How to Live - Rules for Healthful Living Based on Modern Science
166 Pages
English
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How to Live - Rules for Healthful Living Based on Modern Science

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166 Pages
English

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of How to Live, by Irving Fisher and Eugene Fisk
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Title: How to Live  Rules for Healthful Living Based on Modern Science
Author: Irving Fisher and Eugene Fisk
Release Date: October 21, 2006 [EBook #19598]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HOW TO LIVE ***
Produced by Audrey Longhurst, Laura Wisewell and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net
PREVENT LIFE-WASTE— UPBUILD NATIONAL VITALITY
Directors Hon. William H. Taft Henry H. Bowman Francis R. Cooley Robert W. de Forest Irving Fisher Eugene Lyman Fisk Harold A. Ley Elmer E. Rittenhouse Charles H. Sabin Frank A. Vanderlip
HON. WILLIAM H. TAFT Chairman, Board of Directors
ELMER E. RITTENHOUSE President
GEN. W. C. GORGAS Consultant, Sanitation
PROF. IRVING FISHER Chairman, Hygiene Reference Board
EUGENE L. FISK, M.D. Director of Hygiene
HAROLD A. LEY Vice-president and Treasurer
JAMES D. LENNEHAN Secretary
The Institute was established by a group of scientists, publicists, and business men, who desired to provide a self-supporting central institution of national scope devoted to the science of disease prevention—a responsible and authoritative source from which the public might draw knowledge and inspiration in the great war of civilization against needless sickness and premature death.
LIFE EXTENSION INSTITUTE, Inc. 25 WEST 45th STREET :: NEW YORK CITY
HOW TO LIVE
H
COPYRIGHT M OFFETT STUDIO
Hon. William Howard Taft Chairman, Board of Directors Life Extension Institute, Inc.
O
W
RULES FOR HEALTHFUL LIVING
BASED ON MODERN SCIENCE
AUTHORIZED BY AND PREPARED IN COLLABORATION WITH THE HYGIENE REFERENCE BOARD OF THE LIFE EXTENSION INSTITUTE, INC.
BY IRVING FISHER,Chairman,
PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL ECONOMY, YALE UNIVERSITY AND
T
O
L
I
V
E
[Page vii]
EUGENE LYMAN FISK, M.D.,
DIRECTOR OF HYGIENE OF THE INSTITUTE
NINTH EDITION
FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY NEW YORK AND LONDON 1916
COPYRIGHT, 1915,BY FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY (Printed in the United States of America.)
Published, October, 1915 Second Edition, November, 1915 Third Edition, December, 1915 Fourth Edition, March, 1916 Fifth Edition, April, 1916 Sixth Edition, May, 1916 Seventh Edition, June, 1916 Eighth Revised Edition, September, 1916 Ninth Edition, September, 1916
FOREWORD
To one who has been an eye-witness of the wonderful achievements of American medical science in the conquest of acute communicable and pestilential diseases in those regions of the earth where they were supposed to be impregnably entrenched, there is the strongest possible appeal in the present rapidly growing movement for the improvement of physical efficiency and the conquest of chronic diseases of the vital organs. Through the patient, intelligent and often heroic work of our army medical men, and the staff of the United States Public Health Service, death-rates supposedly fixed have been cut in half. While it is true that to the public mind there is a more lurid and spectacular menace in such diseases as small-pox, yellow fever and plague, medical men and public health workers are beginning to realize [Page viii]that, with the warfare against such maladies well organized, it is now time to give attention to the heavy loss from lowered physical efficiency and chronic, preventable disease, a loss exceeding in magnitude that sustained from the more widely feared communicable diseases. The insidious encroachment of the chronic diseases that sap the vitality of the individual and impair the efficiency of the race is a matter of increasing importance. The mere extension of human life is not only in itself an end to be desired, but the well digested scientific facts presented in this volume clearly show that the most direct and effective means of lengthening human life are at the same time those that make it more livable and add to its power and capacity for achievement. Many years ago, Disraeli, keenly alive to influences affecting
[Page ix] [Page x]
[Page xi]
national prosperity, stated: “Public Health is the foundation on which reposes the happiness of the people and the power of a country. The care of the public health is the first duty of a statesman.” It may well be claimed that the care of individual and family health is the first and most patriotic duty of a citizen. These are the considerations that have influenced me to co-operate with the life extension movement, and to commend this volume to the earnest consideration of all who desire authoritative guidance in improving their own physical condition or in making effective the knowledge now available for bringing health and happiness to our people. WM. H. TAFT. New Haven, June 12, 1915.
