Mexico - Its Ancient and Modern Civilisation, History, Political - Conditions, Topography, Natural Resources, Industries and - General Development
235 Pages
English

Mexico - Its Ancient and Modern Civilisation, History, Political - Conditions, Topography, Natural Resources, Industries and - General Development

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Mexico, by Charles Reginald Enock This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org Title: Mexico Its Ancient and Modern Civilisation, History, Political Conditions, Topography, Natural Resources, Industries and General Development Author: Charles Reginald Enock Editor: Martin Hume Release Date: April 2, 2007 [EBook #20959] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK MEXICO *** Produced by Ron Swanson THE SOUTH AMERICAN SERIES EDITED BY MARTIN HUME, M.A. AN IDYLL OF MEXICO: INDIAN CARRIERS, RUINED CHURCH, AND SNOW-CLAD PEAK OF ORIZABA. MEXICO ITS ANCIENT AND MODERN CIVILISATION HISTORY AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL RESOURCES INDUSTRIES AND GENERAL DEVELOPMENT BY C. REGINALD ENOCK, F.R.G.S. CIVIL AND MINING ENGINEER AUTHOR OF "PERU" AND "THE ANDES AND THE AMAZON" WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY MARTIN HUME, M.A.

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Mexico, by Charles Reginald Enock
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org
Title: Mexico
Its Ancient and Modern Civilisation, History, Political
Conditions, Topography, Natural Resources, Industries and
General Development
Author: Charles Reginald Enock
Editor: Martin Hume
Release Date: April 2, 2007 [EBook #20959]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK MEXICO ***
Produced by Ron Swanson
THE SOUTH AMERICAN SERIES
EDITED BY MARTIN HUME, M.A.AN IDYLL OF MEXICO: INDIAN CARRIERS, RUINED CHURCH, AND SNOW-CLAD PEAK OF ORIZABA.
MEXICO
ITS ANCIENT AND MODERN CIVILISATION
HISTORY AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS
TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL RESOURCES
INDUSTRIES AND GENERAL DEVELOPMENT
BY
C. REGINALD ENOCK, F.R.G.S.
CIVIL AND MINING ENGINEER
AUTHOR OF "PERU" AND "THE ANDES AND THE AMAZON"
WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY
MARTIN HUME, M.A.
WITH A MAP AND SEVENTY-FIVE ILLUSTRATIONSNEW YORK
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS
First Edition 1909
1910Second Impression
Third Impression 1912
Fourth Impression 1914
Fifth Impression 1919
(All rights reserved)
PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN
PREFACE
The purpose of this work is to treat of Mexico as a topographical and political
entity, based upon a study of the country from travel and observation; a method
such as has found favour in my book upon Peru. The method of viewing a
country as a whole, with its people, topography, and general conditions in
natural relation to each other, is one which commands growing acceptance in a
busy age. I have been able to observe much of the actual life and character of
Spanish-American countries from considerable travel therein. Both Mexico and
Peru ever lured me on as seeming to hold for me some El Dorado, and if I have
not reaped gold as the Conquistadores did, there are nevertheless other
matters of satisfaction accruing to the traveller from his journeys in those
splendid territories of mountain and forest.
Mexico, superfluous to say, is not part of South America, although this book
appears in this series. But it is part of that vast Spanish-speaking New World
whose development holds much of interest; and which may occupy a more
important part in coming years than is generally thought of at present.
THE AUTHOR.
CONTENTS
PAGE
BIBLIOGRAPHY xxi
INTRODUCTION BY MARTIN HUME xxv


CHAPTER I
A FIRST RECONNAISSANCE 1
Romance of history—Two entrance ways—Vera Cruz—Orizaba—
The Great Plateau—Fortress of Ulua—Sierra Madre—
Topographical structure—The Gulf coast—Tropical region—Birds,Topographical structure—The Gulf coast—Tropical region—Birds,
animals, and vegetation of coast zone—Tierra caliente—Malaria—
Foothills—Romantic scenery—General configuration of Mexico—
Climatic zones—Temperate zone—Cold zone—The Cordillera—
Snow-capped peaks—Romance of mining—Devout miners—
Subterranean shrines—The great deserts—Sunset on the Great
Plateau—Coyotes and zopilotes—Irrigated plantations—Railways—
Plateau of Anahuac—The cities of the mesa central—Spanish-
American civilisation—Romance of Mexican life—Mexican girls,

