETHERLANDS, 1588-89 ***This eBook was produced by David Widger [NOTE: There is a short list of bookmarks, or pointers, at the end of the file for those who may wish to sample the ...



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The Project Gutenberg EBook History of TheUnited Netherlands, 1588-89 #59 in our series byJohn Lothrop MotleysCuorpey triog chth leacwk st haer ec ocphyarniggihnt gl aawll so fvoerr  ytohue r wcooruldn.t rByebefore downloading or redistributing this or anyother Project Gutenberg eBook.vTiheiws inhge atdhiesr  Psrhoojeulcdt  bGeu ttehne bfierrsgt  tfihlien. gP lseeaesne  wdhoe nnotremove it. Do not change or edit the headerwithout written permission.Please read the "legal small print," and otherinformation about the eBook and ProjectGutenberg at the bottom of this file. Included isimportant information about your specific rights andrestrictions in how the file may be used. You canalso find out about how to make a donation toProject Gutenberg, and how to get involved.**Welcome To The World of Free Plain VanillaElectronic Texts***C*oEmBopoutkesr sR, eSaidnaceb le1 9B7y1 *B*oth Humans and By*****These EBooks Were Prepared By Thousandsof Volunteers*****Title: History of the United Netherlands, 1588-89
Author: John Lothrop MotleyRelease Date: January, 2004 [EBook #4859] [Yes,we are more than one year ahead of schedule][This file was first posted on April 5, 2002]Edition: 10Language: English*E**B OSTOAK RHTI SOTFO TRHYE  UPNRITOEJDE CNTE TGHUETRELNABNEDRSG,1588-89 ***This eBook was produced by David Widger<widger@cecomet.net>[NOTE: There is a short list of bookmarks, orpwiosinht teor ss, aamt tphlee  tehned  aouft thhoer' sfi lied efoars  tbheofsoer ew hmoa kminagyan entire meal of them. D.W.]HISTORY OF THE UNITED NETHERLANDSFrom the Death of William the Silent to the TwelveYear's Truce—1609By John Lothrop Motley
PMrOojTecLtE GY'uSt eHnIbSeTrgO REYdi tiOoFn , TVHoEl.  N59ETHERLANDS,History of the United Netherlands, 1588-1589CHAPTER XX.     Alexander besieges Bergen-op-Zoom—Pallavicini's Attempt to seduce     Parma—Alexander's Fury—He is forced toraise the Siege, of Bergen     —Gertruydenberg betrayed to Parma—Indignation of the States—     Exploits, of Schenk—His Attack on Nymegen—He is defeated and     drowned—English-Dutch Expedition to Spain—Its meagre Results—     Death of Guise and of the Queen—Mother—Combinations after the     Murder of Henry III.—Tandem fit SurculusArbor.The fever of the past two years was followed bycomparative languor. The deadly crisis was past,the freedom of Europe was saved, Holland andEngland breathed again; but tension now gaveplace to exhaustion. The events in the remainderof the year 1588, with those of 1589—althoughimportant in themselves—were the immediateresults of that history which has been so minutelydetailed in these volumes, and can be indicated in
a very few pages.The Duke of Parma, melancholy, disappointed,angry stung to the soul by calumnies as stupid asthey were venomous, and already afflicted with apainful and lingering disease, which his friendsattributed to poison administered by command ofthe master whom he had so faithfully served—determined, if possible, to afford the consolationwhich that master was so plaintively demanding athis hands.So Alexander led the splendid army which hadbeen packed in, and unpacked from, the flat boatsof Newport and Dunkerk, against Bergen-op-Zoom,and besieged that city in form. Once of greatcommercial importance, although somewhat fallenaway from its original prosperity, Bergen was wellsituate on a little stream which connected it withthe tide-waters of the Scheldt, and was the onlyplace in Brabant, except Willemstad, still remainingto the States. Opposite lay the Isle of Tholen fromwhich it was easily to be supplied and reinforced.The Vosmeer, a branch of the Scheldt, separatedthe island from the main, and there was a pathalong the bed of that estuary, which, at dead low-water, was practicable for wading. Alexander,accordingly, sent a party of eight hundred pikemen,under Montigny, Marquis of Renty, and OttavioMansfeld, supported on the dyke by threethousand musketeers, across; the dangerous ford,at ebb-tide, in order to seize this important island.It was an adventure similar to those, which, in thedays of the grand commander, and under the
