Lord John Russell
225 Pages
English
Downloading requires you to have access to the YouScribe library
Learn all about the services we offer

Lord John Russell

-

Downloading requires you to have access to the YouScribe library
Learn all about the services we offer
225 Pages
English

Description

! ! " # $$%& ' ' ( ' ) ' * +, $-, ... +/ 0( 1 + () 23 (4!( 2 (!++5 + +04 3 ( ... ! ! " # $ % " & !'(())) ! ! * ! " # $ ! ( * ( !6 3 (* % & % ' ( ) $ $ * & & ! ! 0( 73((48 1 *9( 9*4* ( ( *( +/ 1+ * *) !*+2 10*( ( * ( !6 3 3 0+ +/ : 0( */( 4 *9( +/ 6 4(6 9* 0 8 + " " ( * * + , #- ,.#/ -0 $ 1 !; / + 3 ( ) ** 20 .#3/ 4 #3 / !; 0(4 6 34)5 (6 *** 0 # !; 3 *49)) 06 9 1 *? + 0 + +#/ 5 ,$ #/ 4 !; 2 A ( 3 ( ? + 4, 630 #- , 0 3 7 !

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 08 December 2010
Reads 47
Language English

Exrait

The Project Gutenberg eBook, Lord John Russell, by Stuart J. Reid
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it , give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online atwww.gutenberg.org
Title: Lord John Russell
Author: Stuart J. Reid
Release Date: December 17, 2008 [eBook #27553]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK LORD JOHN RUSSELL***
E-text prepared by Susan Skinner, Emanuela Piasentini, and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team (http://www.pgdp.net)
Reproduced by permission from an unpublished picture by G. F. Watts, R. A. in the possession of the Dowager Countess Russell at Pembroke Lodge, Richmond Photogravure by Annan & Swan.
L
EDITED BY
STUART J. REID
O
R
D
J
O
H
N
R
U
S
S
E
[i]
[ii]
L
L
THE QUEEN’S PRIME MINISTERS
A SERIES OF POLITICAL BIOGRAPHIES.
S
T
EDITED BY
U
A
R
T
J
.
AUTHOR OF ‘THE LIFE AND TIMES OF SYDNEY SMITH.’
The volumes contain Photogravure Portraits, also copies of Autographs.
R
E
I
I. THE EARL OF BEACONSFIELD, K.G.By J. A. FRO UDE, D.C.L. (Seventh Edition.)
II. VISCOUNT MELBOURNE.By HENRYDUNCKLEY, LL.D. (‘Verax.’)
III. SIR ROBERT PEEL.By JUSTINMCCARTHY, M.P.
IV. THE RIGHT HON. W. E. GLADSTONE, M.P.By G. W. E. RUSSELL. (Twelfth Thousand.)
V. THE MARQUIS OF SALISBURY.By H. D. TRAILL, D.C.L. (Second Edition.)
VI. VISCOUNT PALMERSTON.By the MARQ UISO FLO RNE. (Second Edition.)
VII. THE EARL OF DERBY.By GEO RG ESAINTSBURY.
VIII. THE EARL OF ABERDEEN.By LO RDSTANMO RE.
IX. LORD JOHN RUSSELL.By STUARTJ. REID.
* *  A Limited Library Edition of TWO HUNDRED * AND FIFTY COPIES, each numbered, printed on hand-made paper, parchment binding, gilt top, with facsimile reproductions, in some cases of characteristic notes of Speeches and Letters, which are not included in the ordinary edition, and some additional Portraits. Price for the Complete Set of Nine Volumes,Four Guineas net. No Volumes of this Edition sold separately.
D
LO NDO N: SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON & COMPANY, LIMITED, St. Dunstan’s House, FETTERLANE, FLEETSTREET, E.C.
L
O
R
D
BY
STUART J. REID
J
O
I have looked to the happiness of my countrymen as the object to which my efforts ought to be directed
Recollections and Suggestions
LONDON
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON & COMPANY LIMITED St. Dunstan’s House
FETTER LANE, FLEET STREET, E.C.
1895
[All rights reserved]
TO THE
H
[iii]
[iv]
[v]
N
R
U
S
S
E
L
L
LADY MARY AGATHA RUSSELL
THIS RECORD
OF
HER FATHER’S CAREER
IS
WITH TRUE REGARD
P
DEDICATED
R
E
F
A
C
E
THIS monograph could not have been written—in the intimate sense—if the Dowager Countess Russell had not extended a confidence which, I trust, has in no direction been abused. Lady Russell has not only granted me access to her journal and papers as well as the early note-books of her husband, but in many conversations has added the advantage of her own reminiscences.
I am also indebted in greater or less degree to Mrs . Warburton, Lady Georgiana Peel, Lady Agatha Russell, the Hon. Rollo Russell, Mr. G. W. E. Russell, and the Hon. George Elliot. Mr. Elliot’s knowledge, as brother-in-law, and for many years as private secretary, touches both the personal and official aspects of Lord John’s career, and it has been freely placed at my disposal. Outside the circle of Lord John’s relatives I have received hints from the Hon. Charles Gore and Sir Villiers Lister, both of whom, at one period or another in his public life, also served him in the capacity of secretary.
