Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages and During the Renaissance Period

Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages and During the Renaissance Period

-

English
254 Pages
Read
Download
Downloading requires you to have access to the YouScribe library
Learn all about the services we offer

Description

The Project Gutenberg EBook of Manners, Custom and Dress During the Middle Ages and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: Manners, Custom and Dress During the Middle Ages and During the Renaissance Period Author: Paul Lacroix Release Date: February 4, 2004 [EBook #10940] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK CUSTOM AND DRESS, MIDDLE AGES *** Produced by Distributed Proofreaders The Queen of Sheba before Solomon (Costume of 15th century.) Fac-simile of a miniature from the Breviary of the Cardinal Grimani, attributed to Memling. Bibl. of S. Marc, Venice. (From a copy in the possession of M. Ambroise Firmin-Didot.) The King inclines his sceptre towards the Queen indicating his appreciation of her person and her gifts; five ladies attend the Queen and five of the King's courtiers stand on his right hand. MANNERS, CUSTOMS, AND DRESS DURING THE MIDDLE AGES, AND DURING THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD. BY PAUL LACROIX (BIBLIOPHILE JACOB), CURATOR OF THE IMPERIAL LIBRARY OF THE ARSENAL, PARIS. ILLUSTRATED WITH NINETEEN CHROMOLITHOGRAPHIC PRINTS BY F. KELLERHOVEN AND UPWARDS OF FOUR HUNDRED ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD. PREFACE.

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 08 December 2010
Reads 48
Language English
Document size 32 MB
Report a problem

The Project Gutenberg EBook of Manners, Custom and Dress During the Middle
Ages and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net
Title: Manners, Custom and Dress During the Middle Ages and During the Renaissance Period
Author: Paul Lacroix
Release Date: February 4, 2004 [EBook #10940]
Language: English
Character set encoding: UTF-8
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK CUSTOM AND DRESS, MIDDLE AGES ***
Produced by Distributed ProofreadersThe Queen of Sheba before Solomon
(Costume of 15th century.)
Fac-simile of a miniature from the Breviary of the Cardinal Grimani, attributed to
Memling. Bibl. of S. Marc, Venice. (From a copy in the possession of M. Ambroise
Firmin-Didot.)
The King inclines his sceptre towards the Queen indicating his appreciation of her
person and her gifts; five ladies attend the Queen and five of the King's courtiers
stand on his right hand.
MANNERS, CUSTOMS, AND DRESS DURING THE
MIDDLE AGES, AND DURING THE RENAISSANCE
PERIOD.
BY PAUL LACROIX
(BIBLIOPHILE JACOB),
CURATOR OF THE IMPERIAL LIBRARY OF THE ARSENAL, PARIS.ILLUSTRATED WITH
NINETEEN CHROMOLITHOGRAPHIC PRINTS BY F. KELLERHOVEN
AND UPWARDS OF
FOUR HUNDRED ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD.
PREFACE.
he several successive editions of "The Arts of the Middle Ages and
Period of the Renaissance" sufficiently testify to its appreciation by the
public. The object of that work was to introduce the reader to a branch
of learning to which access had hitherto appeared only permitted to
the scientific. That attempt, which was a bold one, succeeded too well
not to induce us to push our researches further. In fact, art alone
cannot acquaint us entirely with an epoch. "The arts, considered in their generality,
are the true expressions of society. They tell us its tastes, its ideas, and its
character." We thus spoke in the preface to our first work, and we find nothing to
modify in this opinion. Art must be the faithful expression of a society, since it
represents it by its works as it has created them--undeniable witnesses of its spirit
and manners for future generations. But it must be acknowledged that art is only the
consequence of the ideas which it expresses; it is the fruit of civilisation, not its origin.
To understand the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, it is necessary to go back to the
source of its art, and to know the life of our fathers; these are two inseparable
things, which entwine one another, and become complete one by the other.
