Origin and Nature of Emotions

Origin and Nature of Emotions

-

English
52 Pages
Read
Download
Downloading requires you to have access to the YouScribe library
Learn all about the services we offer

Description

**The Project Gutenberg Etext of Origin and Nature of Emotions**Copyright laws are changing all over the world, be sure to check the copyright laws for your country before posting thesefiles!!Please take a look at the important information in this header. We encourage you to keep this file on your own disk,keeping an electronic path open for the next readers. Do not remove this.**Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts****Etexts Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971***These Etexts Prepared By Hundreds of Volunteers and Donations*Information on contacting Project Gutenberg to get Etexts, and further information is included below. We need yourdonations.The Origin and Nature of Emotionsby George W. CrileMarch, 1998 [Etext #1233]**The Project Gutenberg Etext of Origin and Nature of Emotions********This file should be named oanoe10.txt or oanoe10.zip******Corrected EDITIONS of our etexts get a new NUMBER, oanoe11.txtVERSIONS based on separate sources get new LETTER, oanoe10a.txtProject Gutenberg Etexts are usually created from multiple editions, all of which are in the Public Domain in the UnitedStates, unless a copyright notice is included. Therefore, we do NOT keep these books in compliance with any particularpaper edition, usually otherwise.We are now trying to release all our books one month in advance of the official release dates, for time for better editing.Please note: neither this list nor its contents are ...

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 08 December 2010
Reads 42
Language English
Report a problem
**The ProjectG tuneebgrE ettxf  oigOr ain Nndrutafo eomE noits**llownt a by ablet  obielxeetht eel Me-giivUnn loMC( .walenraC =Ue to "Project Gusns ohlu debm daard tae dex ctdubnet/gre"UMCna :oitanod llA
Project Gutenberg Etexts are usually created from multiple editions, all of which are in the Public Domain in the United States, unless a copyright notice is included. Therefore, we do NOT keep these books in compliance with any particular paper edition, usually otherwise.
We are now trying to release all our books one month in advance of the official release dates, for time for better editing. Please note: neither this list nor its contents are final till midnight of the last day of the month of any such announcement. The official release date of all Project Gutenberg Etexts is at Midnight, Central Time, of the last day of the stated month. A preliminary version may often be posted for suggestion, comment and editing by those who wish to do so. To be sure you have an up to date first edition [xxxxx10x.xxx] please check file sizes in the first week of the next month. Since our ftp program has a bug in it that scrambles the date [tried to fix and failed] a look at the file size will have to do, but we will try to see a new copy has at least one byte more or less.
The Origin and Nature of Emotions by George W. Crile March, 1998 [Etext #1233]
**The Project Gutenberg Etext of Origin and Nature of Emotions** ******This file should be named oanoe10.txt or oanoe10.zip****** Corrected EDITIONS of our etexts get a new NUMBER, oanoe11.txt VERSIONS based on separate sources get new LETTER, oanoe10a.txt
We need your donations more than ever!
Information about Project Gutenberg (one page) We produce about two million dollars for each hour we work. The fifty hours is one conservative estimate for how long it we take to get any etext selected, entered, proofread, edited, copyright searched and analyzed, the copyright letters written, etc. This projected audience is one hundred million readers. If our value per text is nominally estimated at one dollar then we produce $2 million dollars per hour this year as we release thirty-two text files per month, or 384 more Etexts in 1998 for a total of 1500+ If these reach just 10% of the computerized population, then the total should reach over 150 billion Etexts given away. The Goal of Project Gutenberg is to Give Away One Trillion Etext Files by the December 31, 2001. [10,000 x 100,000,000=Trillion] This is ten thousand titles each to one hundred million readers, which is only 10% of the present number of computer users. 2001 should have at least twice as many computer users as that, so it will require us reaching less than 5% of the users in 2001.
**Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts** **Etexts Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971** *These Etexts Prepared By Hundreds of Volunteers and Donations* Information on contacting Project Gutenberg to get Etexts, and further information is included below. We need your donations.
