Lands of the Slave and the Free - Cuba, the United States, and Canada
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Lands of the Slave and the Free - Cuba, the United States, and Canada


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Project Gutenberg's Lands of the Slave and the Free, by Henry A. Murray This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: Lands of the Slave and the Free Cuba, The United States, and Canada Author: Henry A. Murray Release Date: February 27, 2004 [EBook #11329] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK LANDS OF THE SLAVE AND THE FREE *** Produced by PG Distributed Proofreaders LANDS OF THE SLAVE AND THE FREE: OR, Cuba, the United States, and Canada. BY CAPTAIN THE HON. HENRY A. MURRAY, R.N. Entrance to a Coffee Planter's Residence. 1857. "He gave us only over beast, fish, fowl, Dominion absolute; that right we hold By his donation; but man over man He made not lord." MILTON. "Gone, gone—sold and gone, To the rice-swamp, dank and lone; There no mother's eye is near them, There no mother's ear can hear them; Never, when the torturing lash Seams their backs with many a gash, Shall a mother's kindness bless them, Or a mother's arms caress them." WHITTIER. "LA CURIOSIDAD NUNCA SE ENFADA DE SABER."[A] ANTONIO PEREZ "Oh, give me liberty! For were even Paradise my prison, Still I would long to leap the crystal walls." DRYDEN. "A happy bit hame this arrld[*] warld wad be, If men, whan they're here, would make shift to agree, And ilk said to his neebor in cottage an' hall, 'Come, gie me your hand, we are brethren all.'" [Transcribers note *: illegible] ROBERT NICOL. TO NIF, NASUS, AND CO., THESE VOLUMES Are Dedicated AS A TOKEN OF THE SINCERE AND AFFECTIONATE REGARD OF THEIR OBEDIENT SERVANT, HENRY A. MURRAY. LONDON, JUNE 1ST, 1855. SECOND AND CHEAP EDITION. The encouragement of friends, and the opinions expressed by a large majority of those publications that considered the former edition worthy of notice, have induced me to cut out many passages which might possibly not interest the general reader, in order that I might send it forth to the public in a more cheap and popular form. Writing upon such a subject as the United States, her constitution, and her institutions, there was necessarily some danger of a taint of political partisanship. I trust, however, I may he considered to have redeemed the pledge I made of writing "free from political bias," when I have found favour in the pages of two publications so opposite in their politics as the Westminster Review and the Press. One weekly paper with pretensions to literary criticism (the Athenaeum, September 15, 1855) did me the honour of making me the object of its unmeasured censure; but, as I was forewarned that my success would interfere with the prospects of one of its contributors, I was prepared for its animadversions, though most certainly I did not anticipate the good fortune of a zeal so totally void of discretion, that the animus which guided the critic's pen should be too transparent to impose upon even a child. Conceive a would-be critic, after various spasmodic efforts at severity, selecting from among many comprehensive measures suggested by me for the future emancipation, and for the present benefit, of the slave, the proposition of "a proper instrument for flogging, to be established by law," and that with the evident intention of throwing ridicule on the idea. If the critic were occasionally subject to the discipline of the various instruments used for the punishment of the negro, his instinct would soon teach him that which appears to be at present beyond the grasp of his intellect, viz., the difference between a cow-hide and a dog-whip; and if he knew anything of his own country, he could scarcely be ignorant that the instruments used for corporal punishment in army, navy, and prisons, are established by law or by a custom, as strong as law. But enough of this Athenian Reviewer, I offer for his reflection the old story, "Let her alone, poor thing; it amuses her, and does