music, and moonlight—The peones and civilisation—American
comparisons—Pleasing traits of the Mexicans—The foreigner in
Mexico—Picturesque mining-towns—Wealth of silver—Conditions
of travel—Railways—Invasions—Lerdo's axiom—Roads and
horsemen—Strong religious sentiment—Popocatepetl and
Ixtaccihuatl—Sun-god of Teotihuacan—City of Mexico—Valley of
Mexico—The Sierra Madre—Divortia aquarum of the continent—
Volcano of Colima—Forests and ravines—Cuernavaca—The trail of
Cortes—Acapulco—Romantic old haciendas—Tropic sunset—
Unexplored Guerrero—Perils and pleasures of the trail—Sunset in
the Pacific Ocean.


CHAPTER II
THE DAWN OF MEXICO: TOLTECS AND AZTECS 20
Lake Texcoco—Valley of Anahuac—Seat of the Aztec civilisation—
Snow-capped peaks—Pyramids of Teotihuacan—Toltecs—The first
Aztecs—The eagle, cactus, and serpent—Aztec oracle and
wanderings—Tenochtitlan—Prehistoric American civilisations—
Maya, Incas—Quito and Peru—The dawn of history—The Toltec
empire—Rise, régime, fall—Quetzalcoatl—Otomies—Chichemecas
—Nezahualcoyotl—Astlan—The seven tribes and their wanderings
—Mexican war-god—The Teocallis—Human sacrifices—Prehistoric

City of Mexico—The Causeways—Aztec arts, kings, and civilisation
—Montezuma—Guatemoc—Impressions of the Spaniards—The
golden age of Texcoco—Vandalism of Spanish archbishop—The
poet-king and his religion—Temple to the Unknown God—Aztecs
and Incas compared—The Tlascalans—The Otomies—Cholula—
Mexican tribes—Aztec buildings—Prehistoric art—Origin of
American prehistoric civilisation—Biblical analogies—Supposed
Asiatic and Egyptian origins—Aboriginal theory.


CHAPTER III
THE STRANGE CITIES OF EARLY MEXICO 37
Principal prehistoric monuments—Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan—
Pyramids of Teotihuacan—Toltec sun-god—Pyramid of Cholula—
Pyramids of Monte Alban—Ruins of Mitla—Remarkable monoliths
and sculpture—Beautiful prehistoric stone-masonry—Ruins of
Palenque—Temple of the Sun, and others—Stone vault construction
—Tropical vegetation—Ruins of Yucatan—Maya temples—
Architectural skill—Temples of Chichen-Ytza—Barbaric sculpture—
Effect of geology on building—The Aztec civilisation—Land and
social laws—Slavery—Taxes, products, roads, couriers—Analogy
with Peru—Aztec homes and industries—War, human sacrifice,
cannibalism—History, hieroglyphics, picture-writing—Irrigation,
agriculture, products—Mining, sculpture, pottery—Currency and
commerce—Social system—Advent of the white man.


CHAPTER IV
CORTES AND THE CONQUEST 56
Landing of Cortes—Orizaba peak—The dawn of conquest—
Discovery of Yucatan—Velasquez and Grijalva—Life and character
of Cortes—Cortes selected to head the expedition—Departure from
Cuba—Arrival at Yucatan—The coast of Vera Cruz—Marina—Vera
Cruz established—Aztec surprise at guns and horses—Montezuma
—Dazzling Aztec gifts—Messages to Montezuma—Hostility of the
Aztecs—Key to the situation—The Cempoallas—Father Olmedo—
Religion and hypocrisy of the Christians—March to Cempoalla—

Montezuma's tax-collectors—Duplicity of Cortes—Vacillation of
Montezuma—Destruction of Totonac idols—Cortes despatches
presents to the King of Spain—Cortes destroys his ships—March
towards the Aztec capital—Scenery upon line of march—The
fortress of Tlascala—Brusque variations of climate—The Tlascalans
—Severe fighting—Capitulation of Tlascala—Faithful allies—
Messengers from Montezuma—March to Cholula—Massacre of
Cholula—The snow-capped volcanoes—First sight of Tenochtitlan.


