North American Yellow Bats,
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North American Yellow Bats, 'Dasypterus,' And a List of the Named Kinds Of the Genus Lasiurus Gray

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of North American Yellow Bats, 'Dasypterus,' And a List of the Named Kinds Of the Genus Lasiurus Gray, by E. Raymond Hall and J. Knox Jones This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: North American Yellow Bats, 'Dasypterus,' And a List of the Named Kinds Of the Genus Lasiurus Gray Author: E. Raymond Hall J. Knox Jones Release Date: March 17, 2010 [EBook #31679] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK NORTH AMERICAN YELLOW BATS *** Produced by Chris Curnow, Joseph Cooper and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY Volume 14, No. 5, pp. 73-98, 4 figs. December 29, 1961 N o r t h A m e r i c a n Y e l l o w B a t s , " D a s y p t e r u s , " A n d a L i s t o f t h e N a m e d K i n d s O f t h e G e n u s L a s i u r u s G r a y By E. RAYMOND HALL AND J. KNOX JONES, JR. UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS LAWRENCE 1961 UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS, MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY Editors: E. Raymond Hall, Chairman, Henry S. Fitch, Theodore H. Eaton, Jr. Volume 14, No. 5, pp. 73-98, 4 figs. Published December 29, 1961 UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS Lawrence, Kansas PRINTED BY JEAN M.

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of North American Yellow Bats, 'Dasypterus,'And a List of the Named Kinds Of the Genus Lasiurus Gray, by E. Raymond Hall and J. Knox JonesThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.netTitle: North American Yellow Bats, 'Dasypterus,' And a List of the Named Kinds Of the Genus Lasiurus GrayAuthor: E. Raymond Hall        J. Knox JonesRelease Date: March 17, 2010 [EBook #31679]Language: EnglishCharacter set encoding: ISO-8859-1*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK NORTH AMERICAN YELLOW BATS ***PDriosdturciebdu tbeyd  CPhrroiosf rCeuardnionwg,  TJeoasme paht  Chototpp:e/r/ wawnwd. ptghdep .OnneltineUNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORYVolume 14, No. 5, pp. 73-98, 4 figs. December 29, 1961North ABats, "And a LsdniKOf the yarGyBE. RAYMOND HALL AND J. KNOX JONES, JR.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS LAWRENCE 1691UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS, MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORYEditors: E. Raymond Hall, Chairman, Henry S. Fitch, Theodore H. Eaton, Jr.mDi Geasetrsn iyuocpsfa t neLt rahYuseeis lu,Nl"rao umwsed
Volume 14, No. 5, pp. 73-98, 4 figs. Published December 29, 1961UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS Lawrence, KansasPRINTED BY JEAN M. NEIBARGER, STATE PRINTER TOPEKA, KANSAS 1691North American Yellow Bats, "Dasypterus," And a List of the Named Kinds Of the Genus Lasiurus GrayYBE. RAYMOND HALL AND J. KNOX JONES, JR.INTRODUCTIONYellow bats occur only in the New World and by most recent authors havebeen referred to the genus Dasypterus Peters. The red bats and the hoarybat, all belonging to the genus Lasiurus Gray, also occur only in the NewWorld except that the hoary bat has an endemic subspecies in theHawaiian Islands.The kind of yellow bat first to be given a distinctive name was the smaller ofthe two species that occur in North America. It was named Nycticejus egain 1856 (p. 73) by Gervais on the basis of material from the state ofAmazonas, Brazil, South America, but was early recognized as occurringalso in North America (in the sense that México and Central America,including Panamá, are parts of North America). More than 40 years elapsedbefore subspecific names were proposed for the North Americanpopulations; Thomas named Dasypterus ega xanthinus in 1897 (p. 544)from Baja California, and Dasypterus ega panamensis in 1901 (p. 246)from Panamá.The larger of the two North American species was named Lasiurusintermedius in 1862 (p. 246) by H. Allen on the basis of material fromextreme northeastern México. Another alleged species, Dasypterusfloridanus, was named in 1902 (p. 392) by Miller from Florida, but as setforth below it is only a subspecies of L. intermedius, a species that isseemingly limited to parts of the North American mainland and Cuba.A third species, Atalapha egregia, allegedly allied to the small yellow bat,L. ega, was named in 1871 (p. 912) by Peters from Santa Catarina, Brazil,but Handley (1960:473) thinks that L. egregius is allied instead to the redbats. The species L. egregius has not been studied in connection with theobservations reported below.Bats of the genus concerned were given the generic name Nycteris byBorkhausen in 1797 (p. 66), and the name Lasiurus by Gray in 1831 (p. 38).For much of the latter part of the 19th century the generic name Atalaphaproposed by Rafinesque in 1814 (p. 12) was used because it antedated thename Lasiurus. In this period Harrison Allen (1894:137) raised to genericrank the name Dasypterus that had been proposed by Peters in 1871 (p.912) only as a subgenus for the yellow bats. Since 1894 the yellow batsordinarily have borne the generic name Dasypterus. The red bats and thehoary bat continued to be referred to as of the genus Atalapha until early inthe 20th century when it was decided that a European bat of another genuswas technically the basis for the name Atalapha. Thereupon Lasiurus wasagain used in the belief that it was the earliest available name for the batsconcerned. But in 1909 (p. 90) Miller showed that the name Lasiurus waspreoccupied by Nycteris Borkhausen, 1797 (p. 66). From 1909 until 1914 inconformance with the Law of Priority Nycteris was used for the red bat andthe hoary bat.