Copyright laws are changing all over the world, be sure to check the copyright laws for your country before posting these files!! Please take a look at the important information in this header. We encourage you to keep this file on your own disk, keeping an electronic path open for the next readers. Do not remove this.
gernbr Foesthsier).ty rehttamna eto dase mailers, plece tuGett :orPjo
***START**THE SMALL PRINT!**FOR PUBLIC DOMAIN ETEXTS**START*** Why is this "Small Print!" statement here? You know: lawyers. They tell us you might sue us if there is something wrong with your copy of this etext, even if you got it for free from someone other than us, and even if what's wrong is not our fault. So, among other things, this "Small Print!" statement disclaims most of our liability to you. It also tells you how you can distribute copies of this etext if you want to. *BEFORE!* YOU USE OR READ THIS ETEXT By using or reading any part of this PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm etext, you indicate that you understand, agree to and accept this "Small Print!" statement. If you do not, you can receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for this etext by sending a request within 30 days of receiving it to the person you got it from. If you received this etext on a physical medium (such as a disk), you must return it with your request. ABOUT PROJECT GUTENBERG-TM ETEXTS This PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm etext, like most PROJECT GUTENBERG- tm etexts, is a "public domain" work distributed by Professor Michael S. Hart through the Project Gutenberg Association at Carnegie-Mellon University (the "Project"). Among other things, this means that no one owns a United States copyright on or for this work, so the Project (and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without permission and without paying copyright royalties. Special rules, set forth below, apply if you wish to copy and distribute this etext under the Project's "PROJECT GUTENBERG" trademark. To create these etexts, the Project expends considerable efforts to identify, transcribe and proofread public domain works. Despite these efforts, the Project's etexts and any medium they may be on may contain "Defects". Among other things, Defects may take the form of incomplete, inaccurate or corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other intellectual property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or other etext medium, a computer virus, or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by your equipment. LIMITED WARRANTY; DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES But for the "Right of Replacement or Refund" described below, [1] the Project (and any other party you may receive this etext from as a PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm etext) disclaims all liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal fees, and [2] YOU HAVE NO REMEDIES FOR NEGLIGENCE OR UNDER STRICT LIABILITY, OR FOR BREACH OF WARRANTY OR CONTRACT, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF YOU GIVE NOTICE OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. If you discover a Defect in this etext within 90 days of receiving it, you can receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending an explanatory note within that time to the person you received it from. If you received it on a physical medium, you must return it with your note, and such person may choose to alternatively give you a replacement copy. If you received it electronically, such person may choose to alternatively give you a second opportunity to receive it electronically. THIS ETEXT IS OTHERWISEPROVIDED TO YOU "AS-IS". NO OTHER WARRANTIES OFANYKIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AREMADETO YOU AS TO THE ETEXT OR ANY MEDIUM IT MAY BE ON, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Some states do not allow disclaimers of implied warranties or the exclusion or limitation of consequential