How it Works - Dealing in simple language with steam, electricity, light, heat, sound, hydraulics, optics, etc., and with their applications to apparatus in common use
339 Pages
English
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How it Works - Dealing in simple language with steam, electricity, light, heat, sound, hydraulics, optics, etc., and with their applications to apparatus in common use

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339 Pages
English

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of How it Works, by Archibald WilliamsThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.netTitle: How it WorksDealing in simple language with steam, electricity, light,heat, sound, hydraulics, optics, etc., and with theirapplications toAuthor: Archibald WilliamsRelease Date: April 10, 2009 [EBook #28553]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HOW IT WORKS ***Produced by Steven Gibbs, Greg Bergquist and the OnlineDistributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.netTranscriber’s NoteThe punctuation and spelling from the original text have been faithfully preserved. Only obvious typographical errorshave been corrected.HOW IT WORKSA U T H O R ' S N O T E .I beg to thank the following gentlemen and firms for the help they have given me in connection with the letterpress andillustrations of "How It Works"—Messrs. F.J.C. Pole and M.G. Tweedie (for revision of MS.); W. Lineham; J.F. Kendall; E. Edser; A.D. Helps; J. Limb;The Edison Bell Phonograph Co.; Messrs. Holmes and Co.; The Pelton Wheel Co.; Messrs. Babcock and Wilcox;Messrs. Siebe, Gorman, and Co.; Messrs. Negretti and Zambra; Messrs. Chubb; The Yale Lock Co.; The MicrometerEngineering Co.; Messrs. Marshall and Sons; The Maignen Filter Co.; Messrs. Broadwood and ...