At this point it is desirable to digress and indicate why and how the Law ofPriority came into being. In the 19th century different technical names wereused for the same kind of animal depending on the opinions of individualauthors. For example, one author used name A because it was mostdescriptive of the morphology of the animal, another author used name Bbecause it had been used more often than any other, another author usedname C because it was more euphonious, etc. In order to achieveuniformity and stability a set of rules was drawn up in 1901 at theInternational Zoological Congress in Berlin. Those rules were basedprincipally on the rule, or law, of priority. In effect, the law stated that thetechnical name first given to a kind of animal (with starting date as ofJanuary 1, 1758, Systema Naturae of Linnaeus) would be the correct andofficial name. After the mentioned rules were adopted, some zoologists,mostly non-taxonomists, objected to the rules and in response to theseobjections a compromise was adopted in 1913 at the InternationalZoological Congress in Monaco and the International Committee onZoological Nomenclature was authorized to set aside, at its discretion, theLaw of Priority. In 1913 it was thought by everyone that the namesconserved (nomina conservanda) by setting aside the rules would be few.Returning now to the generic names applied to the bats concerned, it is tobe noted that from 1803 until 1909 Nycteris had been used as the genericname of an African bat on the erroneous assumption that the name was firstapplied in a valid fashion to the African bat. With the aim of conserving thename Nycteris for the African bat, some zoologists petitioned theInternational Committee on Zoological Nomenclature to set aside the Lawof Priority and petitioned also that the name Lasiurus be validated for useagain as the generic name for New World bats. This petition was granted in1914 in the first lot of names for which exception to the rules was made. Asa result, since 1914 Lasiurus has been used with increasing frequency, andNycteris with decreasing frequency, for New World bats.The above explanation of the application of the generic names Nycteris,Atalapha, and Lasiurus is given for two reasons: First, study of moreabundant material than was available to Harrison Allen in 1894 when heraised Dasypterus to generic rank reveals, as set forth beyond, that theyellow bats are not generically different from the red bats and hoary bat andso will bear the same generic name that is applied to the red bat and hoarybat; second, a choice of generic names has to be made. Actually, theInternational Commission on Zoological Nomenclature since 1913 hasvoted to make many, instead of only a few, exceptions to the rules. Thenumber of names resulting from these exceptions is becoming so large thatsome zoologists fear that the chaotic condition of nomenclature in theprevious century will return. Those who hold such fears maintain thatadherence to the rules of 1901, or to the Law of Priority, or at least to somerules, clearly is desirable. Certainly there is much logic in that view.According to the rules, Nycteris is the correct name of the bats concerned.According to the Commission, it is well to use instead the name Lasiurus.Perhaps the time has come to follow the rules and use Nycteris. But,because of the possibility that the Commission will return to its policy of1913 and recommend only a few instead of many exceptions to the rules,the generic name Lasiurus is tentatively used in the following accounts.Genus Lasiurus GrayHairy-tailed Bats1797.Nycteris B[orkhause]n, Der Zoologe (CompendioseBibliothek gemeinnützigsten Kenntnisse für alle Stände, pt.21), Heft 4-7, p. 66. Type, Vespertilio borealis Müller [=Lasiurus borealis]. Nycteris Borkhausen is a homonym ofNycteris G. Cuvier and É. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1795, typeVespertilio hispidus Schreber, 1774 [= Nycteris hispida],from Senegal. Although Nycteris Cuvier and Geoffroy St.-Hilaire is a nomen nudum, Opinion 111 of the InternationalCommission of Zoological Nomenclature establishes thename as available for a genus of Old World bats. On thisbasis, Nycteris Borkhausen is not available for the NewWorld genus. Nycteris É. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1803, is asynonym of Nycteris Cuvier and Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1795,as given status by the Commission.
