Memoirs and Correspondence of Admiral Lord de Saumarez. Vol II
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Memoirs and Correspondence of Admiral Lord de Saumarez. Vol II

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Memoirs and Correspondence of Admiral Lord de Saumarez. Vol II, by Sir John Ross This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org Title: Memoirs and Correspondence of Admiral Lord de Saumarez. Vol II Author: Sir John Ross Release Date: November 4, 2008 [EBook #27151] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK MEMOIRS AND CORRESPONDENCE *** Produced by StevenGibbs, Hélène de Mink and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net Transcriber's note: "Inconsistent hyphenation and spelling in the original document have been preserved. Obvious typographical errors have been corrected. Accents on foreign names have been added where necessary. The ERRATA given in this edition are indicated by dotted lines under the corrections. Scroll the mouse over the word and the original text will appear. An abbreviation key for the table was added on page 411, as it was too large in the original to be read easily in this format. The transcriber's note at the end of this e-book lists the other corrections that have been made. View larger image Frontispiece. Portrait of Lord de Saumarez. MEMOIRS AND CORRESPONDENCE OF ADMIRAL LORD DE SAUMAREZ. FROM ORIGINAL PAPERS IN POSSESSION OF THE FAMILY.

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Memoirs and Correspondence of Admiral Lord
de Saumarez. Vol II, by Sir John Ross
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org
Title: Memoirs and Correspondence of Admiral Lord de Saumarez. Vol II
Author: Sir John Ross
Release Date: November 4, 2008 [EBook #27151]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK MEMOIRS AND CORRESPONDENCE ***
Produced by StevenGibbs, Hélène de Mink and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net
Transcriber's note:
"Inconsistent hyphenation and spelling in the original
document have been preserved. Obvious typographical
errors have been corrected. Accents on foreign names
have been added where necessary.
The ERRATA given in this edition are indicated by
dotted lines under the corrections. Scroll the mouse over
the word and the original text will appear.
An abbreviation key for the table was added on page
411, as it was too large in the original to be read easily
in this format.
The transcriber's note at the end of this e-book lists the
other corrections that have been made.View larger image
Frontispiece.
Portrait of Lord de Saumarez.
MEMOIRS
AND CORRESPONDENCE
OF
ADMIRAL
LORD DE SAUMAREZ.
FROM
ORIGINAL PAPERS IN POSSESSION OF THE FAMILY.BY SIR JOHN ROSS, C.B. K.S.A. K.C.S. F.R.A.S.
CAPTAIN IN THE ROYAL NAVY.
IN TWO VOLUMES.
VOL. II.
LONDON:
RICHARD BENTLEY, NEW BURLINGTON STREET,
Publisher in Ordinary to Her Majesty.
1838.
LONDON:
PRINTED BY SAMUEL BENTLEY,
Dorset Street, Fleet Street.
[Pg v]CONTENTS
OF THE SECOND VOLUME.
CHAPTER I.
News of the Battles of the 6th and 12th of July reach England.—Rejoicings on
the occasion, particularly described in a letter from Mrs. Saumarez.—Promotion
of Lieutenant Dumaresq.—Letters from Earl St. Vincent, Mr. Tucker, and
others.—Remarks on the conduct of the Governor and Garrison at Gibraltar.—State of the crew of the Cæsar.—Ship refitted.—Appointments of officers to the
St. Antoine, and other vacancies.—Correspondence with the Spanish Governor
at Cadiz on the subject of red-hot balls.—Accusation refuted.—Letters from
Lord Keith, Sir John Warren, and Captain Dixon.—Squadron off Cadiz
reinforced.—Sir James resumes the blockade of Cadiz.—His proceedings.—
Remarks on the result of the two Actions.
CHAPTER II.
Despatches arrive from England.—Sir James superseded by Sir Charles Morice
Pole.—Remarks and correspondence on the subject.—The St. George and four
sail of the line arrive.—Blockade of Cadiz.—Sir James continues as second in
command.—His appointments not confirmed.—Injustice of his treatment.—
Letters from various persons.—The Cæsar arrives at Gibraltar. [Pg vi]
CHAPTER III.
Preliminaries of peace.—Sir James created a Knight of the Bath.—Remarks on
that Order.—Ceremony of investiture.—Action of the Pasley and Rosario.—Sir
James receives the thanks of both Houses of Parliament.—Speeches of Earl St.
Vincent, Lord Nelson, and Mr. Pitt.—The freedom of the city of London,—and a
sword.—Address from Guernsey and Jersey.—Silver vases.—Inscriptions
thereon.