CHAPTER V
THE FALL OF THE LAKE CITY 76
The Valley of Mexico—The City and the Causeways—The
Conquistadores enter Mexico City—Meeting of Cortes and
Montezuma—Greeting of the Aztec emperor to the Spaniards—
Tradition of Quetzalcoatl—Splendid reception—The Teocalli—
Spanish duplicity—Capture of Montezuma—Spanish gambling—
News from Vera Cruz—Forced march to the coast—Cortes defeats
Narvaez—Bad news from Mexico—Back to the capital—Alvarado's
folly—Barbarous acts of the Spaniards—The fight on the pyramid—
Destruction of Aztec idols—Death of Montezuma—Spaniards flee

from the city—Frightful struggle on the Causeway—Alvarado's leap
—The Noche Triste—Battle of Otumba—Marvellous victory—
Spanish recuperation—Cuitlahuac and Guatemoc—Fresh
operations against the capital—Building of the brigantines—Aztec
tenacity—Expedition to Cuernavaca—Xochimilco—Attack upon the
city—Struggles and reverses—Sacrifice of Spaniards—Desertion of
the Allies—Return of the Allies—Renewed attacks—Fortitude of the
Aztecs—The famous catapult—Sufferings of the Aztecs—Final
attack—Appalling slaughter—Ferocious Tlascalans—Fall of Mexico.


CHAPTER VI
MEXICO AND THE VICEROYS 98
General considerations—Character of Viceroy rule—Spanish
civilisation—Administration of Cortes—Torture of Guatemoc—
Conquests of Guatemala and Honduras—Murder of Guatemoc—Fall
of Cortes—First viceroy Mendoza—His good administration—
Misrule of the Audiencias—Slavery and abuse of the Indians—The
Philippine islands—Progress under the Viceroys—Plans for draining
the Valley of Mexico—British buccaneers—Priestly excesses—Raid
of Agramonte—Exploration of California—Spain and England at war
—Improvements and progress in the eighteenth century—Waning of
Spanish power—Decrepitude of Spain—Summary of Spanish rule—
Spanish gifts to Mexico—The rising of Hidalgo—Spanish
oppression of the colonists—Oppression by the colonists of the
Indians—Republicanism and liberty—Operations and death of
Hidalgo—The revolution of Morelos—Mier—The dawn of
Independence—The birth of Spanish-American nations.


CHAPTER VII
THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN MEXICO 113
Monarchical régime of Iturbide—Great area of Mexican Empire—
Santa Anna—The Holy Alliance—Execution of Iturbide—The
Monroe Doctrine—British friendship—The United States—Masonic
institutions—Political parties—Expulsion of Spaniards—Revolution
and crime—Clerical antagonism—Foreign complications—The "pie-
war"—The Texan war—The slavery question—Mexican valour—
American invasion of Mexico—Fall of Mexico—Treaty of Guadalupe
—Cession of California—Gold in California—Benito Juarez appears
—Conservatives and Liberals—Massacre of Tacubaya—The
Reform laws—Disestablishment of the Church—Dishonest Mexican
finance—Advent of Maximilian—The English, Spanish, and French
expedition—Perfidy of the French—Capture of Mexico City by the
French—Crowning of Maximilian—Porfirio Diaz—Rule of Maximilian
—Fall of his empire—Death of Maximilian—The tragedy of
Querétaro—Diaz takes Mexico City—Presidency of Juarez—Lerdo—Career and character of Diaz—First railways built—Successful
administration of Diaz—Political stability—Forward policy.


CHAPTER VIII
PHYSICAL CONDITIONS: MOUNTAINS, TABLELANDS, AND FLORA
AND FAUNA 134
Geographical conditions—Tehuantepec—Yucatan—Boundaries
and area—Population—Vera Cruz—Elevations above sea-level—
Latitude—General topography—The Great Plateau—The Sierra
Madres—The Mexican Andes—General structure—The coasts—
Highest peaks—Snow-cap and volcanoes—Geological formation—
Geological scenery—Hydrographic systems—Rivers—Navigation—
Water-power—Lakes—Climate and temperatures—The three
climatic zones—Rainfall—Snowfall—Flora and fauna—Soil—
Singular cactus forms—The desert flora—The tropical flora—Forest
regions—Wild animals—Serpents, monkeys, and felidæ—Sporting
conditions—Birds.


CHAPTER IX
THE MEXICAN PEOPLE 154
Ethnic conditions—Spanish, Mestizos, Indians—Colour-line—
Foreign element—The peones—Land tenure—The Spanish people
—The native tribes—The Apaches—The Mexican constitution—
Class distinctions—Mexican upper class—Courtesy and hospitality
—Quixotism of the Mexicans—Idealism and eloquence—General

characteristics—Ideas of progress—American anomalies
—Haciendas—Sport—Military distinctions—Comparison with Anglo-
Saxons—Republicanism—Language—Life in the cities—Warlike
instincts—The women of Mexico—Mexican youths—Religious
observance—Romantic Mexican damsels—The bull-fights.