1831.Lasiurus Gray, Zool. Misc., No. 1, p. 38. Type, Vespertilioborealis Müller.1871.Atalapha Peters, Monatsber. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Berlin,p. 907, and other authors [nec Atalapha Rafinesque, 1814].Type species.Vespertilio borealis Müller.Diagnosis.—Interfemoral membrane large and most of its uppersurface furred; mammae 4; third, fourth and fifth fingers progressivelyshortened; ear short and rounded; skull short and broad; nares andpalatal emargination wide and shallow (width transversely exceedinglength anteroposteriorly); sternum prominently keeled; i. 1/3, c. 1/1, p.1/2 or 2/2, m. 3/3; when two upper premolars present, anterior oneminute, peglike, and displaced lingually; M3 much reduced, area ofits crown less than a third that of M1.Members of this genus are notable for having three and even fouryoung (more than other bats). In North America at least L. borealisand L. cinereus, are migratory.Provisional Key to the Recent Species of Lasiurus1. Color reddish or grayish (not yellowish); normally two premolarson each side of upper jaw. 2. Occurring on Antillean islands (color reddish). 3. Length of upper tooth-row less than 4.5 mm. (occurring onHispaniola and Bahamas)L. minor. 3'. Length of upper tooth-row more than 4.5 mm. (not occurring on Hispaniola and Bahamas).4. Greatest length of skull less than 13.9 mm. (occurring onCuba)L. pfeifferi. 4'. Greatest length of skull more than 13.9 mm. (occurringon Jamaica)L. degelidus. 2'. Occurring on mainland and coastal islands of North and SouthAmerica; also on Galapagos and Hawaiian islands (color reddishor grayish). 5. Total length more than 120 mm.; color grayishL. cinereus.  5'. Total length less than 120 mm.; color reddish.6. Upper parts brick red to rusty red, frequently washed withwhite; lacrimal ridge present.  7.  Not occurring on Galapagos IslandsL. borealis.7'. Known only from Galapagos Islands (both ear of 7.6 mm.and thumb of 6.4 mm. allegedly shorter than in L. borealisof adjacent mainland; presence of lacrimal ridge not verified)L. brachyotis.6'. Upper parts not brick red to rusty red; lacrimal ridge not developed.8. Forearm more than 46.5 mm. (48 in only knownspecimen, a male); dorsum bright rufous (absence of lacrimal ridge not verified)L. egregius.8'. Forearm less than 46.5 mm.; dorsum not bright rufous. 9. Upper parts mahogany brown washed with white; forearm less than 43 mmL. seminolus.9'. Upper parts deep chestnut; forearm more than 43mm. (44.8 in only known specimen, a female) 1'. Color yellowish; only one premolar on each side ofL. castaneus. upper jaw.10. Total length more than 119 mm.; length of upper tooth-row 6.0 mm. or moreL. intermedius.10'. Total length less than 119 mm.; length of upper tooth-row lessthan 6.0 mmL. ega.Lasiurus intermediusNorthern Yellow BatDiagnosis.—Upper parts yellowish-orange, or yellowish brown, or
brownish-gray faintly washed with black to pale yellowish gray; sizelarge (forearm, 45.2-62.8; condylocanine length, 16.9-21.5).Distribution and Geographic VariationLasiurus intermedius H. Allen, type from Matamoros, Tamaulipas, has beenreported from the Rio Grande Valley of Texas southward to Honduras andin Cuba. Lasiurus floridanus (Miller), type from Lake Kissimmee, Florida,has been recorded from southeastern Texas, eastward along the Gulf ofMexico to Florida, and thence northward along the Atlantic Coast toextreme southeastern Virginia (see records of occurrence beyond and Fig.2). Specimens of intermedius from the vicinity of the type locality and fromother localities in México differ from specimens of floridanus (from Floridaand southern Georgia) as follows: Larger, both externally (especiallyforearm) and cranially (see measurements); teeth larger and heavier; skullheavier and having more prominent sagittal and lambdoidal crests;braincase less rounded, more elongate; auditory bullae relatively smaller;upper parts averaging brighter (yellowish to yellowish-orange in generalaspect, rather than yellowish-brown to brownish-gray).The differences mentioned above are of the magnitude of those thatordinarily separate subspecies of a single species rather