PREFACE
The purpose of this book is to spread knowledge ofIndividual Hygiene and thus to promote the aims of the Life Extension Institute. These may be summarized briefly as: (1) to provide the individual and the physician with the latest and best conclusions on individual hygiene; (2) to ascertain the exact and special needs of the individual through periodic health examinations; (3) to induce all persons who are found to be in need of medical attention to visit their physicians. A sad commentary on the low health-ideals which now exist is that to most people the expression “to keep well” means no more thanto keep out of a sick-bed. Hitherto, the subject-matter of hygiene has been considered in its relation to disease rather than to health. In this manual, on the other hand, it is treated in its relation to (1) the preservation of health; (2) the improvement in the physical condition of the individual, [Page xii]and (3) the increase of his vitality. In short, the objects of the manual are positive rather than negative. It aims to include every practical procedure that, according to the present state of our knowledge, an athlete needs in order to make himself superbly “fit,” or that a mental worker needs in order to keep his wits sharpened to a razor-edge. For this reason some suggestions, which might otherwise be regarded as of minor importance, have been included and emphasized. While it is true that a moderate infraction of some of the minor rules of health is not inconsistent with maintaining good health in the sense of keeping out of a sick-bed, such infraction, be it ever so moderate, is utterly inconsistent with good health in the sense of attaining the highest physical and mental efficiency and power. Future advances of knowledge will doubtless occasion additions to, or modifications of, the conclusions stated herein, and these will form the subject of subsequent publications by the Institute. In order that the Institute may have at its disposal the latest and [Page xiii]most authoritative results of scientific investigations, its Hygiene Reference Board was created. The present book is the first general statement of the conclusions of this Board after a year of careful consideration. These conclusions are the joint product of the members of the Board, with the active co-operation of the Director of Hygiene of the Institute. They may fairly be said to constitute the most authoritative epitome thus far available in the great, but hitherto neglected, realm of individual hygiene. The Chairman of the Board has exercised the function of editor, and is responsible for the order and arrangement of the material. Friends of the Institute may help its work by spreading the ideas
[Page xiv]
[Page xv]
[Page xvi]
given in the following pages and by increasing the number of its readers. Such profits as may be received by the Institute from the sale of this book will be devoted to further philanthropic effort by the Institute. IRVINGFISHER, EUGENEL. FISK.
INTRODUCTION
SECTION
New York, Sept., 1915.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER I AIR
1.HOUSING 2.CLOTHING 3.OUTDOORLIVING 4.OUTDOORSLEEPING 5.DEEPBREATHING
CHAPTER II FOOD
1.QUANTITYOFFOOD 2.PROTEINFOODS 3.HARD, BULKY,ANDUNCOOKEDFOODS 4.THOROUGHMASTICATION
CHAPTER III POISONS
1.CONSTIPATION 2.POSTURE 3.POISONSFROMWITHOUT 4.TEETHANDGUMS
CHAPTER IV ACTIVITY
1.WORK, PLAY, RESTANDSLEEP 2.SERENITYANDPOISE
CHAPTER V HYGIENE IN GENERAL
1.THEFIFTEENRULESOFHYGIENE 2.THEUNITYOFHYGIENE 3.THEOBSTACLESTOHYGIENE 4.THEPOSSIBILITIESOFHYGIENE 5.HYGIENEANDCIVILIZATION
PAGE 1
7 14 18 20 24
28 35 40 44
51 57 64 78
89 105
119 121 126 135 143
[Page xvii]
[Page xviii]
[Page xix]
5.HYGIENEANDCIVILIZATION 6.THEFIELDSOFHYGIENE
SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ON SPECIAL SUBJECTS
143 157
1.NOTESONFOOD171 2.NOTESONOVERWEIGHTANDUNDERWEIGHT212 3.NOTESONPOSTURE221 4.NOTESONALCOHOL227 5.NOTESONTOBACCO250 6.AVOIDINGCOLDS272 7.SIGNSOFINCREASEOFTHEDEGENERATIVEDISEASES281 8.COMPARISONOFDEGENERATIVETENDENCIESAMONGNATIONS286 9.EUGENICS293
INDEX
325
HYGIENE REFERENCE BOARD OF THE LIFE EXTENSION INSTITUTE, Inc.
IRVING FISHER, Chairman Professor of Political Economy Yale University
Statistics
WILLIAM J. HARRIS, Federal Trade Commission, United States Government. CRESSY L. WILBUR, M.D., Director, Division of Vital Statistics, Dept. of Health, State of New York. WALTER F. WILLCOX, Professor of Economics and Statistics, Cornell University.