CHAPTER X
THE CITIES AND INSTITUTIONS OF MEXICO 178
Character of Mexican cities—Value of Mexican civilisation—Types
of Mexican architecture—Mexican homes and buildings—The
Plaza—Social relations of classes—The City of Mexico—Valley of
Mexico—Latitude, elevation, and temperature—Buildings—Bird's-
eye view—The lakes—Drainage works—Viga canal and floating
gardens—General description—The cathedral—Art treasures—
Religious orders—Chapultepec—Pasco de la Reforma—The
President—Description of a bull-fight—Country homes and suburbs
—Colleges, clubs, literary institutions—Churches and public
buildings—Army and Navy—Cost of living—Police—Lighting and
tramways—Canadian enterprise—British commercial relations—The
American—United States influence—A general impression of
Mexico.


CHAPTER XI
MEXICAN LIFE AND TRAVEL 207
Travel and description—Mexican cities—Guadalajara—Lake
Chapala—Falls of Juanacatlan—The Pacific slope—Colima—
Puebla—Cities of the Great Plateau—Guanajuato—Chihuahua—
The Apaches—The peones—Comparison with Americans—Peon
labour system—Mode of living—Houses of the peon class—Diet
—Tortillas and frijoles—Chilli—Pulque—Habits of the peon class—

Their religion—The wayside crosses and their tragedies—Ruthless
political executions—The fallen cross—Similarity to Bible scenes
—Peon superstitions—The ignis fatuus, or relacion—Caves and
buried treasure—Prehistoric Mexican religion—The Teocallis—
Comparison with modern religious systems—Philosophical
considerations.

CHAPTER XII
MEXICAN LIFE AND TRAVEL (continued) 230
Anthropogeographical conditions—The Great Plateau—The tropical
belt—Primitive villages—Incidents of travel on the plateau—Lack of
water—Hydrographic conditions—Venomous vermin—Travel by
roads and diligencias—A journey with a priest—Courtesy of the
peon class—The curse of alcohol—The dress of the working classes

—The women of the peon class—Dexterity of the natives—The bull-
fights—A narrow escape—Mexican horse equipment—The vaquero
and the lasso—Native sports—A challenge to a duel—Foreigners in
Mexico—Unexplored Guerrero—Sporting conditions—Camp life—A
day's hunting.


CHAPTER XIII
MINERAL WEALTH. ROMANCE AND ACTUALITY 255
Forced labour in the mines—Silver and bloodshed—History of
discovery—Guanajuato—the veta Madre—Spanish methods—
Durango—Zacatecas—Pachuca—The patio process—Quicksilver
from Peru—Cornish miners' graves—Aztec mining—Spanish advent
—Old mining methods—Romance of mining—The Cerro de
Mercado—Guanajuato and Hidalgo—Real del Monte—Religion and

mining—Silver and churches—Subterranean altars—Mining and the
nobility—Spanish mining school—Modern conditions—The mineral-
bearing zone—Distribution of minerals geographically—Silver—The
patio process—Gold-mining and production—El Oro and other
districts—Copper—Other minerals—General mineral production—
Mining claims and laws.


CHAPTER XIV
NATURAL RESOURCES, AGRICULTURE, GENERAL CONDITIONS 282
Principal cultivated products—Timber—The three climatic zones—
General agricultural conditions—Waste of forests—Irrigation—
Region of the river Nazas—Canal-making—Cotton and sugar-cane
—Profitable agriculture—Mexican country-houses—Fruit gardens—
Food products, cereals, and fibrous plants—Pulque production—
India-rubber and guayule—List of agricultural products and values—
Fruit culture and values—Forestry and land—Colonisation—
American land-sharks—Conditions of labour—Asiatics—
Geographical distribution of products—The States of the Pacific
slope—Sonora—Lower California—Sinaloa—Tepic—Jalisco—
Colima—Michoacan—Guerrero—Oaxaca—Chiapas.