The Manners and Customs of the Middle Ages:--this subject is of the greatest
interest, not only to the man of science, but to the man of the world also. In it, too,
"we retrace not only one single period, but two periods quite distinct one from the
other." In the first, the public and private customs offer a curious mixture of
barbarism and civilisation. We find barbarian, Roman, and Christian customs and
character in presence of each other, mixed up in the same society, and very often in
the same individuals. Everywhere the most adverse and opposite tendencies display
themselves. What an ardent struggle during that long period! and how full, too, of
emotion is its picture! Society tends to reconstitute itself in every aspect. She wants
to create, so to say, from every side, property, authority, justice, &c., &c., in a word,
everything which can establish the basis of public life; and this new order of things
must be established by means of the elements supplied at once by the barbarian,
Roman, and Christian world--a prodigious creation, the working of which occupied
the whole of the Middle Ages. Hardly does modern society, civilised by Christianity,
reach the fullness of its power, than it divides itself to follow different paths. Ancient
art and literature resuscitates because custom insensibly takes that direction. Under
that influence, everything is modified both in private and public life. The history of
the human race does not present a subject more vast or more interesting. It is a
subject we have chosen to succeed our first book, and which will be followed by a
similar study on the various aspects of Religious and Military Life.
This work, devoted to the vivid and faithful description of the Manners and Customs
of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, answers fully to the requirements of
contemporary times. We are, in fact, no longer content with the chronological
narration and simple nomenclatures which formerly were considered sufficient for
education. We no longer imagine that the history of our institutions has less interest
than that of our wars, nor that the annals of the humbler classes are irrelevant to
those of the privileged orders. We go further still. What is above all sought for inhistorical works nowadays is the physiognomy, the inmost character of past
generations. "How did our fathers live?" is a daily question. "What institutions had
they? What were their political rights? Can you not place before us their pastimes,
their hunting parties, their meals, and all sorts of scenes, sad or gay, which
composed their home life? We should like to follow them in public and private
occupations, and to know their manner of living hourly, as we know our own."
In a high order of ideas, what great facts serve as a foundation to our history and
that of the modern world! We have first royalty, which, weak and debased under the
Merovingians, rises and establishes itself energetically under Pépin and
Charlemagne, to degenerate under Louis le Débonnaire and Charles le Chauve. After
having dared a second time to found the Empire of the Caesars, it quickly sees its
sovereignty replaced by feudal rights, and all its rights usurped by the nobles, and
has to struggle for many centuries to recover its rights one by one.
Feudalism, evidently of Germanic origin, will also attract our attention, and we shall
draw a rapid outline of this legislation, which, barbarian at the onset, becomes by
degrees subject to the rules of moral progress. We shall ascertain that military
service is the essence itself of the "fief," and that thence springs feudal right. On our
way we shall protest against civil wars, and shall welcome emancipation and the
formation of the communes. Following the thousand details of the life of the people,
we shall see the slave become serf, and the serf become peasant. We shall assist at
the dispensation of justice by royalty and nobility, at the solemn sittings of
parliaments, and we shall see the complicated details of a strict ceremonial, which
formed an integral part of the law, develop themselves before us. The counters of
dealers, fairs and markets, manufactures, commerce, and industry, also merit our
attention; we must search deeply into corporations of workmen and tradesmen,
examining their statutes, and initiating ourselves into their business. Fashion and
dress are also a manifestation of public and private customs; for that reason we
must give them particular attention.
And to accomplish the work we have undertaken, we are lucky to have the
conscientious studies of our old associates in the great work of the Middle Ages and
the Renaissance to assist us: such as those of Emile Bégin, Elzéar Blaze, Depping,
Benjamin Guérard, Le Roux de Lincy, H. Martin, Mary-Lafon, Francisque Michel, A.
Monteil, Rabutau, Ferdinand Séré, Horace de Viel-Castel, A. de la Villegille, Vallet de
Viriville.
As in the volume of the Arts of the Middle Ages, engraving and chromo-lithography
will come to our assistance by reproducing, by means of strict fac-similes, the rarest
engravings of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and the most precious miniatures
of the manuscripts preserved in the principal libraries of France and Europe. Here
again we have the aid of the eminent artist, M. Kellerhoven, who quite recently found
means of reproducing with so much fidelity the gems of Italian painting.