I have received some details of Lord John’s official life from one who served under him in a more public capacity—not, however, I hasten to add, as Chancellor of the Exchequer—but I am scarcely at li berty in this instance to mention my authority.
My thanks are due, in an emphatic sense, to my friend Mr. Spencer Walpole, who, with a generosity rare at all times, has not only allowed me to avail myself of facts contained in his authoritative biography of Lord John Russell, but has also glanced at the proof sheets of these pages, and has given me, in frank comment, the benefit of his own singularly wide and accurate knowledge of the historical and political annals of the reign. It is only right to add that Mr. Walpole is not in any sense responsible for the opinions expressed in a book which is only partially based on his own, is not always in a greement with his conclusions, and which follows independent lines.
[vi]
[vii]
[viii]
The letter which the Queen wrote to the Countess Russell immediately after the death of one of her ‘first and most distinguished Ministers’ is now printed with her Majesty’s permission.
The late Earl of Selborne and Mr. Lecky were sufficiently interested in my task to place on record for the volume some persona l and political reminiscences which speak for themselves, and do so with authority.
I am also under obligations of various kinds to the Marquis of Dufferin and Ava, the Earl of Durham, Lord Stanmore, Dr. Anderson of Richmond, and the Rev. James Andrews of Woburn. I desire also to acknowledge the courtesy of Mr. Gladstone, Mr. Andrew Lang, Mr. James Knowles, Mr. Percy Bunting, Mr. Edwin Hodder, Messrs. Longmans, and the proprietors of ‘Punch,’ for liberty to quote from published books and journals.
In Montaigne’s words, ‘The tales I borrow, I charge upon the consciences of those from whom I have them.’ I have gathered cues from all quarters, but in almost every case my indebtedness stands recorded on the passing page.
The portrait which forms the frontispiece is for the first time reproduced, with the sanction of the Countess Russell and Mr. G. F. Watts, from an original crayon drawing which hangs on the walls at Pembroke Lodge.
It may be as well to anticipate an obvious criticism by stating that the earlier title of the subject of this memoir is retained, no t only in deference to the strongly expressed wish of the family at Pembroke Lodge, but also because it suggests nearly half a century spent in the House of Commons in pursuit of liberty. In the closing days of Earl Russell’s life his eye was accustomed to brighten, and his manner to relax, when some new ac quaintance, in the eagerness of conversation, took the liberty of familiar friendship by addressing the old statesman as ‘Lord John.’
CHISLEHURST:June 4, 1895.
C
O
N
CHAPTER I
T
STUART J. REID.
E
EARLY YEARS, EDUCATION, AND TRAVEL
1792-1813
Rise of the Russells under the Tudors —Childhood and early surroundings of Lord John—Schooldays at
N
T
S
[ix]
[x] [xi]
Westminster—First journey abroad with Lord Holland—Wellington and the Peninsular campaign—Student days in Edinburgh and speeches at the Speculative Society—Early leanings in politics and literature —Enters the House of Commons as member for Tavistock
CHAPTER II
IN PARLIAMENT AND FOR THE PEOPLE
1813-1826
The political outlook when Lord John entered the House of Commons —The ‘Condition of England’ question—The struggle for Parliamentary Reform—Side-lights on Napoleon Bonaparte—The Liverpool Administration in a panic —Lord John comes to the aid of Sir Francis Burdett—Foreign travel —First motion in favour of Reform —Making headway
CHAPTER III
WINNING HIS SPURS
1826-1830
Defeated and out of harness—Journey to Italy—Back in Parliament —Canning’s accession to power —Bribery and corruption—The repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts—The struggle between the Court and the Cabinet over Catholic Emancipation—Defeat of Wellington at the polls—Lord John appointed Paymaster-General
CHAPTER IV
A FIGHT FOR LIBERTY
1830-1832
1
21
47
[xii]