than two species.Miller (1902:392-393), in the original description of floridanus, noted thatthe differences between it and intermedius were slight and remarked (p.393): "Indeed, it is probable that it intergrades with the Texas animal."Lowery (1936:17) also has suggested that intergradation might occurbetween intermedius and floridanus "in southwestern Louisiana or easternTexas"; later (1943:223-224) he pointed out that specimens from BatonRouge, Louisiana, averaged larger in cranial dimensions than typicalfloridanus and again mentioned the possibility of intergradation betweenthe two kinds. Sanborn (1954:25-26) touched obliquely on the problemwhen he wrote: "In Florida, Dasypterus intermedius is referred to as aFlorida yellow bat (Dasypterus floridanus)." Handley (1960:478) wrote thatcertain morphological similarities suggested "gene flow" between the twokinds.Specimens examined from Louisiana resemble floridanus from Georgiaand Florida to the eastward in external dimensions. Some of thosespecimens resemble floridanus in size of skull, but two skulls fromLouisiana are inseparable from those of topotypes of intermedius. Theupper parts of specimens from Louisiana are generally like those ofanimals to the east but average somewhat paler (less brownish). Thespecimens seen from Louisiana seem to be intergrades betweenintermedius and floridanus but clearly are assignable to the latter.
FIG. 1. Condylocanine length plotted against length of forearm for specimens of thespecies Lasiurus intermedius.The picture is less clear as regards bats from southeastern Texas (onespecimen each from Colorado and Travis counties, and four specimensfrom Harris County). Five of the specimens have skulls (the Travis Countyspecimen is a skin only) and of these, four are clearly assignable, on thebasis of size and shape of the skull, to intermedius. The fifth skull(specimen from Colorado County) is intermediate in size betweenfloridanus and intermedius and on that basis alone could be assigned withequal propriety to either. All these specimens from Texas more closelyresemble floridanus than intermedius in external size (forearms: 49.2, 49.6,50.7, 49.9 (approximate), 49.6, 49.1). The pale yellowish-gray upper partsof the four adults, seemingly resulting from a dilution of the brownish colorfound in floridanus, differ from the color of typical specimens of bothintermedius and floridanus, but the average is nearer that of floridanus thanthat of intermedius. Color of pre-adult pelage in the one July-taken young ofthe year resembles the color of adults. An August-taken young of the year isin process of acquiring the adult pelage but the hairs have not reached theirfull growth; it is pale yellowish but not so grayish as the other specimens.All characters considered, the specimens from eastern Texas resemblefloridanus more than they do intermedius, and so are provisionallyassigned to floridanus (as was done by Taylor and Davis, 1947:19; Eads,et al., 1956:440; and, Davis, 1960:59). Additional material fromsoutheastern Texas is needed. It will be remembered that the type localityof intermedius is in the Rio Grande Valley; all specimens seen, in the studyhere reported on, from the Texas side of the valley are unquestionablyreferable to that subspecies.Intergradation, then, occurs between L. intermedius and L. floridanus insome degree in southern Louisiana and in more marked degree insoutheastern Texas. Specimens from the area of intergradation vary moreindividually in many features than do specimens from other areas. Ingeneral the intergrades tend to resemble floridanus in small size externallyand intermedius in large size of skull. The specimens from southeasternTexas differ from typical specimens of both subspecies in color, being paleyellowish-gray (instead of yellowish to yellowish-orange as in intermediusor yellowish brown to brownish-gray as in floridanus), and this difference isshared to some extent with animals from Louisiana, the latter beingsomewhat intermediate between bats from Texas and those from Florida