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of How it Works, by
Archibald Williams
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no
cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it,
give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg
License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net
Title: How it Works
Dealing in simple language with steam, electricity,
light,
heat, sound, hydraulics, optics, etc., and with their
applications to
Author: Archibald Williams
Release Date: April 10, 2009 [EBook #28553]
Language: English
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK
HOW IT WORKS ***
Produced by Steven Gibbs, Greg Bergquist and theProduced by Steven Gibbs, Greg Bergquist and the
Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net
Transcriber’s Note
The punctuation and spelling from the original text
have been faithfully preserved. Only obvious
typographical errors have been corrected.
HOW IT WORKS
AUTHOR'S NOTE.
I beg to thank the following gentlemen and firms for
the help they have given me in connection with the
letterpress and illustrations of "How It Works"—
Messrs. F.J.C. Pole and M.G. Tweedie (for revision of
MS.); W. Lineham; J.F. Kendall; E. Edser; A.D. Helps;
J. Limb; The Edison Bell Phonograph Co.; Messrs.
Holmes and Co.; The Pelton Wheel Co.; Messrs.
Babcock and Wilcox; Messrs. Siebe, Gorman, and
Co.; Messrs. Negretti and Zambra; Messrs. Chubb;The Yale Lock Co.; The Micrometer Engineering Co.;
Messrs. Marshall and Sons; The Maignen Filter Co.;
Messrs. Broadwood and Co.
ON THE FOOTPLATE OF A LOCOMOTIVE. ON THE
FOOTPLATE OF A LOCOMOTIVE.
How It Works
Dealing in Simple Language with Steam,
Electricity,
Light, Heat, Sound, Hydraulics, Optics, etc.
and with their applications to Apparatus
in Common Use
By
ARCHIBALD WILLIAMS
Author of "The Romance of Modern Invention,"
"The Romance of Mining," etc., etc.
THOMAS NELSON AND SONSLondon, Edinburgh, Dublin, and New York
PREFACE.
How does it work? This question has been put to me
so often by persons young and old that I have at last
decided to answer it in such a manner that a much
larger public than that with which I have personal
acquaintance may be able to satisfy themselves as to
the principles underlying many of the mechanisms met
with in everyday life.
In order to include steam, electricity, optics,
hydraulics, thermics, light, and a variety of detached
mechanisms which cannot be classified under any one
of these heads, within the compass of about 450
pages, I have to be content with a comparatively brief
treatment of each subject. This brevity has in turn
compelled me to deal with principles rather than with
detailed descriptions of individual devices—though in
several cases recognized types are examined. The
reader will look in vain for accounts of the Yerkes
telescope, of the latest thing in motor cars, and of the
largest locomotive. But he will be put in the way of
understanding the essential nature of all telescopes,
motors, and steam-engines so far as they are at
present developed, which I think may be of greater
ultimate profit to the uninitiated.
While careful to avoid puzzling the reader by the use
of mysterious phraseology I consider that the parts ofa machine should be given their technical names
wherever possible. To prevent misconception, many of
the diagrams accompanying the letterpress have
words as well as letters written on them. This course
also obviates the wearisome reference from text to
diagram necessitated by the use of solitary letters or
figures.
I may add, with regard to the diagrams of this book,
that they are purposely somewhat unconventional, not
being drawn to scale nor conforming to the canons of
professional draughtsmanship. Where advisable, a
part of a machine has been exaggerated to show its
details. As a rule solid black has been preferred to fine
shading in sectional drawings, and all unnecessary
lines are omitted. I would here acknowledge my
indebtedness to my draughtsman, Mr. Frank
Hodgson, for his care and industry in preparing the
two hundred or more diagrams for which he was
responsible.
Four organs of the body—the eye, the ear, the larynx,
and the heart—are noticed in appropriate places. The
eye is compared with the camera, the larynx with a
reed pipe, the heart with a pump, while the ear fitly
opens the chapter on acoustics. The reader who is
unacquainted with physiology will thus be enabled to
appreciate the better these marvellous devices, far
more marvellous, by reason of their absolutely
automatic action, than any creation of human hands.
A.W.
Uplands, Stoke Poges, Bucks.CONTENTS.
Chapter I.—THE STEAM-ENGI
NE.
What is steam?—The mechanic
al energy of steam—The boiler
—The circulation of water in a b
oiler—The enclosed furnace—T
he multitubular boiler—Fire-tube 1
boilers—Other types of boilers 3
—Aids to combustion—Boiler fitt
ings—The safety-valve—The wa
ter-gauge—The steam-gauge—
The water supply to a boiler
Chapter II.—THE CONVERSIO
N OF HEAT ENERGY
INTO MECHANICAL MOTION.
Reciprocating engines—Double-
cylinder engines—The function
of the fly-wheel—The cylinder—
The slide-valve—The eccentric
—"Lap" of the valve: expansion
of steam—How the cut-off is ma
naged—Limit of expansive worki 4
ng—Compound engines—Arran 4
gement of expansion engines—
Compound locomotives—Rever
sing gears—"Linking-up"—Pisto
n-valves—Speed governors—M
arine-speed governors—The condenser
Chapter III.—THE STEAM TUR
BINE.
How a turbine works—The De L
aval turbine—The Parsons turbi
ne—Description of the Parsons
7
turbine—The expansive action o
4
f steam in a Parsons turbine—B
alancing the thrust—Advantage
s of the marine turbine
Chapter IV.—THE INTERNAL-C
OMBUSTION ENGINE.
The meaning of the term—Actio
n of the internal-combustion eng
ine—The motor car—The startin
g-handle—The engine—The car
buretter—Ignition of the charge 8
—Advancing the spark—Govern 7
ing the engine—The clutch—Th
e gear-box—The compensating
gear—The silencer—The brakes
—Speed of cars
Chapter V.—ELECTRICAL APP
ARATUS.
What is electricity?—Forms of el
ectricity—Magnetism—The per
manent magnet—Lines of force
1
—Electro-magnets—The electri
1
c bell—The induction coil—The
2
condenser—Transformation of c
urrent—Uses of the induction co
ilChapter VI.—THE ELECTRIC T
ELEGRAPH.
Needle instruments—Influence
of current on the magnetic need
1
le—Method of reversing the curr
2
ent—Sounding instruments—Tel
7
egraphic relays—Recording tele
graphs—High-speed telegraphy
Chapter VII.—WIRELESS TELE
GRAPHY.
The transmitting apparatus—Th
1
e receiving apparatus—Syntonic
3
transmission—The advance of
7
wireless telegraphy
Chapter VIII.—THE TELEPHON
E.
The Bell telephone—The Edison
transmitter—The granular carbo
1
n transmitter—General arrange
4
ment of a telephone circuit—Do
7
uble-line circuits—Telephone ex
changes—Submarine telephony
Chapter IX.—DYNAMOS AND E
LECTRIC MOTORS.
A simple dynamo--Continuous-c
urrent dynamos--Multipolar dyn
amos--Exciting the field magnet
s--Alternating current dynamos-
1
-The transmission of power--Th
5
e electric motor--Electric lighting
9
--The incandescent lamp--Arc lamps--"Series" and "parallel" arra
ngement of lamps--Current for e
lectric lamps--Electroplating
Chapter X.—RAILWAY BRAKE
S.
1
The Vacuum Automatic brake—
8
The Westinghouse air-brake
7
Chapter XI.—RAILWAY SIGNA
LLING.
The block system—Position of s
ignals—Interlocking the signals
—Locking gear—Points—Points
and signals in combination—Wo
rking the block system—Series
2
of signalling operations—Single l
0
ine signals—The train staff—Tra
0
in staff and ticket—Electric train
staff system—Interlocking—Sig
nalling operations—Power signal
ling—Pneumatic signalling—Aut
omatic signalling
Chapter XII.—OPTICS.
Lenses—The image cast by a c
onvex lens—Focus—Relative po
sition of object and lens—Corre 2
ction of lenses for colour—Sphe 3
rical aberration—Distortion of im 0
age—The human eye—The use
of spectacles—The blind spot
Chapter XIII.—THE MICROSC