History of the United Netherlands from the Death of William the Silent to the Twelve Year
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History of the United Netherlands from the Death of William the Silent to the Twelve Year's Truce, 1585e


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The Project Gutenberg EBook History of the United Netherlands, 1585 #42 in our series by John Lothrop MotleyCopyright laws are changing all over the world. Be sure to check the copyright laws for your country before downloadingor redistributing this or any other Project Gutenberg eBook.This header should be the first thing seen when viewing this Project Gutenberg file. Please do not remove it. Do notchange or edit the header without written permission.Please read the "legal small print," and other information about the eBook and Project Gutenberg at the bottom of thisfile. Included is important information about your specific rights and restrictions in how the file may be used. You can alsofind out about how to make a donation to Project Gutenberg, and how to get involved.**Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts****eBooks Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971*******These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousands of Volunteers*****Title: History of the United Netherlands, 1585Author: John Lothrop MotleyRelease Date: January, 2004 [EBook #4842] [Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule] [This file was firstposted on April 2, 2002]Edition: 10Language: English*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HISTORY UNITED NETHERLANDS, 1585 ***This eBook was produced by David Widger [NOTE: There is a short list of bookmarks, or pointers, at the end of the file for those who may wish to sample the ...



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The Project Gutenberg EBook History of the UnitedNetherlands, 1585 #42 in our series by JohnLothrop MotleysCuorpey triog chth leacwk st haer ec ocphyarniggihnt gl aawll so fvoerr  ytohue r wcooruldn.t rByebefore downloading or redistributing this or anyother Project Gutenberg eBook.vTiheiws inhge atdhiesr  Psrhoojeulcdt  bGeu ttehne bfierrsgt  tfihlien. gP lseeaesne  wdho ennotremove it. Do not change or edit the headerwithout written permission.Please read the "legal small print," and otherinformation about the eBook and ProjectGutenberg at the bottom of this file. Included isimportant information about your specific rights andrestrictions in how the file may be used. You canalso find out about how to make a donation toProject Gutenberg, and how to get involved.**Welcome To The World of Free Plain VanillaElectronic Texts****eBooks Readable By Both Humans and ByComputers, Since 1971*******These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousandsof Volunteers*****Title: History of the United Netherlands, 1585
Author: John Lothrop MotleyRelease Date: January, 2004 [EBook #4842] [Yes,we are more than one year ahead of schedule][This file was first posted on April 2, 2002]Edition: 10Language: English*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERGEBOOK HISTORY UNITED NETHERLANDS, 1585***This eBook was produced by David Widger<widger@cecomet.net>[NOTE: There is a short list of bookmarks, orpwiosinht teor ss, aamt tphlee  tehned  aouft thhoer' sfi lied efoars  tbheofsoer ew hmoa kminagyan entire meal of them. D.W.]HISTORY OF THE UNITED NETHERLANDSFrom the Death of William the Silent to the TwelveYear's Truce—1609By John Lothrop Motley
PMrOojTecLtE GY'uSt eHnIbSeTrgO REYdi tiOoFn , TVHoElu NmEe T4H2ERLANDS,History United Netherlands, Volume 42, 1585CHAPTER VI., Part 1.     Policy of England—Diplomatic Coquetry—DutchEnvoys in England—     Conference of Ortel and Walsingham—Interview with Leicester—     Private Audience of the Queen—Letters of theStates—General—     Ill Effects of Gilpin's Despatch—CloseBargaining of the Queen and     States—Guarantees required by England—England's comparative     Weakness—The English characterised—PaulHentzner—The Envoys in     London—Their Characters—Olden-Barneveldtdescribed—Reception at     Greenwich—Speech of Menin—Reply of theQueen—Memorial of the     Envoys—Discussions with the Ministers—Second Speech of the Queen     —Third Speech of the QueenEngland as we have seen—had carefully watchedthe negotiations between France and theNetherlands. Although she had—upon the whole,for that intriguing age—been loyal in her bearingtowards both parties, she was perhaps not entirely