Public Health Administration
HERMANN M. BIGGS, M.D., Commissioner of Health, State of New York. RUPERT BLUE, M.D., Surgeon General, U. S. Public Health Service. H. M. BRACKEN, M.D., Secretary Board of Health, State of Minnesota. J. B. GREGG CUSTIS, President Board of Medical Supervisors, District of Columbia. SAMUEL G. DIXON, M.D., Commissioner of Health, State of Pennsylvania. OSCAR DOWLING, M.D., President Board of Health, State of Louisiana. JOHN S. FULTON, M.D., Secretary Dept. of Health, State of Maryland. S. S. GOLDWATER, M.D., Supt., Mt. Sinai Hospital, New York. WILLIAM C. GORGAS, Major General U. S. Army. CALVIN W. HENDRICK, Chief Engineer, Sewerage Commission of Baltimore.
[Page xx]
[Page xxi]
J. N. HURTY, M.D., Secretary Board of Health, State of Indiana. W. S. RANKIN, M.D., Secretary and Treasurer, Board of Health, State of North Carolina. THEO. B. SACHS, M.D., President The Chicago Tuberculosis Institute. JOSEPH W. SCHERESCHEWSKY, M.D., U. S. Public Health Service. GUILFORD H. SUMNER, M.D., Secretary—Executive Officer, Dept. of Health and Medical Examiners, State of Iowa. GEORGE C. WHIPPLE, Professor Sanitary Engineering, Harvard University. C. E. A. WINSLOW, Professor of Public Health, Yale Medical School.
Medicine and Surgery
LEWELLYS F. BARKER, M.D., Professor of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University. GEORGE BLUMER, M.D., Dean Tale Medical School. GEORGE W. CRILE, M.D., Professor Clinical Surgery, Western Reserve University. DAVID L. EDSALL, M.D., Professor Clinical Medicine, Harvard University. HENRY, B. FAVILL, M.D., Professor Clinical Medicine, Rush Medical College. J. H. KELLOGG, M.D., Superintendent Battle Creek Sanitarium. S. ADOLPHUS KNOPF, M.D., Professor of Medicine, Department of Phthisiotherapy, New York Post Graduate Medical School. WILLIAM J. MAYO, M.D., Ex-President American Medical Association. VICTOR C. VAUGHAN, M.D., Dean, Dept. of Medicine and Surgery, University of Michigan, Ex-President American Medical Association. HUGH HAMPTON YOUNG, M.D., Assoc. Professor of Urological Surgery, Johns Hopkins University and Hospital.
Chemistry, Bacteriology, Pathology, Physiology, Biology
JOHN F. ANDERSON, M.D., Director Hygienic Laboratory, United States Government. HENRY G. BEYER, M.D., Medical Director, U. S. Navy. WALTER B. CANNON, M.D., Professor of Physiology, Harvard University. RUSSELL H. CHITTENDEN, Professor of Physiological Chemistry, Director Sheffield Scientific School, Yale University. OTTO FOLIN, Professor of Biological Chemistry, Harvard Medical School. M. E. JAFFA, M.S., Professor of Nutrition, University of California. LAFAYETTE B. MENDEL, Professor of Physiological Chemistry, Sheffield Scientific School, Yale University. RICHARD M. PEARCE, M.D., Professor of Research Medicine, University of Pennsylvania. MAZYCK P. RAVENEL, M.D., Director Laboratory of Hygiene, Professor of Preventive Medicine and Bacteriology, University of Missouri. LEO P. RETTGER, Professor of Bacteriology and Hygiene,
[Page xxii]
LEOP.RETTGER,ProfessorofBacteriologyandHygiene, Sheffield Scientific School, Yale University. M. J. ROSENAU, M.D., Professor of Preventive Medicine, Harvard Medical School. WILLIAM T. SEDGWICK, Professor of Biology and Public Health, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. HENRY C. SHERMAN, Professor of Food Chemistry, Columbia University. THEOBALD SMITH, M.D., Director Division of Animal Pathology, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. CHARLES W. STILES, M.D., U. S. Public Health Service; Scientific Secretary International Health Commission. A. E. TAYLOR, M.D., Professor Physiological Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania. WILLIAM H. WELCH, M.D., Professor of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University; President Board of Health, State of Maryland.
Eugenics
ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL, M.D., Board of Scientific Directors, Eugenics Record Office. C. B. DAVENPORT, Director Carnegie Station for Experimental Evolution; Director Eugenics Record Office. DAVID STARR JORDAN, Chancellor Leland Stanford Junior University; Chief Director World Peace Foundation. ELMER E. SOUTHARD, M.D., Professor of Neuropathology, Harvard Medical School; Pathologist to Massachusetts State Board of Insanity.