guidance of Mondragon; had been on twooccasions so brilliantly successful. But the Isle ofTholen was now defended by Count Solms and agarrison of fierce amphibious Zeelanders—of thosedetermined bands which had just been holdingFarnese and his fleet in prison, and daring him tothe issue—and the invading party, after fortunatelyaccomplishing their night journey along the bottomof the Vosmeer, were unable to effect a landing,were driven with considerable loss into the wavesagain, and compelled to find their way back as bestthey could, along their dangerous path, and with arapidly rising tide. It was a blind and desperateventure, and the Vosmeer soon swallowed fourhundred of the Spaniards. The rest, half-drownedor smothered, succeeded in reaching the shore—the chiefs of the expedition, Renty and Mansfeld,having been with difficulty rescued by theirfollowers, when nearly sinking in the tide.The Duke continued the siege, but the place waswell defended by an English and Dutch garrison, tothe number of five thousand, and commanded byColonel Morgan, that bold and much experiencedWelshman, so well known in the Netherland wars.Willoughby and Maurice of Nassau, and Olden-Barneveld were, at different times, within the walls;for the Duke had been unable to invest the placeso closely as to prevent all communications fromwithout; and, while Maurice was present, therewere almost daily sorties from the town, with manya spirited skirmish, to give pleasure to the martialyoung Prince. The English, officers, Vere andBaskerville, and two Netherland colonels, the
brothers Bax, most distinguished themselves onthese occasions. The siege was not going on withthe good fortune which had usually attended theSpanish leaguer. of Dutch cities, while, on the 29thSeptember, a personal incident came to increaseAlexander's dissatisfaction and melancholy.On that day the Duke was sitting in his tent,brooding, as he was apt to do, over the unjustaccusations which had been heaped upon him inregard to the failure of the Armada, when astranger was announced. His name, he said, wasGiacomo Morone, and he was the bearer of aletter from Sir Horace Pallavicini, a Genoesegentleman long established in London; and knownto be on confidential terms with the Englishgovernment. Alexander took the letter, andglancing at the bottom of the last page, saw that itwas not signed."How dare you bring me a dispatch without asignature?" he exclaimed. The messenger, whowas himself a Genoese, assured the Duke that theletter was most certainly written by Pallavicini—whohad himself placed it, sealed, in his hands—andthat he had supposed it signed, although he had ofcourse, not seen the inside.Alexander began to read the note, which was not avery long one, and his brow instantly darkened. Heread a line or two more, when, with an exclamationof fury, he drew his dagger, and, seizing theastonished Genoese by the throat, was about tostrike him dead. Suddenly mastering his rage,
however, by a strong effort, and remembering thatthe man might be a useful witness; he flungMorone from him."If I had Pallavicini here," he said, "I would treat,him as I have just refrained from using you. And if Ihad any suspicion that you were aware of thecontents of this letter, I would send you this instantto be hanged."The unlucky despatch-bearer protested hisinnocence of all complicity with Pallavicini, and hisignorance of the tenor of the communication bywhich the Duke's wrath had been so much excited.He was then searched and cross-examined mostcarefully by Richardot and other counsellors, andhis innocence being made apparent-he wasultimately discharged.The letter of Pallavicini was simply an attempt tosound Farnese as to his sentiments in regard to asecret scheme, which could afterwards bearranged in form, and according, to which he wasto assume the sovereignty of the Netherlandshimself, to the exclusion of his King, to guaranteeto England the possession of the cautionary towns,until her advances to the States should berefunded, and to receive the support and perpetualalliance of the Queen in his new and rebelliousposition.Here was additional evidence, if any were wanting,of the universal belief in his disloyalty; andAlexander, faithful, if man ever were to his master