damages, so the above disclaimers and exclusions may not apply to you, and you may have other legal rights. INDEMNITY You will indemnify and hold the Project, its directors, officers, members and agents harmless from all liability, cost and expense, including legal fees, that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following that you do or cause: [1] distribution of this etext, [2] alteration, modification, or addition to the etext, or [3] any Defect. DISTRIBUTION UNDER "PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm" You may distribute copies of this etext electronically, or by disk, book or any other medium if you either delete this "Small Print!" and all other references to Project Gutenberg, or:
 O. P.prP raog(om emr oy fah ua evTF nMCImail).******Ivr,eA TTAMLIo  rt,neit Bsepuom CI(liame ,tenretnforms inn byatioesdnt  ot ihy uorp drefe eW>luowoxobom.cha <@prtS  .aHtrM:ciahleDirectorecutive xE ruo yrt sliafl aiemr heotl aleh n28W5 L16,nI paigCham2782Box [seg tusggse tugt for more infor hguete/69tx ro  ecdxttert/aleicl@gooyru dtenic etexext/throt90 gol ude.nona :nipas ouym: rdwosse]ftp ui. . .typsc.oiucurahcvi.edo, OT N uacrssec dnkciliop a tnutenct Grojehe P:sM[iheva crebgreFasle p),oratult ot yltcerid PTgaP )segm r[ teg otf teesil. . et.sin bamitno ]id rt[ osee files] get oil a rofob fo tsd ans okW NET GEz pif rose ]f liINDEGET .GUTX?00fo* ner ETMGUT G**.sofnIelswrettgeneral GUT for oi nna dniofmrtal galeg ernbteGueerhT( **rosivdaaredprepion rmatce trPjoht eb  y
e, alter or modiyft ehe ettxo  rres irqu test ha uoyn odr tovome it.s ofng o Amot ihhtret ihgn,s[y nl O1]axe evigeipoc tcanyr ,ocadlb eib,mark-upmpressed sihxeteubirt etnehiea rint ac m,ri ewev yoh uamdistsh, u wif yotnirp llams"sihtYo. ntmeteta s!"otub ylnl os gnoexrtsot waft, rec seisgno  ryhepion by word pro-morf gnisrevnoc or fny altsurem ,mi f roidgncnul pro, ortaryprie bedthy insendtenahtoht to s rehharacterontain c* on*tc na dodse, leabadrey rlealc si ,deyalpsidhen t, wetexThe *[ ]RE:*IEHTsa* I foASCIain l plDCCI nBEroi mr( exethe tofy op canigiro sti ni t2] Honor form).[txr fenut ehe eteqr vauir  oheoteirpyrattnelorp " mShtsirPnila lstatt!" t.[3emener dna dnemecalpisovprt f  onsiot ehP orejtco  f20% of the net paP ] a ydartramelik nscefee toe  ot esu ydaerlauyod hoet mhe tngu istadecllu eacerivou dts yrofistifon ,evirorp n'dodet f  Iu yo eatex.sppilaclbe your acalculatnbteGut soAsg ert elbayacejorP"oalti Royre pes alaytr youd.ei  sda0  fysloolngwi "ythtiwt ni6 eh-Mellon Universiictaoi/naCnrgeeif  oe thaue orthuohtt hgkrowla ,, asteriilde (~)dnu dnreks( )*a ctraha c_) (nelitdesu eb yam srectua punnveyo co dybneedi tnitnoeht tua ,rohdna dd aioitl naarchcaetsrm yab  esued to indicate htxetrepyO ;sknilhe T*]R[ mxtte e eeryab  yocdalited nverhe rby tp alniA sn eniot no expeeader atoftnb mriuqeelavICCDr  oIISCEB, ht eya ssilptad m thograe pry thatsni rof ,esac he tiss (at exetord processors);cn,ew ti homtsw , de aoreegro  t[RO Y ]*p uoivorest requo adat np orlaoso  nivedexr  oee ae,nspelanoitidf ,tsoc 
THE ORIGIN AND NATURE of the EMOTIONS Miscellaneous Papers BY GEORGEW. CRILE, M.D. PROFESSOR OFSURGERY, SCHOOL OFMEDICINE, WESTERN RESERVEUNIVERSITYVISITINGSURGEON TO THELAKESIDEHOSPITAL, CLEVELAND EDITED BYAMYF. ROWLAND, B. S.
D*EN3*ti, eyon minnsiotubirtnoc stpeccoftwCR ss, Ohinem caingncsnaem ,ON D H'TIFN OU YYENOEVE ES OM DNefully aect grathT erPjoVA EOT ?p tnelav)cidoirel uann auieqr (oOY UI  F*TT W*NA ret taxWHATurn.aper( erw rolereac edah  yte pouotp eraper )oyruegally required EHS DNT*."E*isytFOR NT!  PRIMALLTE NIAMOD CILBUP.9294..0er*VTSEX oP"orej eapdit berg Assct GutenC / enraaiconoitUnonerive-gillMey oteverort hersnortfoc oi nbitun cau yoofk inth yenoM .b dluohsare, public domanie ettx,sr yola ftye repycoghriil tsnec ,se dna
PREFACE
IN response to numerous requests I have brought together into this volume eight papers which may serve as a supplement to the volumes previously published[*] and as a preface to monographs now in preparation.