Lord Grey and the cause of Reform —Lord Durham’s share in the Reform Bill—The voice of the people—Lord John introduces the bill and explains its provisions—The surprise of the Tories—Reform, ‘Aye’ or ‘No’—Lord John in the Cabinet—The bill thrown out—The indignation of the country —Proposed creation of Peers —Wellington and Sidmouth in despair—The bill carried—Lord John’s tribute to Althorp
CHAPTER V
THE DAWN OF A NEW ERA
1833-1838
The turn of the tide with the Whigs—The two voices in the Cabinet—Lord John and Ireland—Althorp and the Poor Law—The Melbourne Administration on the rocks—Peel in power—The question of Irish tithes—Marriage of Lord John —Grievances of Nonconformists —Lord Melbourne’s influence over the Queen—Lord Durham’s mission to Canada—Personal sorrow
CHAPTER VI
THE TWO FRONT BENCHES
1840-1845
Lord John’s position in the Cabinet and in the Commons—His services to Education—Joseph Lancaster —Lord John’s Colonial Policy—Mr. Gladstone’s opinion—Lord Stanmore’s recollections—The mistakes of the Melbourne Cabinet —The Duke of Wellington’s opinion of Lord John—The agitation against the Corn Laws—Lord John’s view of Sir Robert Peel—The Edinburgh letter—Peel’s dilemma—Lord
63
88
[xiii]
John’s comment on the situation
CHAPTER VII
FACTION AND FAMINE
1846-1847
Peel and Free Trade—Disraeli and Lord George Bentinck lead the attack —Russell to the rescue—Fall of Peel—Lord John summoned to power—Lord John’s position in the Commons and in the country—The Condition of Ireland question —Famine and its deadly work—The Russell Government and measures of relief—Crime and coercion—The Whigs and Education—Factory Bill —The case of Dr. Hampden
CHAPTER VIII
IN ROUGH WATERS
1848-1852
The People’s Charter—Feargus O’Connor and the crowd—Lord Palmerston strikes from his own bat —Lord John’s view of the political situation—Death of Peel —Palmerston and the Court—‘No Popery’—The Durham Letter—The invasion scare—Lord John’s remark about Palmerston—Fall of the Russell Administration
CHAPTER IX
COALITION BUT NOT UNION
1852-1853
The Aberdeen Ministry—Warring elements—Mr. Gladstone’s position —Lord John at the Foreign Office and Leader of the House—Lady Russell’s criticisms of Lord
113
136
163
Macaulay’s statement—A small cloud in the East—Lord Shaftesbury has his doubts
CHAPTER X
DOWNING STREET AND CONSTANTINOPLE
1853
Causes of the Crimean War—Nicholas seizes his opportunity—The Secret Memorandum—Napoleon and the susceptibilities of the Vatican—Lord Stratford de Redcliffe and the Porte —Prince Menschikoff shows his hand—Lord Aberdeen hopes against hope—Lord Palmerston’s opinion of the crisis—The Vienna Note—Lord John grows restive —Sinope arouses England—The deadlock in the Cabinet
CHAPTER XI
WAR HINDERS REFORM
1854-1855
A Scheme of Reform—Palmerston’s attitude—Lord John sore let and hindered—Lord Stratford’s diplomatic triumph—The Duke of Newcastle and the War Office—The dash for Sebastopol —Procrastination and its deadly work—The Alma—Inkerman—The Duke’s blunder—Famine and frost in the trenches
CHAPTER XII
THE VIENNA DIFFICULTY
1855
Blunders at home and abroad —Roebuck’s motion—‘General
199
213
236
[xiv]
Février’ turns traitor—France and the Crimea—Lord John at Vienna —The pride of the nation is touched —Napoleon’s visit to Windsor —Lord John’s retirement—The fall of Sebastopol—The treaty of Paris
CHAPTER XIII
LITERATURE AND EDUCATION
Lord John’s position in 1855—His constituency in the City—Survey of his work in literature—As man of letters—His historical writings —Hero-worship of Fox—Friendship with Moore—Writes the biography of the poet—‘Don Carlos’—A book wrongly attributed to him —Publishes his ‘Recollections and Suggestions’—An opinion of Kinglake’s—Lord John on his own career—Lord John and National Schools—Joseph Lancaster’s tentative efforts—The formation of the Council of Education —Prejudice blocks the way—Mr. Forster’s tribute
CHAPTER XIV
COMING BACK TO POWER
1857-1861
Lord John as an Independent Member —His chance in the City—The Indian Mutiny—Orsini’s attempt on the life of Napoleon—The Conspiracy Bill—Lord John and the Jewish Relief Act—Palmerston in power—Lord John at the Foreign Office—Cobden and Bright—Quits the Commons with a Peerage
CHAPTER XV
254
270
286
UNITED ITALY AND THE DIS-UNITED STATES
[xv]