CHAPTER IV.
Sir James disappointed in not returning home.—Extract of a letter to his
brother.—The French send ships to the West Indies.—Squadron detached after
them.—Death of General O'Hara.—Sir James receives orders to superintend
the evacuation of Minorca.—Arrival of H.R.H. Duke of Kent.—Sir James arrives
at Minorca.—Definitive treaty of peace.—Proceedings there.—Island given up
to Spain.—The Cæsar arrives at Gibraltar.—Proceeds to England.—Anchors at
Spithead.
CHAPTER V.
Commencement of Hostilities with France.—Sir James hoists his Flag at
Sheerness.—Proceeds to Guernsey.—Flag in the Grampus.—Anecdote of
Captain Caulfield.—Sir James visits Jersey, &c.—Diomede arrives as Flag ship.
—The Admiral examines the Defence of the Island.—Loss of La Minerve.—
Attack and Bombardment of Granville.—Cerberus gets aground.—Narrow
Escape from a Shot.—Public and Private Letters.—Blockade of the Coast.—
Loss of the Shannon and Grappler.—Conclusion of 1803.
[Pg vii]CHAPTER VI.
Sir James continues in the command at Guernsey.—Proceedings of his
Squadron.—Letter from Lord Nelson, dated two days before he was killed.—
Capture and destruction of La Salamandre.—Sir James's benevolent conduct
at Guernsey.
CHAPTER VII.Sir James is called into active service.—Joins the Channel Fleet as second in
command.—Shifts his Flag from the San Josef to the Prince of Wales.—His
decisive conduct.—Anecdote of the Prince of Wales' Men.—Change of Ministry.
—Sir James leaves the Channel Fleet, and returns to Guernsey.—Is offered the
Command in the East Indies.—Letter on that occasion.
CHAPTER VIII.
State of Affairs in Sweden.—Alarm of the King.—Sir James selected to
command the Baltic Fleet.—Correspondence with Lord Mulgrave.—Sir John
Moore's Expedition.—Arrives at Gothenburg.—Capture and destruction of a
Danish seventy-four.—Sir John Moore goes to Stockholm.—Is arrested, and
escapes.—Expedition returns to England.—Disposition of the Fleet.—Sir James
proceeds to Carlscrona.—Rescue of Romana's Army.—Sir James proceeds to
the Gulf of Finland.—Capture and Destruction of the Russian seventy-four,
Sewolod.—The combined Swedish and English Fleet off Baltic Port.—
Reconnoitres the Russian Fleet in the harbour, and determines to attack them.
—Prevented by change of winds.—Proceeding off Baltic Port.—Letter to the
Emperor of Russia.—Fleet returns to Carlscrona.
[Pg viii]CHAPTER IX
Sir James at Carlscrona.—Arrangements.—Author left in Sweden.—Letter from
the Swedish Admiral.—Sir James leaves Carlscrona.—Arrives at Gothenburg.—
Makes arrangements for the protection of the Trade.—Leaves Rear Admiral
Keats in Command.—His departure from Sweden, and arrival in the Downs.—
Proceeds to the Admiralty, and receives their Lordships' high approbation.—
Proceedings of the Fleet.—Revolution in Sweden.—Sir James reappointed to
the command in the Baltic.—His correspondence with Mr. Foster.—Official
notice of the Duke of Sudermania being elected King of Sweden.—He confers
upon Sir James the Grand Cross of the Order of the Sword.
CHAPTER X.
Blockade of the Russian fleet.—Swedes' expedition, under Admiral Puké and
General Wachtmeister, sails,—is unsuccessful. Private correspondence with
Mr. Foster.—Armistice and Peace with Russia.—Peace with Denmark.—
Proceedings of the Fleet.—State of affairs in Sweden.—Fleet returns to
Carlscrona, and subsequently to England.
CHAPTER XI.
Sir James's third year in the command of the Baltic Fleet. Proceeds to
Gothenburg and Havre.—Correspondence with Mr. Foster, Admiral
Krusenstjerna, and others.—Swedes shut their ports.—Death of the Crown
Prince.—Murder of Count Fersen.—Restrictions of the Swedish commerce.—
Sir James's judicious conduct in that and in several disputes.—Election of
Bernadotte, and his entry into Sweden.—Correspondence on the subject.—Sir [Pg ix]
James returns to England, and receives the approbation of the government and
the nation.
CHAPTER XII.Buonaparte declares he will conquer a "Maritime Peace."—Illness of George III.