displeased with the result. As her cherishedtriumvirate was out of the question, it was quiteobvious that, now or never, she must comeforward to prevent the Provinces from falling backinto the hands of Spain. The future was plainlyenough foreshadowed, and it was alreadyprobable, in case of a prolonged resistance on thepart of Holland, that Philip would undertake thereduction of his rebellious subjects by a preliminaryconquest of England. It was therefore quite certainthat the expense and danger of assisting theNetherlands must devolve upon herself, but, at thesame time it was a consolation that her powerfulnext-door neighbour was not to be made still morepowerful by the annexation to his own dominion ofthose important territories.Accordingly, so soon as the deputies in France hadreceived their definite and somewhat ignominiousrepulse from Henry III. and his mother, the Englishgovernment lost no time in intimating to the Statesthat they were not to be left without an ally. QueenElizabeth was however resolutely averse fromassuming that sovereignty which she was notunwilling to see offered for her acceptance; andher accredited envoy at the Hague, besides othermore secret agents, were as busily employed inthe spring of 1585—as Des Pruneaux had beenthe previous winter on the part of France—to bringabout an application, by solemn embassy, for herassistance.Touhtesreet , wbaest, wheoewn etvheer ,l eaa ddiifnfge rpeonlictiec ioafn vsi eofw ,t hfreom the
Netherlands and the English Queen. TheHollanders were extremely desirous of becomingher subjects; for the United States, although theyhad already formed themselves into anindependent republic, were quite ignorant of theirlatent powers. The leading personages of thecountry—those who were soon to become theforemost statesmen of the new commonwealth—were already shrinking from the anarchy which wasdeemed inseparable from a non-regal form ofgovernment, and were seeking protection for andagainst the people under a foreign sceptre. On theother hand, they were indisposed to mortgagelarge and important fortified towns, such asFlushing, Brill, and others, for the repayment of thesubsidies which Elizabeth might be induced toadvance. They preferred to pay in sovereigntyrather than in money. The Queen, on the contrary,preferred money to sovereignty, and was not at allinclined to sacrifice economy to ambition. Intendingto drive a hard bargain with the States, whosecause was her own, and whose demands for aidshe; had secretly prompted, she meant to grant acertain number of soldiers for as brief a period aspossible, serving at her expense, and to take forsuch outlay a most ample security in the shape ofcautionary towns.Too intelligent a politician not to feel the absolutenecessity of at last coming into the field to help theNetherlanders to fight her own battle, she was stillwilling, for a season longer, to wear the mask ofcoyness and coquetry, which she thought mostadapted to irritate the Netherlanders into a full
compliance with her wishes. Her advisers in theProvinces were inclined to take the same view. Itseemed obvious, after the failure in France, thatthose countries must now become either English orSpanish; yet Elizabeth, knowing the risk of theirfalling back, from desperation, into the arms of herrival, allowed them to remain for a season on theedge of destruction—which would probably havebeen her ruin also—in the hope of bringing them toher feet on her own terms. There was somethingof feminine art in this policy, and it was not withoutthe success which often attends such insinceremanoeuvres. At the same time, as the statesmenof the republic knew that it was the Queen's affair,when so near a neighbour's roof was blazing, theyentertained little doubt of ultimately obtaining heralliance. It was pity—in so grave an emergency—that a little frankness could not have beensubstituted for a good deal of superfluousdiplomacy.Gilpin, a highly intelligent agent of the Englishgovernment in Zeeland, kept Sir FrancisWalsingham thoroughly informed of the sentimentsentertained by the people of that province towardsEngland. Mixing habitually with the most influentialpoliticians, he was able to render materialassistance to the English council in the diplomaticgame which had been commenced, and on which ano less important stake than the crown of Englandwas to be hazarded."In conference," he said, "with particular personsthat bear any rule or credit, I find a great inclination
towards her Majesty, joined notwithstanding with akind of coldness. They allege that matters of suchimportance are to be maturely and thoroughlypondered, while some of them harp upon the oldstring, as if her Majesty, for the security of her ownestate, was to have the more care of theirs here."He was also very careful to insinuate theexpediency of diplomatic coquetry into the mind ofa Princess who needed no such prompting. "Theless by outward appearance," said he, "this peopleshall perceive that her Majesty can be contented totake the protection of them upon her, the forwarderthey will be to seek and send unto her, and thelarger conditions in treaty may be required. For ifthey see it to come from herself, then do theypersuade themselves that it is for the greatersecurity of our own country and her Highness tofear the King of Spain's greatness. But if theybecome seekers unto her Majesty, and if theymay, by outward show, deem that she accountethnot of the said King's might, but able and sufficientto defend her own realms, then verily I think theymay be brought to whatsoever points her Majestymay desire."Certainly it was an age of intrigue, in which nothingseemed worth getting at all unless it could be gotby underhand means, and in which it was thoughtimpossible for two parties to a bargain to meettogether except as antagonists, who believed thatone could not derive a profit from the transactionunless the other had been overreached. This wasneither good morality nor sound diplomacy, and the