Organized Philanthropy
MRS. S. S. CROCKETT, Ex-Chairman Committee on Health, General Federation of Women’s Clubs. HENRY W. FARNAM, Professor of Economics, Yale University. LEE K. FRANKEL, 6th Vice-President and Head of Welfare Department, Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. LUTHER H. GULICK, M.D., President Camp Fire Girls of America. THOMAS N. HEPBURN, M.D., Secretary Connecticut Society for Social Hygiene. WICKLIFFE ROSE, Director International Health Commission. WM. JAY SCHIEFFELIN, Chairman Executive Committee, Committee of One Hundred on National Health. MAJOR LOUIS LIVINGSTON SEAMAN, M.D., President The China Society. WILLIAM F. SNOW, M.D., General Secretary, The American Social Hygiene Association, Inc. LAWRENCE VEILLER, Secretary and Director, National Housing Association.
Educational
SAMUEL HOPKINS ADAMS, Author. W. H. BURNHAM, Professor of Pedagogy and School Hygiene, Clark University. CHARLES H. CASTLE, M.D., Editor Lancet Clinic. W. A. EVANS, M.D., Professor Sanitary Science, Northwestern University Medical School; Health Editor, Chicago Tribune.
[Page xxiii]
BURNSIDE FOSTER, M.D., Editor St. Paul Medical Journal. FREDERICK R. GREEN, M.D., Secretary Council on Health and Public Instruction, American Medical Association. NORMAN HAPGOOD, Editor Harper’s Weekly. ARTHUR P. KELLOGG, Managing Editor, The Survey. J. N. McCORMACK, Chief Sanitary Inspector, Board of Health, State of Kentucky. M. V. O’SHEA, Professor of Education, University of Wisconsin. HON. WALTER H. PAGE, Ambassador to England. GEORGE H. SIMMONS, M.D., Editor Journal American Medical Association. HARVEY W. WILEY, M.D., Director Bureau of Foods, Sanitation and Health, Good Housekeeping Magazine. HENRY SMITH WILLIAMS, M.D., Author.
Industrial Hygiene
JOHN B. ANDREWS, Secretary American Association for Labor Legislation. THOMAS DARLINGTON, M.D., Secretary American Iron and Steel Institute. NORMAN E. DITMAN, M.D., Trustee, American Museum of Safety. GEORGE M. KOBER, M.D., Dean Medical School of Georgetown University. W. GILMAN THOMPSON, M.D., Professor of Medicine, Cornell University Medical School. WILLIAM H. TOLMAN, Director The American Museum of Safety.
Mouth Hygiene
W. G. EBERSOLE, M.D., D.D.S., Secretary-Treasurer, The National Mouth Hygiene Association. ALFRED C. FONES, D.D.S., Chairman Dental Committee, Bridgeport Board of Health.
Physical Training
WM. G. ANDERSON, M.D., Director Gymnasium, Yale University. GEORGE J. FISHER, M.D., Secretary International Committee, Y. M. C. A. R. TAIT MCKENZIE, M.D., Professor of Physical Education and Director of the Department, University of Pennsylvania. EDWARD A. RUMELY, M.D., President The Interlaken School. DUDLEY A. SARGENT, M.D., Director Gymnasium, Harvard University. PROF. ALONZO A. STAGG, Director Gymnasium, University of Chicago. THOMAS A. STOREY, M.D., Professor of Hygiene, College of the City of New York.
Foreign Advisory Board
AUSTRIA
LUDWIG TELEKY, M.D., Department of Social Medicine, Vienna University.
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[Page xxvi]
CANADA
JOHN GEORGE ADAMI, M.D., Professor of Pathology and Bacteriology, McGill University, Montreal.
ENGLAND
SIR THOMAS OLIVER, Professor of Physiology, Durham University.
FRANCE
ARMAND GAUTIER, M.D., Professor of Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Paris.
GERMANY
PROF. DR. KARL FLÜGGE, Director Hygienic Institute, Berlin.
ITALY
LEONARDO BIANCHI, Professor of Psychiatry, University of Naples.
JAPAN
PROF. DR. S. KITASATO, Chief of the Kitasato Institute for Infectious Diseases, Tokyo.
RUSSIA
IVAN PETROVIC PAVLOV, Prof. of Physiology, Imperial Military Academy of Medicine, Petrograd.
PORTRAITS OF MEMBERS OF THE HYGIENE REFERENCE BOARD