Makers of Many Things
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Makers of Many Things

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Makers of Many Things, by Eva March TappanThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.netTitle: Makers of Many ThingsAuthor: Eva March TappanRelease Date: April 21, 2009 [EBook #28569]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK MAKERS OF MANY THINGS ***Produced by C. St. Charleskindt and the Online DistributedProofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.netTHE INDUSTRIAL READERSBook IIIMAKERS OF MANY THINGSBYEVA MARCH TAPPAN, Ph.D.Author of "England's Story," "American Hero Stories," "Old World Hero Stories,""Story of the Greek People," "Story of the Roman People," etc. Editor of "TheChildren's Hour."Riverside PressCambridgeHOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANYBOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGOCOPYRIGHT, 1916, BY EVA MARCH TAPPANALL RIGHTS RESERVEDThe Riverside PressCAMBRIDGE . MASSACHUSETTSU . S . APREFACEThe four books of this series have been written not merely to provide agreeable readingmatter for children, but to give them information. When a child can look at a steel pen notsimply as an article furnished by the city for his use, but rather as the result of many interestingprocesses, he has made a distinct growth in intelligence. When he has begun to apprehendthe fruitfulness of the earth, both above ground and below, ...

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Makers of Many Things, by Eva March Tappan This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net
Title: Makers of Many Things Author: Eva March Tappan Release Date: April 21, 2009 [EBook #28569] Language: English
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK MAKERS OF MANY THINGS ***
Produced by C. St. Charleskindt and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net
THE INDUSTRIAL READERS Book III
MAKERS OF MANY THINGS
BY EVAMARCH TAPPAN, Ph.D. Author of "England's Story," "American Hero Stories," "Old World Hero Stories," "Story of the Greek People," "Story of the Roman People," etc. Editor of "The Children's Hour."
Riverside Press Cambridge
HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO
COPYRIGHT, 1916, BYEVAMARCH TAPPAN ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
The Riverside Press CAMBRIDGE . MASSACHUSETTS U . S . A
PREFACE
The four books of this series have been written not merely to provide agreeable reading matter for children, but to give them information. When a child can look at a steel pen not simply as an article furnished by the city for his use, but rather as the result of many interesting processes, he has made a distinct growth in intelligence. When he has begun to apprehend the fruitfulness of the earth, both above ground and below, and the best way in which its products may be utilized and carried to the places where they are needed, he has not only acquired a knowledge of many kinds of industrial life which may help him to choose his life-work wisely from among them, but he has learned the dependence of one person upon other persons, of one part of the world upon other parts, and the necessity of peaceful intercourse. Best of all, he has learned to see. Wordsworth's familiar lines say of a man whose eyes had not been opened,—
"A primrose by a river's brim A yellow primrose was to him, . And it was nothing more " These books are planned to show the children that there is "something more"; to broaden their horizon; to reveal to them what invention has accomplished and what wide room for invention still remains; to teach them that reward comes to the man who improves his output beyond the task of the moment; and that success is waiting, not for him who works because he must, but for him who works because he may. Acknowledgment is due to the Diamond Match Company, Hood Rubber Company, S. D. Warren Paper Company, The Riverside Press, E. Faber, C. Howard Hunt Pen Company, Waltham Watch Company, Mark Cross Company, I. Prouty & Company, Cheney Brothers, and others, whose advice and criticism have been of most valuable aid in the preparation of this volume.
Eva March Tappan.
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI.
CONTENTS
The Little Friction Match About India Rubber "Kid" Gloves How Rags and Trees become Paper How Books are made From Goose Quills to Fountain Pens and Lead Pencils The Dishes on Our Tables How the Wheels of a Watch go around The Making of Shoes In the Cotton Mill Silkworms and their Work
THE INDUSTRIAL READERS
BOOK III
MAKERS OF MANY THINGS
1 6 16 25 36 46 56 64 73 82 92
Ig matchein makintss et pTehf rirp erepozis T .eo ntocbl oksthf  o aamhcni ehwcihese are fed inttihw emop enip-eo  tiss  sctlesea dnilyti itc tu of lank quagoodmoreeasiht even owdo .sAylt ah n bx,auecfiafwan lliwgil t es sihin c chaiousustrvoreeh mset rairax whe tasn oo sdni eht ,yrd si uo,ra dnd runi gthis hour all soniam ni  ehtiahcfon abr t ou hanhtyets ,d pia erintoped  par hott fo strpahsgnih tton peir Fm.heera rof lps stni mhechats nd tofnit ehe htsic aholes in d into her stnilps ehT.eutin m andsaouthvl et ewnerofot ate he rat tced at m schinpl. tst dn suhstuceht es throughthem a hesdn shsra pidmolyusuoan, ngvii niahc nitnoc ser acuttrier cart ehvOreni ts lp Ts.ruhospho pofwolley nommoc ehis prus spho pho dow ,naonsuioostcmafah merkinn rehwti erotc seid were i was useo  fusff nadgnreluow ti am ton dlit  ikee Tht.ghhprohpsoihhcsuw to m is it iake  otnam a hcto siann heotdir inpp-gorll .hTsii  ssesqui-sulphide  nnoorisna dul ehe ges tinuten motnidenedrah eva hitf  ond ene o aamct hi  son tbulb. It a hard ctargnihof ,cs r mnynseat ye abyed wovera laith ppnia idllc -gorofy tlarane lu gsnoc reyp gnitsis of air now pla doris.nC ruertnan, ind bo a tutopuyht nps etnilorizy, hlly,ontaht eo  ndi euostbo aedrihe tonutv niahc llacitretion of phosphorsu ,htyea erc rae avenbeip dd peotnieht erp arapA.tftase dtSinetts hplinhe ser teht ot pu evag y Uhe tofe pleo pih sapet;ea dnt enerouslntthey gses -iuqhciheht as wad mlpsudehisecorp nw yb ses thtig rairtceo hteeeh misevcxulent  patng tgivipmoc ynadleheht lar esrgmat h tcaw sahmrelss .uOood matches and sg astjue ak mlduow surohpsohp fde olphii-suesqutas  dhteversioc wit dasen lh gtenobtA .eht  wajsease ofrible dimoa t rereni grf
THE ENDLESS MATCH MACHINETHEENDLESS MATCH MACHINE The match splints are set in tiny holes like pins in a pincushion, and the belt revolves, passing their heads through various chemicals.