and Georgia, although nearer those from Florida and Georgia.An hypothesis to account for the variation noted is that in Wisconsin Time,and perhaps in earlier Pleistocene times, this yellow bat was (as it is now)a warmth-adapted animal as Blair (1959:461) would term it. Some coolperiod forced the mainland populations of the two species into two refugia—peninsular Florida and eastern México—and the present area ofintergradation is, therefore, of a secondary rather than a primary type.Possibly also the relatively treeless area of part of southern Texas hasmade for a sparse population there of Lasiurus intermedius and gene flownow may be, and long may have been, slight between the eastern andsouthern segments of the species.It could be contended that the peculiar coloration of specimens fromsoutheastern Texas, coupled with the tendency to have a large skull (ashas intermedius) and small external dimensions (as has floridanus),justifies subspecific recognition for the animals that here are termedintergrades. But, judging by the specimens now available, such subspecificrecognition would tend to obscure rather than clarify the geographicvariation noted.Life HistoryProbably bats of the species Lasiurus intermedius seek retreats primarily intrees (see Moore, 1949a:59-60) but Baker and Dickerman (1956:443)reported "approximately 45 yellow bats" concealed on July 22, 1955,"among dried corn stalks hanging from the sides of a large open tobaccoshed" in the state of Veracruz. Young are born in late spring, three beingthe only number known except that Davis (1960:59) was told that in thevicinity of Mission, Texas, two was the usual number "born in May andJune." Sherman (1945:194) reported a female with young (number notgiven) taken on June 7, 1918, at Seven Oaks, Florida, and another withthree young taken on June 20, 1941, at Ocala, Florida. Lowery (1936:17)recorded a female, having three young, obtained on June 17, 1932, atBaton Rouge, Louisiana. A specimen taken on May 19, 1940, at BatonRouge contained three embryos. Baker and Dickerman (loc. cit.) reportedfour adult females from Veracruz as lactating on July 22, 1955, but theywere accompanied by flying young of the year and probably were near theend of the lactation period. Among specimens examined, juveniles areavailable by date as follows: 5 mi. N Baton Rouge, Louisiana (June 26,1953); Palm Beach, Florida (July 6, 1950); and Izamal, Yucatán ("takenwith mother" on July 28, 1910). Breeding probably takes place in autumnand winter; Sherman (op. cit.:196) reported males from Florida as sexually"mature" from the beginning of September to mid-February. Late wintersegregation of sexes has been reported.SubspeciesIn the following accounts, localities of occurrence in each state are listedfrom north to south; if two lie in the same latitude, the westernmost is listedfirst. Localities that are italicized are not shown on the distribution map (Fig.2), either because undue crowding of symbols would result or, in severalcases, because we could not precisely place the localities. Length offorearm is the average of both forearms in individuals in which bothforearms could be measured.Lasiurus intermedius intermedius (H. Allen)1862.PLahisliaudruelsp hiian, te1r4m:2e4d6i,u "s AHp.r il"A l(lbeent, wePerno c.M aAy c2a7d . anNd atA. ugSucsi.t1), type from Matamoros, Tamaulipas.Geographic distribution.—Southern México (Yucatán, Chiapas andOaxaca), northward along Gulf Coast to Rio Grande Valley ofsouthern Texas (see Fig. 2).Diagnosis.—Size medium (see measurements); sagittal crest present(height above braincase averaging 0.4 mm. in 12 from Brownsville,Texas); interorbital region relatively broad; M3 relatively broad (seecomparisons in account of the Cuban subspecies beyond); mesostyle