Paul Lacroix
(Bibliophile Jacob).
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Condition of Persons and Lands
Disorganization of the West at the Beginning of the Middle Ages.--Mixture of Roman, Germanic, and Gallic Institutions.--Fusion
organized under Charlemagne.--Royal Authority.--Position of the
Great Feudalists.--Division of the Territory and Prerogatives
attached to Landed Possessions.--Freeman and Tenants.--The Læti,
the Colon, the Serf, and the Labourer, who may be called the Origin
of the Modern Lower Classes.--Formation of Communities.--Right of
Mortmain.
Privileges and Rights (Feudal and Municipal)
Elements of Feudalism.--Rights of Treasure-trove, Sporting, Safe-
Conducts, Ransom, Disinheritance, &c.--Immunity of the Feudalists.-
-Dues from the Nobles to their Sovereign.--Law and University
Dues.--Curious Exactions resulting from the Universal System of
Dues.--Struggles to enfranchise the Classes subjected to Dues.--
Feudal Spirit and Citizen Spirit.--Resuscitation of the System of
Ancient Municipalities in Italy, Germany, and France.--Municipal
Institutions and Associations.--The Community.--The Middle-Class
Cities (Cités Bourgeoises).--Origin of National Unity.
Private Life in the Castles, the Towns, and the Rural Districts
The Merovingian Castles.--Pastimes of the Nobles: Hunting, War.--
Domestic Arrangements.--Private Life of Charlemagne.--Domestic
Habits under the Carlovingians.--Influence of Chivalry.--Simplicity of
the Court of Philip Augustus not imitated by his Successors.--
Princely Life of the Fifteenth Century.--The bringing up of Latour
Landry, a Noble of Anjou.--Varlets, Pages, Esquires, Maids of
Honour.--Opulence of the Bourgeoisie.--"Le Ménagier de Paris."--
Ancient Dwellings.--State of Rustics at various Periods.--"Rustic
Sayings," by Noël du Fail.
Food and Cookery
History of Bread.--Vegetables and Plants used in Cooking.--Fruits.--
Butchers' Meat.--Poultry, Game.--Milk, Butter, Cheese, and Eggs.--
Fish and Shellfish.--Beverages: Beer, Cider, Wine, Sweet Wine,
Refreshing Drinks, Brandy.--Cookery.--Soups, Boiled Food, Pies,
Stews, Salads, Roasts, Grills.--Seasoning, Truffles, Sugar, Verjuice.--
Sweets, Desserts, Pastry,--Meals and Feasts.--Rules of Serving at
Table from the Fifteenth to the Sixteenth Centuries.
Hunting
Venery and Hawking.--Origin of Aix-la-Chapelle.--Gaston Phoebus
and his Book.--The Presiding Deities of Sportsmen.--Sporting
Societies and Brotherhoods.--Sporting Kings: Charlemagne, Louis
IX., Louis XI., Charles VIII., Louis XII., Francis I., &c.--Treatise on
Venery.--Sporting Popes.--Origin of Hawking.--Training Birds.--
Hawking Retinues.--Book of King Modus.--Technical Terms used in
Hawking.--Persons who have excelled in this kind of Sport.--Fowling.
Games and Pastimes
Games of the Ancient Greeks and Romans.--Games of the Circus.--
Animal Combats.--Daring of King Pepin.--The King's Lions.--Blind
Men's Fights.--Cockneys of Paris.--Champ de Mars.--Cours PlénièresMen's Fights.--Cockneys of Paris.--Champ de Mars.--Cours Plénières
and Cours Couronnées.--Jugglers, Tumblers, and Minstrels.--Rope-
dancers.--Fireworks.--Gymnastics.--Cards and Dice.--Chess, Marbles,
and Billiards.--La Soule, La Pirouette, &c.--Small Games for Private
Society.--History of Dancing.--Ballet des Ardents.--The
"Orchésographie" (Art of Dancing) of Thoinot Arbeau.--List of
Dances.
