Little Masterpieces of Science: - Invention and Discovery
196 Pages
English

Little Masterpieces of Science: - Invention and Discovery

Downloading requires you to have access to the YouScribe library
Learn all about the services we offer

Description

The Project Gutenberg EBook of Little Masterpieces of Science:, by VariousThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.orgTitle: Little Masterpieces of Science:Invention and DiscoveryAuthor: VariousEditor: George IlesRelease Date: June 25, 2009 [EBook #29241]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK LITTLE MASTERPIECES OF SCIENCE: ***Produced by Sigal Alon, Marcia Brooks, Fox in the Starsand the Online Distributed Proofreading Team athttp://www.pgdp.netLITTLE MASTERPIECES OF SCIENCEGeorge Stephenson. George Stephenson.Little Masterpiecesof ScienceEdited by George IlesINVENTION AND DISCOVERYByBenjamin Franklin Alexander Graham BellMichael Faraday Count RumfordJoseph Henry George StephensonDecorationNEW YORKDOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY1902Copyright, 1902, by Doubleday, Page & Co.Copyright, 1877, by George B. PrescottCopyright, 1896, by S. S. McClure Co.Copyright, 1900, by Doubleday, McClure & Co.PREFACETo a good many of us the inventor is the true hero for he multiplies the working value of life. He performs an old taskwith new economy, as when he devises a mowing-machine to oust the scythe; or he creates a service wholly new, aswhen he bids a landscape depict itself on a photographic plate. He, and his twin brother, the ...