—Prince of Wales Regent.—Sir James obtains leave of absence.—The Victory
sent to Lisbon with troops.—Attack on Anholt.—Gallant defence of the garrison.
—Sir James continues in the Baltic at the request of ministers.—Letters
respecting Anholt.—Letters from the Duke of Brunswick and answers thereto.—
Arrival in Sweden of Sir James.—Letters to Mr. Yorke and Admiral Reynolds.—
Negotiations on the sequestration of English ships at Carlscrona.—Conference
with Baron Tawast.—Written document from the Baron unsatisfactory.—Letter
from the Admiralty.—Sir James remonstrates with the Swedish Government.—
Evasive answer.—Further correspondence.—Value of sequestered property.—
Capture of two Danish privateers.—Gallant conduct of Lieut. St. Clair and Mr.
Purcell.—Determination of Russia not to accede to the terms of France.—The
Crown Prince places implicit confidence in Sir James.—Arrival of Mr. Thornton.
—He is smuggled into the city of Gothenburg.—Amicable confirmation of the
Ghent treaty.—Situation of the fleet.—Sir James's letter.—Disaster of the St.
George and convoy.—Admiral Reynolds's letter.—Arrival of St. George at
Wingo.—Sailing of the fleet.—St. George and Hero's convoy put back.—Sail
again.—Melancholy wrecks of the St. George and Defence.—Captain Pater's
narrative.—Remarks.—Loss of the Hero and convoy.—Proceedings of the
Victory.—Remarks on crossing the North Sea.—Sir James arrives at Spithead.
[Pg x]CHAPTER XIII.
State of Europe in 1812.—Critical situation of Sweden and Russia.—Advance of
Buonaparte.—Sir James Saumarez resumes the command in the Baltic.—
Attack on Anholt prevented.—Proceedings of the advanced squadron Arrival of
the Victory at Gothenburg.—Capture and destruction of a Danish frigate and
two brigs.—Captain Stewart's gallant conduct.—Official letters.—Capture of a
ship in Pillau Roads.—Lieut. Jones's gallant conduct.—Official letters.—Peace
with Russia.—Correspondence with Mr. Thornton and Earl Cathcart, who is
appointed Ambassador to the Court of St. Petersburg.—Proceedings of the
hostile armies on the frontiers of Russia.—Admiral Byam Martin sent to co-
operate.—Siege of Riga.—Diversion made by Admiral Martin in Dantzig Bay.—
Capture and destruction of four French privateers.—Ratification of peace with
Russia and Sweden.—Sir James named Knight Grand Cross of the Sword of
Sweden.—His Swedish Majesty's letter and the answer.—Emperor Alexander
sends the Russian fleet to England.—Defeat of the French at Polosk, Borodino,
Moscow.—Retreat of Buonaparte.—Archangel fleet arrives.—Earl Cathcart.—
Mr. Saumarez's tour to Åbo and St. Petersburg, and return to the Admiral with
despatches.—Afflicting news from England.—Sir James's conduct on that
occasion.—He is relieved by Sir George Hope.—Returns to England.—Strikes
his flag.
CHAPTER XIV.
State of the Continent after the defeat of Buonaparte.—Sir James's services in
the Baltic no longer required.—Retires from service, but not from public life.—
His various occupations.—His claims for a Peerage disregarded.—
Correspondence and observations thereon.—His residence in Guernsey.—Visit [Pg xi]
to Oxford.—Letter from Lord Nelson.—Captain Miller's monument.—Political
opinions.—Letter from Earl St. Vincent.—Is appointed to the command at
Plymouth.—Speech of Earl Grey.—Receives a visit from Lord Exmouth.—
Strikes his flag.—Claims for a Peerage again disregarded.—Returns to
Guernsey.—His reception there.—Death of George IV.—Accession of William
IV.—Is created Baron de Saumarez.—Letter from Lady de Saumarez.—His
reception at the Island of Guernsey, and rejoicings there.CHAPTER XV.
Political opinions and conduct of Lord de Saumarez.—Death of his second son.
—His letter on that occasion.—Anecdotes of his carriage being robbed.—Of
Sweden.—The King of Sweden presents him with his portrait.—Count
Wetterstedt's letter and Lord de Saumarez's answer.—Lord de Saumarez's last
illness and death.—His Christian fortitude.—His professional character.—Moral
and religious character.—Remarks and conclusion.
ADDENDA.
Memoir of Sir Thomas de Saumarez. page 332
Memoir of Captain Philip de Saumarez. page 348
Appendix.
Index.