[*] Surgical Shock, 1899; Surgery of the Respiratory System, 1899; Problems Relating to Surgical Operations, 1901; Blood Pressure in Surgery, 1903; Hemorrhage and Transfusion, 1909; Anemia and Resuscitation, 1914; and Anoci-association, 1914 (with Dr. W. E. Lower).
In the first of these addresses, the Ether Day Address, delivered at the Massachusetts General Hospital in October, 1910, I first enunciated the Kinetic Theory of Shock, the key to which was found in laboratory researches and in a study of Darwin's "Expression of the Emotions in Man and in Animals," whereby the phylogenetic origin of the emotions was made manifest and the pathologic identity of surgical and emotional shock was established. Since 1910 my associates and I have continued our researches through— (a) Histologic studies of all the organs and tissues of the body; (b) Estimation of the H-ion concentration of the blood in the emotions of anger and fear and after the application of many other forms of stimuli; (c) Functional tests of the adrenals, and (d) Clinical observations. It would seem that if the striking changes produced by fear and anger and by physical trauma in the master organ of the body— the brain—were due to WORK, then we should expect to find corresponding histologic changes in other organs of the body as well. We therefore examined every organ and tissue of the bodies of animals which had been subjected to intense fear and anger and to infection and to the action of foreign proteins, some animals being killed immediately; some several hours after the immediate effects of the stimuli had passed; some after seances of strong emotion had been repeated several times during a week or longer. The examination of all the tissues and organs of these animals showed changes in three organs only, and with few exceptions in all three of these organs—the brain, the adrenals, and the liver. The extent of these changes is well shown by the photomicrographs which illustrate the paper on "The Kinetic System" which is included in this volume. This paper describes many experiments which show that the brain, the adrenal, and the liver play together constantly and that no one of these organs—as far at least as is indicated by the histologic studies—can act without the co-operation of the other two. Another striking fact which has been experimentally established is that the deterioration of these three organs caused by emotion, by exertion, and by other causes is largely counteracted, if not exclusively, during sleep. If animals exhausted by the continued application of a stimulus are allowed complete rest for a certain number of hours,*without sleep, the characteristic histologic appearance of exhaustion in the brain, adrenals, and liver is not altered notably, whereas in animals allowed to sleep for the same number of hours the histologic changes in these organs are lessened— in some cases obliterated even. This significant phenomenon and its relation will be dealt with in a later monograph. Many of the arguments and illustrations by which the primary premises were established are repeated—a few in all— many in more than one of these addresses. It will be observed, however, that the APPLICATION of these premises varies, and that their SIGNIFICANCE broadens progressively. In the Ether Day Address the phylogenetic key supplied by Darwin was utilized to formulate the principle that the organism reacts as a unit to the stimuli of physical injury, of emotion, of infection, etc. To the study of these reactions (transformations of energy) the epoch-making work of Sherrington, "The Integrative Action of the Nervous System," gave an added key by which the dominating role of the brain was determined. Later the original work of Cannon on the adrenal glands gave facts, and an experimental method by which Darwin's phylogenetic theory of the emotions was further elaborated in other papers, especially in the one entitled "Phylogenetic Association in Relation to the Emotions," read before The American Philosophical Society in April, 1911. GEORGE W. CRILE. CLEVELAND, OHIO,February, 1915.
CONTENTS PAGE PHYLOGENETIC ASSOCIATION IN RELATION TO CERTAIN MEDICAL PROBLEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 PHYLOGENETIC ASSOCIATION IN RELATION TO THEEMOTIONS . . . . 55 PAIN, LAUGHTER, AND CRYING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 THERELATION BETWEEN THEPHYSICAL STATEOFTHEBRAIN-CELLS AND BRAIN FUNCTIONS-EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL . . . .111 A MECHANISTIC VIEW OFPSYCHOLOGY. . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 A MECHANISTIC THEORYOFDISEASE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157 THEKINETIC SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173