—was cut to the heart, and irritated almost tomadness, by such insolent propositions. There isneither proof nor probability that the Queen'sgovernment was implicated in this intrigue ofPallavicini, who appears to have been inspired bythe ambition of achieving a bit of Machiavellianpolicy, quite on his own account. Nothing came ofthe proposition, and the Duke; having transmittedto the King a minute narrative of, the affair,together with indignant protestations of the fidelity,which all the world seemed determined to dispute,received most affectionate replies from thatmonarch, breathing nothing but unboundedconfidence in his nephew's innocence anddevotion.Such assurances from any other man in the worldmight have disarmed suspicion, but Alexanderknew his master too well to repose upon his word,and remembered too bitterly the last hours of DonJohn of Austria —whose dying pillow he hadsoothed, and whose death had been hastened, ashe knew, either by actual poison or by the hardlyless fatal venom of slander—to regain tranquillityas to his own position.The King was desirous that Pallavicini should beinvited over to Flanders, in order that Alexander,under pretence of listening to his propositions,might draw from the Genoese all the particulars ofhis scheme, and then, at leisure, inflict thepunishment which he had deserved. Butinsuperable obstacles presented themselves, norwas Alexander desirous of affording still further
pretexts for his slanderers.Very soon after this incident—most important asshowing the real situation of various parties,although without any immediate result— Alexanderreceived a visit in his tent from another stranger.This time the visitor was an Englishman, oneLieutenant Grimstone, and the object of hisinterview with the Duke was not political, but had, adirect reference to the siege of Bergen. He wasaccompanied by a countryman of his own,Redhead by name, a camp-suttler by profession.The two represented themselves as deserters fromthe besieged city, and offered, for a handsomereward, to conduct a force of Spaniards, by asecret path, into one of the gates. The Dukequestioned them narrowly, and being satisfied withtheir intelligence and coolness, caused them totake an oath on the Evangelists, that they were notplaying him false. He then selected a band of onehundred musketeers, partly Spaniards, partlyWalloons—to be followed at a distance by a much,more considerable force; two thousand in number,under Sancho de Leyva: and the Marquis of Renti—and appointed the following night for anenterprise against the city, under the guidance ofGrimstone.It was a wild autumnal night, moonless, pitch-dark,with a storm of wind and rain. The waters were out—for the dykes had been cut in all 'directions bythe defenders of the city—and, with exception ofsome elevated points occupied by Parma's forces,the whole country was overflowed. Before the party
set forth on their daring expedition, the twoEnglishmen were tightly bound with cords, and led,each by two soldiers, instructed to put them toinstant death if their conduct should give cause forsuspicion. But both Grimstone and Redheadpreserved a cheerful countenance, and inspired astrong confidence in their honest intention to betraytheir countrymen. And thus the band of boldadventurers plunged at once into the darkness,and soon found themselves contending with thetempest, and wading breast high in the blackwaters of the Scheldt.After a long and perilous struggle, they at lengthreached the appointed gate, The external portculliswas raised and the fifteen foremost of the bandrushed into tho town. At the next moment, LordWilloughby, who had been privy to the wholescheme, cut with his own hand the cords which,held the portcullis, and entrapped the leaders ofthe expedition, who were all, at once put to thesword, while their followers were thundering at thegate. The lieutenant and suttler who had thusoverreached that great master of dissimulation;Alexander Farnese; were at the same timeunbound by their comrades, and rescued from thefate intended for them.Notwithstanding the probability—when the portcullisfell—that the whole party, had been deceived by anartifice of war the adventurers, who had come sofar, refused to abandon the enterprise, andcontinued an impatient battery upon the gate. Atlast it was swung wide open, and a furious