LIST OF PLATES
Frontispiece. [Pg xii]
Battle of the 12th July 1801
Harbour of Rogerwick
ERRATA.
Page 130, l. 4, for "Eurthalms" read "Eartholms."
182, l. 8, -- "Stedriegh" read "Stedinck."
184, l. 3, -- "remaininig" read "remaining."
187, l. 5, -- "Krusensbyerna" read "Krusenstjerna."
APPENDIX.
396, for "T. Manzell" read "T. Mansell."
397,-- "Michaer," read "Michael."[Pg 1]THE LIFE
OF
LORD DE SAUMAREZ.
CHAPTER I.
1801.
News of the Battles of the 6th and 12th of July reach England.—Rejoicings on
the occasion, particularly described in a letter from Mrs. Saumarez.—Promotion
of Lieutenant Dumaresq.—Letters from Earl St. Vincent, Mr. Tucker, and
others.—Remarks on the conduct of the Governor and Garrison at Gibraltar.—
State of the crew of the Cæsar.—Ship refitted.—Appointments of officers to the
St. Antoine, and other vacancies.—Correspondence with the Spanish Governor
at Cadiz on the subject of red-hot balls.—Accusation refuted.—Letters from
Lord Keith, Sir John Warren, and Captain Dixon.—Squadron off Cadiz
reinforced.—Sir James resumes the blockade of Cadiz.—His proceedings.—
Remarks on the result of the two Actions.
The news of the splendid victory of the 12th of July was received in England
with enthusiasm. After it became known that the squadron under Sir James
Saumarez had been so materially damaged at Algeziras, it was thought
[Pg 2]impossible that the ships could have been prepared to meet the enemy in so
short a time. The Admiral's despatches, subsequently to the first battle, stated
that an overwhelming force had been sent to Algeziras from Cadiz; and,
consequently, the news of his subsequent triumph over so great a superiority of
force struck every person with astonishment.
View larger image
Battle of the 12th July 1801, when two Spanish ships of the line were burnt, and
one French 74 taken by Rear-admiral Sir James Saumarez in the Straits of
Gibraltar.
The Louisa brig, Lieutenant Truscott, having on board Lieutenant Dumaresq,
arrived off Mount's Bay on the 30th July. This officer landed with Sir James's
despatches, and immediately proceeded to London. He was received at the
Admiralty by Earl St. Vincent in the most gratifying manner. Mr. Addington, then
prime minister, sent an express to Sir James's youngest brother at Brighton,requesting his presence in London; and, on his arrival, he in the handsomest
manner presented him with a situation of trust and importance in the island of
Ceylon, with a salary of two thousand pounds per annum. Lieutenants
Dumaresq of the Cæsar, Jackson of the Superb, and Lillicrap of the Venerable,
were promoted to the rank of commanders.
The extraordinary public sensation which this important and unexpected victory
created, is described in the following letter from Mrs. Saumarez of Newington,
(Sir James's sister-in-law,) to whom Lieutenant Dumaresq paid a visit on
[Pg 3]leaving the Admiralty.
London, 5th August 1801.
My dear Sir James,
It is impossible to express the admiration and enthusiasm which your late
despatches have excited in the breasts of all ranks of people. You are now the
theme of every conversation, the toast of every table, the hero of every woman,
and the boast of every Englishman. When Dumaresq waited on Lord St.
Vincent, his lordship squeezed his hand in the greatest rapture, exclaiming, "I
knew it,—I knew it,—I knew the man,—I knew what he could do! It is the most
daring thing that has been done this war. It is the first thing.—I knew it would be
so!" He then gave Dumaresq his commission, and wrote a letter of
congratulation to Lady Saumarez, which he charged Phil. Dumaresq to deliver
with his own hand. I trust they are now both together; and, after staying there
one day, Phil. is to return to town.
Lord St. Vincent also sent Dumaresq to Mr. Addington, who received him in the [Pg 4]
most gracious manner. He told Phil. everything that man could say in terms of
approbation; and justly added, that, however the multitude might estimate and
admire the last action, yet the first, in his own mind, and in the minds of men
who understood the matter, was equally deserving of praise, and would have
fixed their approbation of Sir James's conduct, even though he had failed in his
second attempt. At the same time he owned, that the exertions made by the
men after the first action, in order to meet the second, were beyond conception
or example. Indeed, they must surpass Mr. Addington's conception, since even
Lord St. Vincent told Dumaresq that it was far beyond what he himself could
imagine. In short, my dear Sir James, you have been achieving a deed that has
held you up to the contemplation of mankind, and that secures you the
gratitude of your country.