CHAPTER XV
NATURAL RESOURCES, AGRICULTURE, GENERAL CONDITIONS
(continued) 308
Central and Atlantic States—Chihuahua and the Rio Grande—
Mining, forests, railways—Coahuila and its resources—Nuevo Leon
and its conditions—Iron, coal, railways, textile industries—Durango
and its great plains and mountain peaks—Aguascalientes—
Zacatecas and its mineral wealth—San Luis Potosi and its industries
—Guanajuato, Querétaro and Hidalgo, and their diversified
resources—Mexico and its mountains and plains—Tlaxcala—
Morelos and its sugar-cane industry—The rich State of Puebla—
Tamaulipas, a littoral state—The historic State of Vera Cruz, its
resources, towns, and harbour—Campeche and the peninsula of
Yucatan.


CHAPTER XVI
MEXICAN FINANCE, INDUSTRIES, AND RAILWAYS 328
Financial rise of Mexico—Tendencies toward restriction against
foreigners—National control of railways—Successful financialadministration—Favourable budgets—Good trade conditions—
Foreign liabilities—Character of exports and imports—Commerce
with foreign nations—Banks and currency—Principal industries—
Manufacturing conditions—Labour, water-power, and electric
installations—Textile industry, tobacco, iron and steel, paper,
breweries, etc.—Railways—The Mexican Railway—The Mexican
Central Railway—The National Railroad—The Interoceanic—
Governmental consolidation—The Tehuantepec Railway—Port of
Salina Cruz—Other railway systems.


CHAPTER XVII
GENERAL CONCLUSIONS 350
Mexico's unique conditions—Her future—Asiatic immigrants—
Fostering of the native race—Encouraging of immigration—The
white man in the American tropics—Future of Mexican manufactures

—The Pan-American Congress—Pan-American railway—Mexico
and Spain—The Monroe Doctrine—Mexico, Europe, and the United
States—Promising future of Mexico.


INDEX 357
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
AN IDYLL OF MEXICO: INDIAN CARRIERS, RUINED
CHURCH, AND SNOW-CLAD PEAK OF ORIZABA Frontispiece

FACING PAGE
THE ATLANTIC SLOPE: TUNNEL AND BRIDGE OF THE
INFIERNILLO CAÑON ON THE MEXICAN RAILWAY, IN THE
STATE OF VERA CRUZ 4

THE GREAT PLATEAU: NIGHTFALL IN THE DESERT 7

ON THE GREAT PLATEAU: VIEW OF THE CITY OF
DURANGO 9

ORIZABA, CAPPED WITH PERPETUAL SNOW: VIEW ON THE
MEXICAN RAILWAY AT CORDOBA 14

PINE-CLAD HILLS FORMING THE RIM OF THE VALLEY OF
MEXICO, 8,000 FEET ELEVATION ABOVE SEA-LEVEL 16

TYPICAL VILLAGE OF THE PACIFIC COAST ZONE, STATE
OF COLIMA 18

THE FINDING OF THE SITE FOR THE PREHISTORIC CITY
OF MEXICO BY THE FIRST AZTECS (From the painting in Mexico.) 21

PREHISTORIC MEXICO: TOLTEC PYRAMID OR TEOCALLI
OF THE SUN AT SAN JUAN TEOTIHUACAN (Exploration and
restoration work being carried on.) 24

THE VALLEY OF MEXICO; VIEW ON LAKE TEXCOCO; THE
MODERN CITY OF MEXICO IN THE DISTANCE 26

THE LAND OF THE AZTEC CONQUESTS: MAIZE FIELDS
NEAR ESPERANZA, STATE OF PUEBLA 31
PREHISTORIC MEXICO: RUINS OF EL FOLOC AT CHICHEN-
YTZA, YUCATAN 35

PREHISTORIC MEXICO: THE PYRAMID OF THE SUN AT
TEOTIHUACAN IN THE VALLEY OF MEXICO, SEEN FROM
THE PYRAMID OF THE MOON 38

PREHISTORIC MEXICO: RUINS OF MITLA; FAÇADE OF THE
HALL OF THE COLUMNS (The steps have been "restored" by the
photographer.) 41

PREHISTORIC MEXICO: RUINS OF MITLA; HALL OF THE
MONOLITHS OR COLUMNS 43

PREHISTORIC MEXICO: RUINS OF MITLA; THE HALL OF
THE GRECQUES 48

PREHISTORIC MEXICO: RUINS OF TEMPLE AT CHICHEN-
YTZA, IN YUCATAN 53

PREHISTORIC MEXICO: RUINS OF "THE PALACE" AT
CHICHEN-YTZA IN YUCATAN 61

THE LAND OF THE CONQUEST: STATE OF VERA CRUZ;
VIEW ON THE MEXICAN RAILWAY; THE TOWN OF
MALTRATA IS SEEN THOUSANDS OF FEET BELOW 68