me no harm." The next time he tries to sling a stone, I hope he will not again crack his own skull in the clumsy endeavour. "Ill nature blended-with cold blood Will make a critic sound and good. This useful lesson hence we learn, Bad wine to good sound vinegar will turn." OLD PAMPHLET. I now launch my barque upon a wider ocean than before. The public must decide whether her sails shall flap listlessly against the masts, or swell before a decide whether her sails shall flap listlessly against the masts, or swell before a stiff and prosperous breeze. H.A.M. CONTENTS. A CHAPTER GRATIS AND EXPLANATORY CHAPTER I. Make Ready—Fire—Departure . FROM LONDON TO NEW YORK. Preparations LIVERPOOL—Embarkation Scenes Scenes on Board CAPE RACE Pilot NEW YORK CHAPTER II. Land of Stars and Stripes . AT NEW YORK. The First View Custom House Ferry Boat First Impressions Hospitality American Hotels Bar and Barbers Bridal Chamber Paddy Waiter Feeding System Streets and Buildings Portrait Hatter Advertisements Loafing in Broadway CHAPTER III. Sights and Amusements. AT NEW YORK. Yacht Club and Dinner. Railway Society to LONG ISLAND Race Stand Trotting Match Metallic Coffin American Horse Hack Cabs and Drivers Omnibuses City Railway Cars Travelling Railway Cars Tickets for Luggage Locomotive Suggestions for Railway Companies CHAPTER IV. A Day on the North River . FROM NEW YORK TO GENESEO. Embark in Steamer on Hudson Passengers and Anecdotes Scenery of River ALBANY—Disembark A Hint for Travellers Population and Prosperity Railway through Town Professor of Soap CANANDAIGUA—Hospitality. Early Education Opposite System Drive across Country—Snake Fences and Scenery Churches—a Hint for the Highlands Cheap Bait—GENESEO CHAPTER V. Geneseo. AT GENESEO Absence of Animal Life—Early Rising View from the Terrace—Work of the Pioneer Farm and System, Wages, &c. A Drive—Family Scene LAKE CANESUS Plank road. Toll gates, &c. Scotch Pikeman CHAPTER VI. Stirring Scenes and Strange Sights. FROM GENESEO TO NEW YORK. A Drive to BATAVIA—Railway Warning Buffalo Railway Station and Yankee Cabby Prosperity and Contrast NIAGARA ROCHESTER A Live Bloomer Advantage proved by Contrast Reflections on Old Fashions Pleasant Night CHAPTER VII. Construction and Destruction. AT NEW YORK. Cutter Yacht, "Black Maria" Dinner on Board Toddy and Chowder Prosperity—Croton Aqueduct Destruction of Dogs Drive on the Bloomingdale Road A Storm CHAPTER VIII. South and West . FROM NEW YORK TO LOUISVILLE. Ticket Station PHILADELPHIA—Convenience Luggage left behind BALTIMORE—MAXWELL POINT Canvas-back Ducks Tolling for Ducks Start by Rail—A Fix HARRISBURGH—The Whittling Colonel Start again. Pleasant Company Inclined Planes—Canal Boat Coaching Comfort PITTSBURG Railing through Forest, and Reflections CLEVELAND—Mud-walk To Sleep or not to Sleep CINCINNATI—Statistics and Education Porkopolis and Pigs A bloody Scene Ships at Marietta OHIO—Levee and Literature Embark on Steamer—Black Stewardess Ibrahim Pacha and Fat CHAPTER IX. Scenes Ashore and Afloat . Scenes Ashore and Afloat . FROM LOUISVILLE TO ST. LOUIS. Fabrication of the Republican Bonbon Wood Machinery A Nine-inside Coach Human Polecat Breakfast and Cigar versus Foetor Ferry Crossing—Travelling Beasts Old Bell's and Old Bell Cross Country Drive—Scenery The Mammoth Cave Old Bell and the Mail Pleasant Companions Rural Lavatory Fat Boy and Circus Intelligence LOUISVILLE and Advice Ohio—A Bet at the Bar A Dinner Scene and a Lady Dessert and Toothpicks Evening Recreation CAIRO—Its Prospects ST. LOUIS—Its Prosperity CHAPTER X. River Scenes . FROM ST. LOUIS TO NEW ORLEANS. MISSISSIPPI—Good-natured Weakness Mississippi v . Missouri Stale Anecdote revived Marriage Certificate Folly—Description of Steamer Inspection Farce described Corporal Punishment—Illustration Captain of Mizen Top v . White Nigger Scenery Mississippi—Good night Screecher & Burster—A Race Captain leaves us Bed—Alarm—Wreck Brutal Heartlessness River Wreckers NEW ORLEANS Wrecks, Causes and Remedies Anecdotes of Blood CHAPTER XI. New Orleans. FROM NEW ORLEANS