You will, no doubt, soon receive very distinguished marks of the royal and the
national favour. In the mean time you will be delighted, equally with ourselves,
to find that the stream of prosperity, beginning to flow towards you, has already
involved your brother Nicholas, who was sent for yesterday from Brighton, in
order to wait on Mr. Addington to-morrow morning. It can be for no other
purpose than to make his fortune. God knows the poor fellow has suffered
enough on your account! for we had the rascally French despatches full ten
days before we received yours; and, when we did receive the first account, your
brother Richard was not satisfied. He feared the business was not done, and
his mind dwelt upon it with anxiety. At last, on the 1st of August, and not before,
all our fears were removed; and yesterday we received the news that Mr.
Addington had sent for Nicholas.
Indeed, Sir James, you have electrified your whole circle of friends in a masterly
manner; for the very great success you experienced at last, came with double
effect upon those who had greatly feared for you at the first: and, let me add,
that not only your actions, but your letters also, are very much admired, and, I
think, most deservedly.
Dumaresq is just like yourself,—unassuming and unaffected. He had been with
us an hour with his commission in his pocket, without telling us of it; and it was
only accidentally that we discovered he had been promoted.
And now, my dear Sir James, let me speak like an old woman. I tremble for
you. Had you only dangers and difficulties to encounter, I should not fear; butyou. Had you only dangers and difficulties to encounter, I should not fear; but
now you are going to be overwhelmed with wealth, titles, fame, adulation, and
distinction; with everything, in short, that can make a man forget himself; [Pg 5]
"And Satan, wiser than he was of yore,
Now tempts by making rich, not making poor!"
Now, if in such a situation you can retain the two pillars of your Christian faith,
namely, humility and patience, you will then be the first of human characters.
Alas! how seldom it is that we see the characters of the hero and the
philosopher blended in one! When the head monopolises the spirits, the heart
often wants courage; and, if the heart is strong, the head is weak. But, as no
part of you has yet betrayed signs of weakness, endeavour to preserve yourself
the same in future as
you have been in the past, however your fortunes may alter.
God bless you, my dear brother! and God bless also Captain Brenton, and all
the heroes that are with you, and bring you safe back again to enjoy the
favours of your grateful country! M —— is here very happy. She sent to the
Bank yesterday for money, and requested to have cash instead of notes. She
was refused of course, at first; but when Mr. Brock said, that, upon his honour,
the money was for Sir James Saumarez's sister, the guineas made their
appearance immediately. I give you this as a specimen of what people think of
you. Two engravers have called on us for your picture; and I have written to
Lady Saumarez to let them have it. I hope her ladyship and Captain Dumaresq
are now in high chat.
I remain, dear brother,
Ever truly yours,
M.S.
P.S. Richard desires his love; but you have deprived him of sleep.
As you could think on Mrs. Pope at the time you were undertaking the most
desperate attempt that ever was made, you may probably find time to inquire
for Horace T. who is now at Gibraltar hospital mending two broken thighs. He is [Pg 6]
the son of Mrs. T. whom you have met at our house. She keeps a ladies' school
next door to us; and, could you serve her son, you would help the widow and
the fatherless, and please me at the same time.
The following letters from Earl St. Vincent, and his secretary Mr. Tucker, will
demonstrate the high estimation in which the victory of the 12th of July was
held at the Admiralty.
Admiralty, 5th August 1801.
My dear Sir
I have to acknowledge your letters of the 30th June, 5th, 6th, 7th, 9th, 13th
July, and to congratulate you most heartily on the career of glory you and your
gallant squadron have run in the course of those periods. The hardy enterprise
of the 6th merited complete success; but all who know the baffling winds in the
Bay of Gibraltar can readily account for the event of it. The astonishing efforts
made to refit the crippled ships in Gibraltar Mole surpasses everything of the
kind within my experience; and the final success in making so great an
impression on the very superior force of the enemy crowns the whole. I have
great satisfaction in reporting to you that I have received the most gracious and
full approbation of his Majesty this morning of your whole conduct, and that of
every officer and man under your command, and I hear nothing but praise and
admiration from every quarter.
We wait impatiently the arrival of Vice-admiral Pole from the Baltic to detach a
powerful reinforcement to you, and we are not without hopes that four ships of
the line are on their passage from Cork to join you before Cadiz, or at Gibraltar. [Pg 7]
Having, from the moment of your departure, felt the most perfect confidence
that everything would be performed for the honour and success of his Majesty's