THE LITTLE FRICTION MATCH I remember being once upon a time ten miles from a store and one mile from a neighbor; the fire had gone out in the night, and the last match failed to blaze. We had no flint and steel. We were neither Indians nor Boy Scouts, and we did not know how to make a fire by twirling a stick. There was nothing to do but to trudge off through the snow to the neighbor a mile away and beg some matches. Then was the time when we appreciated the little match and thought with profound respect of the men who invented and perfected it. It is a long way from the safe and reliable match of to-day back to the splinters that were soaked in chemicals and sold together with little bottles of sulphuric acid. The splinter was expected to blaze when dipped into the acid. Sometimes it did blaze, and sometimes it did not; but it was reasonably certain how the acid would behave, for it would always sputter and do its best to spoil some one's clothes. Nevertheless, even such matches as these were regarded as a wonderful convenience, and were sold at five dollars a hundred. With the next kind of match that appeared, a piece of folded sandpaper was sold, and the buyer was told to pinch it hard and draw the match through the fold. These matches were amazingly cheap— eighty-four of them for only twenty-five cents! There have been all sorts of odd matches. One kind actually had a tiny glass ball at the end full of sulphuric acid. To light this, you had to pinch the ball and the acid that was thus let out acted upon the other chemicals on the match and kindled it—or was expected to kindle it, which was not always the same thing. Making matches is a big business, even if one hundred of them are sold for a cent. It is estimated that on an average each person uses seven matches every day. To provide so many would require some seven hundred million matches a day in this country alone. It seems like a very simple matter to cut a splinter of wood, dip it into some chemicals, and pack it into a box for sale; and it would be simple if it were all done by hand, but the matches would also be irregular and extremely expensive. The way to make anything cheap and uniform is to manufacture it by machinery.
ro psehe messscec eb tsuo deirrath gn wi carreat dxe enase.scanteniaa sr nedtnocdyeaor f and rrei  nomtss la.esAtures, t manufackam ohw slrig ottoins xeboe the ehes.sT akegp ca woointo put aretria nunbmrei eninto boxes, a cera yls ed di nwoh acx,bond ahe ta p  motgnm-caikhcarwhic theriescap enih meht sk. nehiacac misThd over tre turne nhtyea ia.rT ehtiecs onind  stoid nediv a oiahce ofnsidhe ind tsla hweemo efos f  otsenrrcuh ugorht dna,srehto 
The old sulphur matches made in "card and block" can no longer be bought in this country; the safety match has taken their place. One kind of safety match has the phosphorus on the box and the other igniting substances on the match, so that the match will not light unless it is scratched on the box; but this kind has never been a favorite in the United States. The second kind, the one generally used, may be struck anywhere, but these matches are safe because even stepping upon one will not light it; it must be scratched.
A match is a little thing, but nothing else can do its work.