of M1 and M2 and 2nd commissure and cingulum of M3 large; pelageyellowish to yellowish-orange.Comparisons.—See p. 79 and under accounts of Lasiurusintermedius floridanus and the Cuban subspecies.External measurements.—Three adult males from the Sierra deTamaulipas in Tamaulipas: Total length, 146, 136, 142; length of tail-vertebrae, 69, 67, 70; length of hind foot, 11, 11, 11; length of ear fromnotch, 17, 16, 17; length of forearm (dry), 53.2, 51.8, 51.9.Corresponding measurements for two adult females from 1 mi. SWCatemaco, Veracruz: 149, 155; 64, 69; 11, 12; 17, 17; 51.8, 55.2.Weight in grams of the Tamaulipan specimens, respectively: 24, 21,24. For cranial measurements see Table 1.Records of occurrence.—Specimens examined, 45, as follows:Texas: 55/8 mi. N Mission, 2 (Texas A & M); Santa Ana NationalWildlife Refuge, 1 (USNM); Brownsville, 13 (4 AMNH; 1 Texas A &M; 8 USNM). Tamaulipas: Matamoros, 2 (USNM); Sierra deTamaulipas, 1200 ft., 10 mi. W, 2 mi. S Piedra, 1 (KU); Sierra deTamaulipas, 1400 ft, 16 mi. W, 3 mi. S Piedra, 2 (KU). Veracruz: 16mi. SW Catemaco, 15 (KU). Oaxaca: Oaxaca, 1 (British Mus.).Chiapas: San Bartolomé, 1 (USNM). Yucatan: Tekom, 1 (ChicagoMus.); Izamal, 5 (USNM). Honduras: Río Yeguare, betweenTegucigalpa and Danli, 1 (MCZ).Additional records: Texas: Padre Island (Miller, 1897:118); CameronCounty (ibid.). Oaxaca: Tehuantepec (Handley, 1960:478). Yucatan:Yaxcach (not found, Gaumer, 1917:274).Lasiurus intermedius floridanus (Miller)1902.Dasypterus floridanus Miller, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.Philadelphia, 54:392, September 12, type from LakeKissimmee, Oceola Co., Florida.Geographic distribution.—Extreme southeastern Virginia, south alongAtlantic Coast to and including peninsular Florida (except possiblyextreme southern tip), thence westward to southern Louisiana andthe southern part of eastern Texas (see Fig. 2).Diagnosis.—Size small (see measurements); sagittal crest presentbut low; interorbital region relatively broad; teeth essentially as in L. i.intermedius except averaging smaller; pelage yellowish-brown tograyish-brown. For comparison with the Cuban subspecies, seeaccount of that subspecies.Comparisons.—From Lasiurus intermedius intermedius, L. i.floridanus differs as follows: averaging smaller (see measurements),especially in forearm and skull; teeth smaller; skull having lessprominent sagittal and lambdoidal crests; braincase more nearlyround; tympanic shields over petrosals approximately same size andtherefore relatively larger; pelage of upper parts duller, yellowish-brown to brownish-gray instead of yellowish to yellowish-orange.External measurements.—Average (and extremes) of 14 February-taken males from along the Aucilla River, Jefferson Co., Florida: Totallength, 126.8 (121-131.5); length of tail-vertebrae, 54.2 (51-60); lengthof hind foot, 9.8 (8-11); length of ear from notch (13 specimens), 16.3(15-17); forearm (dry, 13 specimens), 48.1 (46.7-50.0). Correspondingmeasurements of the holotype, an adult female (after Miller,1902:392): 129, 52, 9, 17, 49. Average (and extremes) weight ingrams of the series of males: 17.7 (15.5-19.5). For cranialmeasurements see Table 1.Records of occurrence.—Specimens examined, 65, as follows:Texas: Austin, 1 (Texas U.); 4 mi. N Huffman, 1 (Texas A & M);Houston, 3 (1 KU; 2 MVZ); Eagle Lake, 1 (Texas A & M). Louisiana: 5mi. N Baton Rouge, 1 (LSU); 1 mi. W LSU Campus, Baton Rouge, 1(LSU); Baton Rouge, 7 (1 AMNH; 5 LSU; 1 USNM); ½ mi. E BatonRouge, 1 (LSU); North Island, Grand Lake, 1 (LSU); Lafayette, 2(USNM); Houma, 2 (USNM). Georgia: Beachton, 11 (6 Chicago Mus.;5 USNM). Florida: 2 mi. S Tallahassee, 1 (AMNH); 5 mi. WJacksonville, 1 (AMNH); Aucilla River, 15 mi. S Waukenna, 7 (Univ.Fla.); Aucilla River, at U.S. Hgy. 98, 8 (Univ. Fla.); W of Gainesville, 1
(GUaniinv.e svFilllae.,) ; 1 (GUaniinve. sFvliall.e);,  Al3a c(h2u a UCniovu. ntFyl, a1.;  (U1n ivU. nMivi.c h.M);i c2h .m);i . nSeaWrLDaelkaelnadn, d2,  2( U(nUivn.i v.F lFal.)a; .);h eSaedv eonf  COhaakss s[anheoawr itpzrkeas eRnit vteor,w n1  (ofU SSNafMet)y;BHeaarbcohr,] ,1  2( U(n1i vA. MFlNa.H);;  M1 ulUleSt NLaMk);e  (Lnaokte f oKuinsdsi),m 1m (eUeS, N1 M()U.SNM); PalmASdoduitthi oCnaalr orliencao: r5d sm: i.V iNrgWin iCa:h aWrliellsotuogn h(bCyo lBeemaacnh,  1(R94a0g:e9o0t),.  1L9o5ui5s:i4a5n6a):.(NHeawm iltOornl,e a1ns9 4(3L:1o0w7e).r y, Ge1o9r4g3i:a2: 23W).  