TO HAVANA. Situation and Bustle Cotton, Tobacco and Sugar Steamers, and Wages Streets, Hotels, &c A Friend in Need. Neighbourhood, Shell-road Society and Remarks Rough-and-Tumble—Lola Montez A Presbyterian Church The Gold Man Autocracy of the Police Law—Boys and Processions Duel Penalties—Stafford House Address Clubs Spanish Consul and Passport Parting Cadeau Pilot Dodge Purser Smith Sneezing Dangerous—Selecting a Companion HAVANA CHAPTER XII. The Queen of the Antilles . AT CUBA. Volante Lively Funeral A Light to a Cigar Evening Amusement Trip to MATANZAS—El Casero Slave Plantation Sugar Making Luxuriant Vegetation Punic Faith and Cuban Cruelty H.M.S. "Vestal" Bribery Admiralty Wisdom Cigars and Manufactory Population—Chinese Laws of Domicile—Police and Slavery Increase of Slaves and Produce Tobacco, Games, and Lotteries Cuban Jokes Sketch of Governors The Future of Cuba? CHAPTER XIII. Change of Dynasty . FROM CUBA TO BALTIMORE. KEY POINT Vulgar Hebrew CHARLESTON, WASHINGTON Night and Morning Congress and Inauguration General Jackson and Changes Cabmen and City Shopman and Drinking Levees and Buildings BALTIMORE and Terrapin The Drama Progress—Fire Companies CHAPTER XIV. Philadelphia and Richmond . FROM BALTIMORE TO RICHMOND. PHILADELPHIA and Hospitality. Streets—Mint Gerard College High School A Jail and a Cure for the Turbulent Lunatic Asylum NEW YORK and Embark A Wild Paddy CHARLESTON Arrival Hotel and Hospitality Climate and Buildings Commercial Prosperity Fire Companies Miniature WEST POINT (Vide Note) WILMINGTON Railway Accident PETERBOROUGH and my Hat RICHMOND Scenery and Prosperity Powhattan's Tree, an Episode A Lady Friend Fire and Folly Monkey Boy Gerymander Fire Company, Frolic and Reflections CHAPTER XV. From a River to a Race-course . FROM RICHMOND TO NEW YORK. Down the River WILLIAMSBURG. Old Palace A Governor and a Paddy A Governor and a Paddy The College Uncle Ben and his Inn Reflections SHIRLEY, Hospitality, &c. BEANDON, Hospitality, &c. Rural Election—A Cruise in a Calm Choral Warblers and Family Altar NORFOLK, Dockyard, &c. Slave Servants, a Hint to the Foreign Office Via BALTIMORE to PHILADELPHIA—A Confession. Race—Mac and Tac NEW YORK CHAPTER XVI. Home of the Pilgrim Fathers . FROM NEW YORK TO BOSTON. Off by rail—Foxhunting Fire BOSTON. Buildings and Hospitality Neighbourhood and Names The Drama Spirit-rapping and Gulls CHAPTER XVII. Teaching of Youth and a Model Jail . AT BOSTON. Pilgrim Fathers Education—Expenditure—Regulations, &c. Phonetic System A Model Jail—Telegraph and Fire—Dockyard Water Supply, Prosperity, &c. CHAPTER XVIII. Canada. FROM BOSTON TO QUEBEC. Railroad and Scenery MONTREAL, and a Welcome Face Gavazzi—Excitement—Mob, &c. QUEBEC and Neighbourhood Mrs. Paul and Miss Paddy Ferry-boat and Friends Rebellion Losses Bill Moral Courage and Administrative Ability evidenced and acknowledged Hint for Militia Canadian Government CHAPTER XIX. A Trip to the Uttáwa. FROM QUEBEC TO TORONTO. Mr. Hincks—Mr. Drummond—MONTREAL Up the OTTAWAY to LACHINE, ST. ANNE'S to BYTOWN and AYLMER The CHATS FALLS Canadian Highlanders Conflagration, Rafts, Lumberers, and Teetotallers The Struggle, the Goal, and the Return AYLMER Prosperity BYTOWN. Scenery and Advantages Slides for Lumber—Mr. Mackay Object of Councillor's Visit Drive across Country PRESCOTT and OGDENSBURG KINGSTON LAKE ONTARIO and a Nice Bed TORONTO CHAPTER XX. Colonial Education and Prosperity . AT TORONTO. TORONTO. Population, Prosperity and Buildings The Normal School Education generally Canadian Prospects and Prosperity CHAPTER XXI. A Cataract and a Celebration . FROM TORONTO TO NEW YORK. Embark in Steamer QUEENSTOWN & LEWISTOWN A Drive, a Bait, and a Lesson NIAGARA and Moonlight BATAVIA, GENESEO, and 4th July Hawking Carriages—ROCHESTER ALBANY—Hands and Sandwiches Dropped outside—NEW YORK CHAPTER XXII. Education, Civil and Military . NEW YORK AND WEST POINT. Free Academy WEST POINT. Military Academy Anecdote, &c. NEW YORK Here travelling ceases, and the remaining Chapters are devoted to the discussion of subjects