w ehTtsum doocare be y sefulldea eltc ftsdno opmoc fo ylppus s itd an, ontisi elatsb  humedtp. Evform uniwaysniarht ,giarg throg-s lldie inppektpocevumtsb  e a freshred witht ehd yr duj mnarm et wah tonougrd ot tot meht yt ismost nghouen fia rniw ihhct en thecurrents odeirsum eb tsuj  sheinpl ats dreyl.oor padi
T jheIIom.Now w or bottohtut pob tuw ti c ae,ond pekeliraj ahs rae nehte anplachey re t eif rhtO evko.esmofl ea dodgoa  ekam dna ylio e munst ,hwci hraa great many paldna wla  sya ddafia ofreti ss,ck eem .hTli d nuba grnto bowleat  si ti ,i deruops heacrempcae thspid ti ddap ,elow b al,toinhe t s atsciam natek like a k shapedsdna kcalb dna ke Th. ngticafoufehs hgt rhuoset thicole er hmallndwirdwaid s fe,t ros ehekomsir  and that the ma nac nis tnoht en cat  ie on dbeo eht ni,ria nepbegiork It ins. trnu sofhttata eh ugrothn  ovemo dna ,tuc hcae h Somree.xt te ne ohttst oferht ewin  athti s ockt eh,eer krat fonderneatiny cupulcyaa t b tio  frae eb osresiryl ictleol tvehat tu selc ehb nit ey m. Thlittake  swotseboba s tuceuir  otelaflx ehn tavisew ohc unrise, and so tsga taujg erniotm to thearrynd ct nehW.pmac eht e icjur beub rheeht er.eoo tfot n the da Later icellsrotht yoc e ches upmp e tty buther, com allniotni greepa p arulicndl neanch gnidaelf eht otetimes they makeanrrwoV s-ahep dtscun  ie thrkbano ,ba e evotonaat ts theedshe s eoth motni p alr eithm alinigor meht gnorf yawa soon. At lengtharcndiu unuslayll oi tasecobe omera  os hcir ni hg thtuolp ep oetimeong  a l.Fortiucsib regral huc m akemad ulco yniatikfiifuctld. One dultivate tonc eboc s dlur beeetratthub rfo ytnelyB .ria mes hi tveses anwnrooneptase krcas t so ve po haerewoos rg nniwoing ng Endlaan,  nhtuoasdnh aetlhy little plantsopind keac pas wb steksab krowne conr, aweve, hohtmeo  femtnisngans sld  lnaveeaed ni kc gnuo puayers ofetween lli daband irdew dat -crkorol. edgnolm reykliub ,s paddle in agaihTneh  eidspt ihea hwsrot  aerviagadna ng tI .ni keet hen tips od piaehc ,ubipgn dnataehms e ekot  ithin hnddsol rna dvodiylo evg it rap, turnineird ylraen si rtewae thl il tern  o tsidni rea rubb thet ofd ouhtsis ro tfow rok, some one founht db taer ynitsong ene ofd  p ania lo ectehc orick d stoldiandho eht gn ni rehtndhas hin maa , s five oll he hanusdo rf ris xoph itwea beub Wr.c eh stunk t efiking, ma offthisllde eac traw ahft A."tsuiscbi " fosraey ynam red itself. The las di eah serenew mndedixit wsoh  xettssiniara dehe ged td onrounyeh  ehtaehcvare tonk arstir fheis taht b eht edre,sh nuee norllrun betw is thenneg lare,esudna inryhog ing  d aroedi  nit,ca ecally usucid,me atI .ti nekciht r otelaguoa ctor  eviteeforf ht mgre ndound,aor w kodnw ,ucttni gthe thinnest poslluferacthguat yhot us jap ttow t ert ehhTyese .in f begor four eg b oin, ndeythisops etht npo ehe trunkide of tt eht mi ;na dyb eate icsle blsi nehW .tisiv hcamoste al havtheyrguoht eeh dercak ar bhe oatd aneip nihtt ffo ecly ssimps a lice eoc .hTot rllceinrrongbasefonhi seec sii tueh ne bark of the trirac nujgnel .hT era yehT.snaidn Ind asenehi Cbylf yhceiet dllces coer irubbthe E eh tsa snot foanpltitagre t eatuO. nhtoto zooe begins nce milkses t erni gatdn tognearr anetheoitatnalelloc snjug inctomfre icol nna dht eaEts.On the rubber prf dt moerehrew cae ierrtod ey CSouth a rougayth rfAnao reci hmAnd athpaw roar nw s'eno gnicrof nt matte differetuitgna  rrfmoc rongd unind pe oegotrehta sila n red
TAPPING RUBBER TREES IN SUMATRA Courtesy General Rubber Co. TAPPINGRUBBER TREES IN SUMATRA The plantation on which this photograph was taken has 45,000 acres of planted rubber trees, and employs 14,000 coolies.
ABOUT INDIA RUBBER When you pick a dandelion or a milkweed, a white sticky "milk" oozes out; and this looks just like the juice of the various sorts of trees, shrubs, and vines from which India rubber is made. The "rubber plant" which has been such a favorite in houses is one of these; in India it becomes a large tree which has the peculiar habit of dropping down from its branches "bush-ropes," as they are called. These take root and become stout trunks. There is literally a "rubber belt" around the world, for nearly all rubber comes from the countries lying between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. More than half of all that is brought to market is produced in the valley of the Amazon River; and some of this "Para rubber," as it is called, from the seaport whence it is shipped, is the best in the world.
anod nu e this is; and askai  tpuihhcb ert ehf cairev stabales ortory in komsuohei yl a nbeubarr .Tse rhesaehylw uohghtro getr toorded info tsriF .sesac e  bstmut  ill and wood. A machienc lael d aw"said rf  ondsar  ostib fo vaela sebbere ruween betvodeg orslw r looe dr"hewoisths f tI .krht secro