result of such trifling was much loss of time andgreat disaster. In accordance with this craftysystem, the agent expressed the opinion that itwould "be good and requisite for the Englishgovernment somewhat to temporise," and to dallyfor a season longer, in order to see what measuresthe States would take to defend themselves, andhow much ability and resources they would showfor belligerent purposes. If the Queen were tooeager, the Provinces would become jealous,"yielding, as it were, their power, and yet keepingthe rudder in their own hands."At the same time Gilpin was favourably impressedwith the character both of the country and thenation, soon to be placed in such importantrelations with England. "This people," he said, "issuch as by fair means they will be won to yield andgrant any reasonable motion or demand. Whatthese islands of Zeeland are her Majesty and allmy lords of her council do know. Yet for theirgovernment thus much I must write; that duringthese troubles it never was better than now. Theydraw, in a manner, one line, long and carefully intheir resolution; but the same once taken andpromises made, they would perform them to theuttermost."Such then was the character of the people, for noman was better enabled to form an opinion on thesubject than was Gilpin. Had it not been as well,then, for Englishmen—who were themselves inthat age, as in every other, apt to "perform to theuttermost promises once taken and made," and to
respect those endowed with the same wholesomecharacteristic—to strike hands at once in a causewhich was so vital to both nations?So soon as the definite refusal of Henry III, wasknown in England, Leicester and Walsinghamwrote at once to the Netherlands. The Earl alreadysaw shining through the distance a brilliant prize forhis own ambition, although he was too haughty,perhaps too magnanimous, but certainly far toocrafty, to suffer such sentiments as yet to pierce tothe surface."Mr. Davison," he wrote, "you shall perceive by Mr.Secretary's letters how the French have dealt withthese people. They are well enough served; but yetI think, if they will heartily and earnestly seek it, theLord hath appointed them a far better defence. Butyou must so use the matter as that they must seektheir own good, although we shall be partakersthereof also. They may now, if they will effectuallyand liberally deal, bring themselves to a better endthan ever France would have brought them."At that moment there were two diplomatic agentsfrom the States resident in England—Jacques deGryze; whom Paul Buys had formerly described ashaving thrust himself head and shoulders into thematter without proper authority, and Joachim Ortel,a most experienced and intelligent man, speakingand writing English like a native, and thoroughlyconversant with English habits and character. Sosoon as the despatches from France arrived,Walsingham, 18th March, 1585, sent for Ortel, and
the two held a long conference.Walsingham.—"We have just received letters fromLord Derby and Sir Edward Stafford, dated the13th March. They inform us that your deputies—contrary to all expectation and to the great hopesthat had been hold out to them—have received,last Sunday, their definite answer from the King ofFrance. He tells them, that, considering thepresent condition of his kingdom, he is unable toundertake the protection of the Netherlands; butsays that if they like, and if the Queen of Englandbe willing to second his motion, he is disposed tosend a mission of mediation to Spain for thepurpose of begging the King to take the conditionof the provinces to heart, and bringing about somehonourable composition, and so forth, and so forth."Moreover the King of France has sent Monsieurde Bellievre to Lord Derby and Mr. Stafford, andBellievre has made those envoys a long oration.He explained to them all about the original treatybetween the States and Monsieur, the King'sbrother, and what had taken place from that day tothis, concluding, after many allegations and diversreasons, that the King could not trouble himselfwith the provinces at present; but hoped herMajesty would make the best of it, and not beoffended with him."The ambassadors say further, that they have hadan interview with your deputies, who areexcessively provoked at this most unexpectedanswer from the King, and are making loud