Commerce
State of Commerce after the Fall of the Roman Empire; its Revival
under the Frankish Kings; its Prosperity under Charlemagne; its
Decline down to the Time of the Crusaders.--The Levant Trade of
the East.--Flourishing State of the Towns of Provence and
Languedoc.--Establishment of Fairs.--Fairs of Landit, Champagne,
Beaucaire, and Lyons.--Weights and Measures.--Commercial
Flanders.--Laws of Maritime Commerce.--Consular Laws.--Banks
and Bills of Exchange.--French Settlements on the Coast of Africa.--
Consequences of the Discovery of America.
Guilds and Trade Corporations
Uncertain Origin of Corporations.--Ancient Industrial Associations.--
The Germanic Guild.--Colleges.--Teutonic Associations.--The Paris
Company for the Transit of Merchandise by Water.--Corporations
properly so called.--Etienne Boileau's "Book of Trades," or the First
Code of Regulations.--The Laws governing Trades.--Public and
Private Organization of Trades Corporations and other
Communities.--Energy of the Corporations.--Masters, Journeymen,
Supernumeraries, and Apprentices.--Religious Festivals and Trade
Societies.--Trade Unions.
Taxes, Money, and Finance
Taxes under the Roman Rule.--Money Exactions of the Merovingian
Kings.--Varieties of Money.--Financial Laws under Charlemagne.--
Missi Dominici.--Increase of Taxes owing to the Crusades.--
Organization of Finances by Louis IX.--Extortions of Philip lo Bel.--
Pecuniary Embarrassment of his Successors.--Charles V. re-
establishes Order in Finances.--Disasters of France under Charles
VI., Charles VII., and Jacques Coeur.--Changes in Taxation from
Louis XI. to Francis I.--The Great Financiers.--Florimond Robertet.
Law and the Administration of Justice
The Family the Origin of Government.--Origin of Supreme Power
amongst the Franks.--The Legislation of Barbarism humanised by
Christianity.--Right of Justice inherent to the Right of Property.--The
Laws under Charlemagne.--Judicial Forms.--Witnesses.--Duels, &c.--
Organization of Royal Justice under St. Louis.--The Châtelet and the
Provost of Paris.--Jurisdiction of Parliament, its Duties and its
Responsibilities.--The Bailiwicks.--Struggles between Parliament and
the Châtelet.--Codification of the Customs and Usages.--Official
Cupidity.--Comparison between the Parliament and the Châtelet.
Secret TribunalsThe Old Man of the Mountain and his Followers in Syria.--The Castle
of Alamond, Paradise of Assassins.--Charlemagne the Founder of
Secret Tribunals amongst the Saxons.--The Holy Vehme.--
Organization of the Tribunal of the Terre Rouge, and Modes
adopted in its Procedures.--Condemnations and Execution of
Sentences.--The Truth respecting the Free Judges of Westphalia.--
Duration and Fall of the Vehmie Tribunal.--Council of Ten, in Venice;
its Code and Secret Decisions.--End of the Council of Ten.
Punishments
Refinements of Penal Cruelty.--Tortures for different Purposes.--
Water, Screw-boards, and the Rack.--The Executioner.--Female
Executioners.--Tortures.--Amende Honorable.--Torture of Fire, Real
and Feigned.--Auto-da-fé.--Red-hot Brazier or Basin.--Beheading.--
Quartering.--The Wheel.--Garotting.--Hanging.--The Whip.--The
Pillory.--The Arquebuse.--Tickling.--Flaying.--Drowning.--
Imprisonment.--Regulations of Prisons.--The Iron Cage.--"The
Leads" of Venice.
Jews
Dispersion of the Jews.--Jewish Quarters in the Mediæval Towns.--
The Ghetto of Rome.--Ancient Prague.--The Giudecca of Venice.--
Condition of the Jews; Animosity of the People against them;
Vexations Treatment and Severity of the Sovereigns.--The Jews of
Lincoln.--The Jews of Blois.--Mission of the Pastoureaux.--
Extermination of the Jews.--The Price at which the Jews purchased
Indulgences.--Marks set upon them.--Wealth, Knowledge, Industry,
and Financial Aptitude of the Jews.--Regulations respecting Usury as
practised by the Jews.--Attachment of the Jews to their Religion.