THE LAND OF THE CONQUEST: A VALLEY IN THE STATE
OF VERA CRUZ, ON THE LINE OF THE MEXICAN RAILWAY 74

THE LAKES OF THE VALLEY OF MEXICO AT THE TIME OF
THE CONQUEST, SHOWING THE CAUSEWAYS TO THE
AZTEC ISLAND-CITY OF TENOCHTITLAN (From Prescott's
"Conquest of Mexico.") 76

THE CONQUEST OF MEXICO: CORTES AT THE BATTLE OF
OTUMBA (From the painting by Ramirez.) 87

GUANAJUATO AS SEEN FROM THE HILLS: THE HISTORIC
TREASURE-HOUSE OF MEXICO 104

STATUE OF HIDALGO AT MONTERREY 108

THE CASTLE OF CHAPULTEPEC 121

CITY OF OAXACA: SPANISH-COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE;
THE PORTALES OF THE MUNICIPAL PALACE AND PLAZA 127

THE PRESIDENT OF MEXICO, GENERAL PORFIRIO DIAZ 132

MEXICO'S ARTIFICIAL HARBOURS ON THE ATLANTIC: THE
NEW PORT WORKS AT VERA CRUZ, A SOLID AND COSTLY
ENTERPRISE 136

ASCENDING THE MEXICAN CORDILLERA, OR EASTERN
SIERRA MADRE: THE RAILWAY IS SEEN IN THE VALLEY
FAR BELOW 138

THE PEAK OF ORIZABA; PLAZA OF THE CITY OF CORDOVA 140

THE FALLS OF JUANACATLAN: THE NIAGARA OF MEXICO 144
THE PACIFIC COAST ZONE: GENERAL VIEW OF THE CITY
AND ENVIRONS OF COLIMA 147

A RARE OCCURRENCE: SNOWFALL IN A MEXICAN TOWN;
VIEW OF THE PLAZA OF LERDO, ON THE GREAT PLATEAU 149

A ROAD IN THE TEMPERATE ZONE, WITH PALMS AND
VEGETATION 151

VEGETATION IN THE TROPICAL FORESTS 153

THE MEXICAN PEONES: STREET SCENE AT CORDOVA 160

TYPES OF MEXICANS OF THE UPPER CLASS: AN
ARCHBISHOP; A FAMOUS GENERAL AND MINISTER OF
PUBLIC WORKS; A FAMOUS MINISTER OF FINANCE,
SEÑOR LIMANTOUR; A STATE GOVERNOR 164

MEXICAN LIFE: THE CATHEDRAL AND THE PENITENTIARY,
CITY OF PUEBLA 166

THE FAMOUS MEXICAN "RURALES," OR MEXICAN
MOUNTED POLICE 172

SPANISH-COLONIAL CHURCH ARCHITECTURE: A TYPICAL
MEXICAN TEMPLE 176

SPANISH-COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE: THE PORTALES OF
CHOLULA 180

A PUBLIC GARDEN IN TROPICAL MEXICO: VIEW AT COLIMA 184

THE VALLEY OF MEXICO: THE GREAT DRAINAGE CANAL 188

THE CATHEDRAL OF THE CITY OF MEXICO 191

BULL-FIGHT IN THE CITY OF MEXICO, SHOWING THE
SPECTATORS OF THE "SOL," THE PICADORES, AND THE
ENTERING BULL 194

MEXICAN STREET SCENE: A PULQUE SHOP WITH
ARTISTICALLY-PAINTED EXTERIOR 198

MEXICAN ARTILLERY: A WAYSIDE ENCAMPMENT 202

CITY OF GUADALAJARA: INTERIOR OF THE CATHEDRAL 208

A TOBACCO-PRODUCING HACIENDA: STATE OF VERA
CRUZ 213

MEXICAN PEON LIFE: TYPICAL VILLAGE MARKET-PLACE 215

THE PACIFIC COAST ZONE: COCOA-NUT PALMS AT
COLIMA 230

LIFE AND TRAVEL IN MEXICO: MULES, PEON, AND CACTUS 235

NATIVE WOMEN OF TEHUANTEPEC: ORDINARY DRESS
AND CHURCH-GOING COSTUMES 240