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 08 December 2010
Reads 20
Language English
The Project Gutenberg EBook of Little Masterpieces of Science:, by Various
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org
Title: Little Masterpieces of Science: Invention and Discovery
Author: Various
Editor: George Iles
Release Date: June 25, 2009 [EBook #29241]
Language: English
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK LITTLE MASTERPIECES OF SCIENCE: ***
Produced by Sigal Alon, Marcia Brooks, Fox in the Stars and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net
LITTLE MASTERPIECES OF SCIENCE
George Stephenson. George Stephenson.
Little Masterpieces of Science
Edited by George Iles
INVENTION AND DISCOVERY
By
Benjamin Franklin Alexander Graham Bell Michael Faraday Count Rumford Joseph Henry George Stephenson
Decoration
NEW YORK
DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY
1902
Copyright, 1902, by Doubleday, Page & Co. Copyright, 1877, by George B. Prescott Copyright, 1896, by S. S. McClure Co.
Copyright, 1900, by Doubleday, McClure & Co.
PREFACE
To a good many of us the inventor is the true hero for he multiplies the working value of life. He performs an old task with new economy, as when he devises a mowing-machine to oust the scythe; or he creates a service wholly new, as when he bids a landscape depict itself on a photographic plate. He, and his twin brother, the discoverer, have eyes to read a lesson that Nature has held for ages under the undiscerning gaze of other men. Where an ordinary observer sees, or thinks he sees, diversity, a Franklin detects identity, as in the famous experiment here recounted which proves lightning to be one and the same with a charge of the Leyden jar. Of a later day than Franklin, advantaged therefor by new knowledge and better opportunities for experiment, stood Faraday, the founder of modern electric art. His work gave the world the dynamo and motor, the transmission of giant powers, almost without toll, for two hundred miles at a bound. It is, however, in the carriage of but trifling quantities of motion, just enough for signals, that electricity thus far has done its most telling work. Among the men who have created the electric telegraph Joseph Henry has a commanding place. A short account of what he did, told in his own words, is here presented. Then follows a narrative of the difficult task of laying the first Atlantic cables, a task long
scouted as impossible: it is a story which proves how much science may be indebted to unfaltering courage, to faith in ultimate triumph.
To give speech the wings of electricity, to enable friends in Denver and New York to converse with one another, is a marvel which only familiarity places beyond the pale of miracle. Shortly after he perfected the telephone Professor Bell described the steps which led to its construction. That recital is here reprinted.
A recent wonder of electric art is its penetration by a photographic ray of substances until now called opaque. Professor Röntgen's account of how he wrought this feat forms one of the most stirring chapters in the history of science. Next follows an account of the telegraph as it dispenses with metallic conductors altogether, and trusts itself to that weightless ether which brings to the eye the luminous wave. To this succeeds a chapter which considers what electricity stands for as one of the supreme resources of human wit, a resource transcending even flame itself, bringing articulate speech and writing to new planes of facility and usefulness. It is shown that the rapidity with which during a single century electricity has been subdued for human service, illustrates that progress has leaps as well as deliberate steps, so that at last a gulf, all but infinite, divides man from his next of kin.
At this point we pause to recall our debt to the physical
philosophy which underlies the calculations of the modern engineer. In such an experiment as that of Count Rumford we observe how the corner-stone was laid of the knowledge that heat is motion, and that motion under whatever guise, as light, electricity, or what not, is equally beyond creation or annihilation, however elusively it may glide from phase to phase and vanish from view. In the mastery of Flame for the superseding of muscle, of breeze and waterfall, the chief credit rests with James Watt, the inventor of the steam engine. Beside him stands George Stephenson, who devised the locomotive which by abridging space has lengthened life and added to its highest pleasures. Our volume closes by narrating the competition which decided that Stephenson's “Rocket” was much superior to its rivals, and thus opened a new chapter in the history of mankind.
George Iles.
CONTENTS
FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN
Lightning Identified with Electricity
Franklin explains the action of the Ley den phial or jar. Suggests lightning-rod s. Sends a kite into the clouds during a thunderstorm; through the kite-strin
3
g obtains a spark of lightning which thr ows into divergence the loose fibres of the string, just as an ordinary electrica l discharge would do.
FARADAY, MICHAEL
Preparing the Way for the Electric Dyn amo and Motor
Notices the inductive effect in one coil when the circuit in a concentric coil is completed or broken. Notices similar e ffects when a wire bearing a current a pproaches another wire or recedes fro m it. Rotates a galvanometer needle b y an electric pulse. Induces currents in coils when the magnetism is varied in their iron or steel cores. Observes the lines of magnetic force as iron filings a re magnetized. A magnetic bar moved in and out of a coil of wire excites elec tricity therein,—mechanical motion is c onverted into electricity. Generates a current by spinning a copper plate in a horizontal plane.
HENRY, JOSEPH
Invention of the Electric Telegraph
Improves the electro-magnet of Sturg
3
7
eon by insulating its wire with silk thre ad, and by disposing the wire in sever al coils instead of one. Experiments wi th a large electro-magnet excited by ni ne distinct coils. Uses a battery so po werful that electro-magnets are produ ced one hundred times more energeti c than those of Sturgeon. Arranges a t elegraphic circuit more than a mile lon g and at that distance sounds a bell b y means of an electro-magnet.
ILES, GEORGE The First Atlantic Cables
Forerunners at New York and Dover. Gutta-percha the indispensable insulat or. Wire is used to sheathe the cables . Cyrus W. Field's project for an Atlanti c cable. The first cable fails. 1858 so d oes the second cable 1865. A triumph of courage, 1866. The highway smoot hed for successors. Lessons of the ca ble.
BELL, ALEXANDER GRAHAM The Invention of the Telephone
Indebted to his father's study of the vo cal organs as they form sounds. Exa
23
37
mines the Helmholtz method for the a nalysis and synthesis of vocal sounds. Suggests the electrical actuation of tu ning-forks and the electrical transmissi on of their tones. Distinguishes intermi ttent, pulsatory and undulatory current s. Devises as his first articulating telep hone a harp of steel rods thrown into vibration by electro-magnetism. Exhibi ts optically the vibrations of sound, usi ng a preparation of a human ear: is st ruck by the efficiency of a slight aural membrane. Attaches a bit of clock spri ng to a piece of goldbeater's skin, spe aks to it, an audible message is receiv ed at a distant and similar device. This contrivance improved is shown at the Centennial Exhibition, Philadelphia, 18 76. At first the same kind of instrumen t transmitted and delivered, a messag e; soon two distinct instruments were i nvented for transmitting and for receiv ing. Extremely small magnets suffice. A single blade of grass forms a teleph onic circuit.
DAM, H. J. W.
Photographing the Unseen
Röntgen indebted to the researches of Faraday, Clerk-Maxwell, Hertz, Lodge
57
and Lenard. The human optic nerve is affected by a very small range in the waves that exist in the ether. Beyond t he visible spectrum of common light a re vibrations which have long been kn own as heat or as photographically act ive. Crookes in a vacuous bulb produc ed soft light from high tension electricit y. Lenard found that rays from a Croo kes' tube passed through substances opaque to common light. Röntgen ext ended these experiments and used th e rays photographically, taking picture s of the bones of the hand through livi ng flesh, and so on.
ILES, GEORGE
The Wireless Telegraph
What may follow upon electric inductio n. Telegraphy to a moving train. The P reece induction method; its limits. Mar coni's system. His precursors, Hertz, Onesti, Branly and Lodge. The cohere r and the vertical wire form the essenc e of the apparatus. Wireless telegraph y at sea.
ILES, GEORGE
Electricity, What Its MasteryMeans:
87
10 9