Gipsies, Tramps, Beggars, and Cours des Miracles
First Appearance of Gipsies in the West.--Gipsies in Paris.--Manners
and Customs of these Wandering Tribes.--Tricks of Captain Charles.-
-Gipsies expelled by Royal Edict.--Language of Gipsies.--The
Kingdom of Slang.--The Great Coesre, Chief of the Vagrants; his
Vassals and Subjects.--Divisions of the Slang People; its Decay, and
the Causes thereof.--Cours des Miracles.--The Camp of Rogues.--
Cunning Language, or Slang.--Foreign Rogues, Thieves, and
Pickpockets.
Ceremonials
Origin of Modern Ceremonial.--Uncertainty of French Ceremonial up
to the End of the Sixteenth Century.--Consecration of the Kings of
France.--Coronation of the Emperors of Germany.--Consecration of
the Doges of Venice.--Marriage of the Doge with the Sea.--State
Entries of Sovereigns.--An Account of the Entry of Isabel of Bavaria
into Paris.--Seats of Justice.--Visits of Ceremony between Persons of
Rank.--Mourning.--Social Courtesies.--Popular Demonstrations and
National Commemorations--New Year's Day.--Local Festivals.--Vins
d'Honneur.--Processions of Trades.
CostumesInfluence of Ancient Costume.--Costume in the Fifteenth Century.--
Hair.--Costumes in the Time of Charlemagne.--Origin of Modern
National Dress.--Head-dresses and Beards: Time of St. Louis.--
Progress of Dress: Trousers, Hose, Shoes, Coats, Surcoats, Capes.--
Changes in the Fashions of Shoes and Hoods.--Livrée.--Cloaks and
Capes.--Edicts against Extravagant Fashions.--Female Dress: Gowns,
Bonnets, Head-dresses, &c.--Disappearance of Ancient Dress.--
Tight-fitting Gowns.--General Character of Dress under Francis I.--
Uniformity of Dress.
TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
I. CHROMOLITHOGRAPHS.
1. The Queen of Sheba before Solomon. Fac-simile of a Miniature from the Breviary
of Cardinal Grimani, attributed to Memling. Costumes of the Fifteenth Century.
2. The Court of Marie of Anjou, Wife of Charles VII. Fac-simile of a Miniature from the
"Douze Perilz d'Enfer." Costumes of the Fifteenth Century.
3. Louis XII. leaving Alexandria, on the 24th April, 1507, to chastise the City of Genoa.
From a Miniature in the "Voyage de Gênes" of Jean Marot.
4. A Young Mother's Retinue. Miniature from a Latin "Terence" of Charles VI.
Costumes of the Fourteenth Century.
5. Table Service of a Lady of Quality. Fac-simile of a Miniature in the "Roman de
Renaud de Montauban." Costumes of the Fifteenth Century.
6. Ladies Hunting. From a Miniature in a Manuscript Copy of "Ovid's Epistles."
Costumes of the Fifteenth Century.
7. A Court Fool. Fac-simile of a Miniature in a Manuscript of the Fifteenth Century.
8. The Chess-players. After a Miniature of the "Three Ages of Man." (End of the
Fifteenth Century).
9. Martyrdom of SS. Crispin and Crépinien. From a Window in the Hôpital des Quinze-
Vingts (Fifteenth Century).
10. Settlement of Accounts by the Brotherhood of Charité-Dieu, Rouen, in 1466. A
Miniature from the "Livre des Comptes" of this Society (Fifteenth Century).
11. Decapitation of Guillaume de Pommiers and his Confessor at Bordeaux in 1377
("Chroniques de Froissart").
12. The Jews' Passover. Fac-simile of a Miniature in a Missal of the Fifteenth Century
of the School of Van Eyck.
13. Entry of Charles VII. into Paris. A Miniature from the "Chroniques d'Enguerrand de
Monstrelet." Costumes of the Sixteenth Century.
14. St. Catherine surrounded by the Doctors of Alexandria. A Miniature from the
Breviary of Cardinal Grimani, attributed to Memling. Costumes of the FifteenthCentury.