which I trust may interest the reader. CHAPTER XXIII. Watery Highways and Metallic Intercourse . Area of Lakes, and Tonnage thereon Mississippi—Produce borne and destroyed Mr. Douglas and Custom Houses A Great Party Doctrine Erie Canal—Barn-burners and Hunkers Railways—United States and England Telegraph Systems of Telegraph CHAPTER XXIV. America's Press and England's Censor . Issues of the Press Wonderful Statistics Character of the Press Great Britain's Press Low Literature of America Barefaced Robbery—Northwood Specimen English Items Specimen The Author of English Items SUBJECTS EXTRACTED:— Relations with England Sixpenny Miracles Army Commissions—English Writers American Spitting Holy Places English Friends Original Sin English Manners English Church and Heraldry Devotion to Dinner Conclusion Subsequent Career of Mr. Ward—The Offence—The Scene and the Death Acquittal and Effects CHAPTER XXV. The Institution of Slavery . Original Guilt Northern Fanatics Irritation produced Northern Friendship questioned Grounds of Southerners' Objections to the Abolitionists English Abolitionists Mrs. Stowe's Ovation Treatment of Slaves Irresponsible Power and Public Opinion Sources of Opinion as to Treatment of Slaves—Law—Self-interest Christianity Habit Causes of Indignation Recrimination Evidence from Authors—Press and Canada Review of Progress of Slavery Slave Population and Value Question of Freedom CHAPTER XXVI. Hints for Master and Hopes for Slave . PROPOSALS. Free Soil Fugitive Law Territory of Refuge TREATMENT DISCUSSED. Corporal Punishment Forfeiture and Testimony System for Ultimate Freedom The Blackest Feature in Slavery VISIONARY DEPUTATION Inveterate Slaveholder Touchy Slaveholder, and Swaggering Bully Clerical Slave Advocate Amiable Planter Recriminator Abolitionist and Intelligent Slaveholder A frightful Question Closing Observations Nebraska—The Christian and the Mussulman CHAPTER XXVII. Constitution of the United States . Plan Proposed Government and Qualification for Office Elective Franchise Frequency of Elections Ballot Effects of Elections under the Ballot Remedy proposed John Randolph, Sydney Smith, and Clubs Payment of Members and its Effects Scene in Congress The Judiciary Exclusion of Cabinet from Seats Power of President Election of President Governors of States, and Power of Pardon Conclusion and Testimony of Bishop Hopkins CHAPTER XXVIII. The Church, the School, and the Law . Church Statistics American Episcopal Prayer-Book Methodist Episcopacy and Presbyterian Music What exists at Home Ismite Convention Education Statistics and College Expenses Pray read this—Law for Conveyance of Land CHAPTER XXIX. Inventions and Inveighings. What is a Bay? Dr. King—Fulton and Steam Telegraph and American Modesty Reaping Machine Opinion of a Borderer American Ingenuity Fire-arms and Militia CHAPTER XXX. Adverse Influences. The 4th July Mr. Douglas and Congress Miss Willard and John Mitchell Who are the Antipathists? CHAPTER XXXI. Olla Podrida. American Vanity American Sensitiveness American Morals Territory and Population Effect of Early Education Phases of Liberty Strikes Intelligence Energy 'Cuteness and Eggs Enterprise—Lord-hunting Hospitality—Political Parties Know-nothings The Future My Endeavour My Warning Lord Holland, Hope, and Farewell NOTES. EXTENT OF TELEGRAPH IN THE UNITED KINGDOM A SHORT SKETCH OF THE PROGRESS OF FIRE-ARMS FOOTNOTES: [A] "THE INQUIRING MIND WEARIES NOT IN THE PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE." ANTONIO PEREZ. (Translation) EXPLANATORY LIST OF PLATES. VIGNETTE OF THE ENTRANCE TO A COFFEE PLANTER'S RESIDENCE RAILWAY CARRIAGE LOCOMOTIVE CUTTER YACHT "MARIA" The following are the dimensions referred to in the text as being on the original engraving:— Tonnage by displacement Length on deck Breadth of beam Depth of hold Length of mast Length of boom Length of gaff Length of jibboom Length of bowsprit on board Diameter of bowsprit Diameter of boom 137 110 26-1/2 8-1/4 91 95 50 70 27 24 26 tons feet " " " " feet " " in. in. MAP OF CROTON AQUEDUCT