Meisdsgies sipCpai: milHlaa nc(Cocokn stCaontuinntey,1M9a5ry8s: 6R5i)v. eFrl [onriedaar  (BSohuelromgaune,] ; 1vi9c4in5i:t1y 9P5,a lumn lVeaslsl eoyt (hIevrewy,i s1e9 5n9o:t5e0d)6:) ;S t6.1m9i. 4N9 aL:5a9k)e;  BGuennneevlla;  (OSchaelra;m aDna,v 1e9n3p7o:r1t; 0H8i)l;l sOblodr oTougwhn ; RiWveelra Sktaa (teM oPoarrek,;1 mi. NE Punta Gorda (Frye, 1948:182); Miami (Moore, 1949b:50).Lasiurus intermedius insularis, new subspeciesHolotype.—Adult female, preserved in alcohol but having skullremoved, formerly in the Poey Museum, University of Havana, nowNo. 81666, Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, fromCienfuegos, Las Villas Province, Cuba; obtained on January 23,1948, by D. Gonzáles Muñoz.Geographic distribution.—Known only from the island of Cuba (seeFig. 2).Diagnosis.—Large throughout (see measurements); sagittal crestenormously developed, especially posteriorly (height abovebraincase averaging 1.7 mm. in 4 specimens); interorbital regionnarrow; M3 narrow; mesostyle of M1 and M2 and 2nd commissureand cingulum of M3 small; pelage yellowish to reddish-brown.Comparisons.—From Lasiurus intermedius intermedius of theadjacent mainland of México, L. i. insularis differs as follows: Larger,both externally and cranially; sagittal crest relatively higher,especially posteriorly; interorbital region relatively narrower; palatelonger posterior to tooth-rows; teeth distinctly larger throughoutexcept M3, which is relatively (frequently actually) narrower,averaging 66.1 (62.5-71.0) per cent width of M2 in insularis ratherthan 74.1 (66.6-79.3) per cent in 10 intermedius from Brownsville,Texas; mesostyle of M1 and M2 relatively smaller as are secondcommissure and cingulum of M3; coloration of No. 254714 USNMresembling that of L. i. intermedius, but coloration of three specimens,preserved in alcohol, averaging somewhat darker (more reddish-brown) than in intermedius.
FIG. 2. Geographic distribution of the three subspecies of Lasiurus intermedius.1. L. i.2. L. i.3. L. i.floridanusintermediusinsularisBlack dots represent localities of capture of specimens examined.Hollow circles represent localities of capture of other specimensrecorded in the literature but not examined by us (Hall and Jones).From Lasiurus intermedius floridanus of the adjacent Floridanmainland, L. i. insularis differs in many of the same ways that it differsfrom L. i. intermedius, except that the differences are even moretrenchant because floridanus is smaller than intermedius. Indeed, thedifference in size between floridanus and insularis is approximatelythe same as between Lasiurus borealis and Lasiurus cinereus.Measurements.—External measurements (all taken from specimenspreserved in alcohol) of the holotype, followed by those of two otherfemales, one from Laguna La Deseada, San Cristóbal, Pinar del RíoProvince, and the other from Bayate, Guantánamo, Oriente Province,are, respectively: Total length, 164, 161, 150; length of tail-vertebrae,68, 76, 77; length of hind foot, 12, 12, 13; length of ear from notch, 20,17, 19; length of forearm, 61.2, 62.6, 61.8. The length of forearm of astudy skin from San Germán (that otherwise lacks externalmeasurements) having wings spread is approximately 55.4. Forcranial measurements see Table 1.Remarks.—Four of the five specimens on which the name L. i. insularis isbased differ to such a degree from mainland populations of the species L.intermedius that specific rather than subspecific recognition for the Cubanbat might seem warranted. It is because of the fifth specimen (USNM254714) that we accord subspecific rank to insularis. It is smaller than theother Cuban specimens and except for longer condylocanine length, longermandibular tooth-rows, narrower interorbital region, and heavier dentition isindistinguishable in measurements from the largest specimens of L. i.intermedius from the mainland. In addition, it appears not to have theenormously developed sagittal crest of the other specimens of insularisalthough posteriorly the dorsal part of the skull (where the crest is mostprominent) is missing. USNM 254714 agrees with the other Cubanspecimens in having the mesostyle of M1 and M2 somewhat reduced andin having a small M3 on which the cingulum and second commissure arepoorly developed, and this specimen is regarded as representative of thelower size limits of the Cuban population.