15. Italian Lace-work, in Gold-thread. The Cypher and Arms of Henri III. (Sixteenth
Century).
II. ENGRAVINGS.
Aigues-Mortes, Ramparts of the Town of
Alms Bag, Fifteenth Century
Amende honorable before the Tribunal
America, Discovery of
Anne of Brittany and the Ladies of her Court
Archer, in Fighting Dress, Fifteenth Century
Armourer
Arms of Louis XI. and Charlotte of Savoy
Arms, Various, Fifteenth Century
Bailiwick
Bailliage, or Tribunal of the King's Bailiff, Sixteenth Century
Baker, The, Sixteenth Century
Balancing, Feats of, Thirteenth Century
Ballet, Representation of a, before Henri III. and his Court
Banner of the Coopers of Bayonne
" " La Rochelle
" Corporation of Bakers of Arras
" " Bakers of Paris
" " Boot and Shoe Makers of Issoudun
" Corporation of Publichouse-keepers of Montmédy
" Corporation of Publichouse-keepers of Tonnerre
" Drapers of Caen
" Harness-makers of Paris
" Nail-makers of Paris
" Pastrycooks of Caen
" " La Rochelle
" " Tonnerre
" Tanners of Vie
" Tilers of Paris
" Weavers of Toulon
" Wheelwrights of Paris
Banquet, Grand, at the Court of France
Barber
Barnacle Geese
Barrister, Fifteenth Century
Basin-maker
Bastille, The
Bears and other Beasts, how they may be caught with a Dart
Beggar playing the Fiddle
Beheading
Bell and Canon Caster
Bird-catching, Fourteenth Century
Bird-piping, Fourteenth Century
Blind and Poor Sick of St. John, Fifteenth Century
Bob Apple, The Game of
Bootmaker's Apprentice working at a Trial-piece, Thirteenth Century
Bourbon, Constable de, Trial of, before the Peers of FranceBourgeois, Thirteenth Century
Brandenburg, Marquis of
Brewer, The, Sixteenth Century
Brotherhood of Death, Member of the
Burgess of Ghent and his Wife, from a Window of the Fifteenth Century
Burgess at Meals
Burgesses with Hoods, Fourteenth Century
Burning Ballet, The
Butcher, The, Sixteenth Century
Butler at his Duties
Cards for a Game of Piquet, Sixteenth Century
Carlovingian King in his Palace
Carpenter, Fifteenth Century
Carpenter's Apprentice working at a Trial-piece, Fifteenth Century
Cast to allure Beasts
Castle of Alamond, The
Cat-o'-nine-tails
Celtic Monument (the Holy Ox)
Chamber of Accounts, Hotel of the
Chandeliers in Bronze, Fourteenth Century
Charlemagne, The Emperor
" Coronation of
" Dalmatica and Sandals of
" receiving the Oath of Fidelity from one of his great Barons
" Portrait of
Charles, eldest Son of King Pepin, receiving the News of the Death of his Father
Charles V. and the Emperor Charles IV., Interview between
Château-Gaillard aux Andelys
Châtelet, The Great
Cheeses, The Manufacture of, Sixteenth Century
Chilpéric, Tomb of, Eleventh Century
Clasp-maker
Cloth to approach Beasts, How to carry a
Cloth-worker
Coins, Gold Merovingian, 628-638
" Gold, Sixth and Seventh Centuries
" " Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries
" Gold and Silver, Thirteenth Century
" " Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries
" Silver, Eighth to Eleventh Centuries
Cologne, View of, Sixteenth Century
Comb in Ivory, Sixteenth Century
Combat of a Knight with a Dog, Thirteenth Century
Companion Carpenter, Fifteenth Century
Cook, The, Sixteenth Century
Coppersmith, The, Sixteenth Century
Corn-threshing and Bread-making, Sixteenth Century
Costume of Emperors at their Coronation since the Time of Charlemagne
" King Childebert, Seventh Century
" King Clovis, Sixth Century
" Saints in the Sixth to Eighth Century
" Prelates, Eighth to Tenth Century
" a Scholar of the Carlovingian Period
Costume of a Scholar, Ninth Century