The skull from San Bias was found in an owl pellet (see de Beaufort,1934:316).Records of occurrence.—Specimens examined, 5, all from Cuba, asfollows: Pinar del Río Prov.: Laguna La Deseada, San Cristóbal, 1(Poey Museum). Las Villas Prov.: Cienfuegos, 1 (KU, the holotype).Camaguey Prov.: San Bias, 1 (Amsterdam Zoological Museum).Oriente Prov.: San Germán, 1 (USNM); Bayate, Guantánamo, 1(Ramsdem Museum, Univ. Oriente).Table 1.—Cranial Measurements (in Millimeters) of Three Subspecies ofLasiurus intermediusBreadth  foCnautamlobgeur e(broesttwrueme n numorb er oapnetneirniogrs  Leonfg th of ofmandibularspecimensCondylocanineZygomaticInterorbitalAlveolarintraorbitalMastoidtooth-row averagedMuseumSexLocalitylengthbreadthbreadthlengthcanals)breadth(i-m3)Lasiurus intermedius floridanus1Aucilla River,Ave. 10UFFlorida17.612.85.06.27.210.028.0 Min.17.012.64.76.06.99.67.8  Max.18.213.05.36.47.510.28.2             notaB    1788LSURouge, La.18.75.16.77.78.8  notaB    1820LSURouge, La.18.56.77.210.18.7  notaB    1840LSURouge, La.18.012.75.06.47.19.98.0  notaB    6790LSURouge, La.18.012.84.96.57.29.98.2  7 mi. SEnotaB    3681LSURouge, La.17.712.65.06.47.09.88.2  3Grand Lake,    6791LSULa.17.912.64.96.37.29.98.3             Houston,  84218MVZTexas.19.113.85.16.67.510.38.7  4 mi. NHuffman,      769TAMCTexas18.813.45.06.77.78.7  Eagle Lake,    3805TAMCTexas.18.112.94.86.67.29.88.5  Lasiurus intermedius intermediusMatamoros,    1437USNM?Tamaulipas18.913.65.16.67.510.78.9  Matamoros,    1439USNM?Tamaulipas19.014.05.36.67.810.78.8             Brownsville,Ave. 12USNM4?5Texas18.7613.865.26.67.710.468.7 Min.18.113.04.96.47.410.08.4  Max.19.214.75.57.08.211.19.0             7Sierra de  55317KUTamaulipas18.213.25.56.27.610.38.0  8Sierra de  55322KUTamaulipas18.413.75.26.57.410.68.4  8Sierra de  55324KUTamaulipas18.313.25.16.57.610.38.1             Catemaco,  67549KUVeracruz19.013.55.06.57.510.28.8  Catemaco,  67550KUVeracruz19.013.54.76.47.610.38.7  Lasiurus intermedius insularis (all from Cuba)Cave near    2395AZM?San Bias21.415.14.87.38.411.99.5+San Germán,254714USNMOriente19.514.14.86.97.811.09.3  Cienfuegos,  81666KULas Villas20.515.24.67.28.211.99.6             naSPoeyCristóbal, Mus.Pinar del Río21.515.64.77.58.91.89.7  RamsdemBayate,OrienteGuantánamo, Univ.Oriente20.914.84.67.38.411.29.7   1 "Rt. 98" and "15 mi. S Waukenna" both in Jefferson Co.