Public School Domestic Science
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Public School Domestic Science


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Project Gutenberg's Public School Domestic Science, by Mrs. J. Hoodless This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: Public School Domestic Science Author: Mrs. J. Hoodless Release Date: April 1, 2006 [EBook #18097] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK PUBLIC SCHOOL DOMESTIC SCIENCE *** Produced by Suzanne Lybarger and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This file was produced from images generously made available by The Internet Archive/Canadian Libraries) PUBLIC SCHOOL DOMESTIC SCIENCE BY MRS. J. HOODLESS, PRESIDENT SCHOOL OF DOMESTIC SCIENCE, HAMILTON. This Book may be used as a Text-Book in any High or Public School, if so ordered by a resolution of the Trustees. TORONTO: THE COPP, CLARK COMPANY LIMITED, , 1898. Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousand eight hundred and ninety-eight, by THE C , C OPP LARK C ANY, L OMP IMITED , Toronto, Ontario, in the Office of the Minister of Agriculture. A YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER. "I have come to the conclusion that more than half the disease which embitters the latter half of life is due to avoidable errors in diet, and that more mischief in the form of actual disease, of impaired vigour, and of shortened life, accrues to civilized man in England and throughout Central Europe from erroneous habits of eating than from the habitual use of alcoholic drink, considerable as I know that evil to be."—Sir Henry Thompson. [iii] "Knowledge which subserves self-preservation by preventing loss of health is of primary importance. We do not contend that possession of such knowledge would by any means wholly remedy the evil. But we do contend that the right knowledge impressed in the right way would effect much; and we further contend that as the laws of health must be recognized before they can be fully conformed to, the imparting of such knowledge must precede a more rational living."—Herbert Spencer. "Cooking means the knowledge of Medea and Circe, and of Calypso and Helen, and of Rebekah, and of the Queen of Sheba. It means the knowledge of all fruits, and herbs, and balms, and spices, and of all that is healing and sweet in fields and groves, and savory in meats; it means carefulness, and inventiveness, and watchfulness, and willingness, and readiness of appliance; it means much tasting and no wasting; it means English thoroughness, and French art, and Arabian hospitality; it means, in fine, that you are to be perfect and always 'ladies'—'loaf-givers.'"—Ruskin. PREFACE. An eminent authority[1] says: "Up to the age of sixteen even a lucid statement of principles is received by all but a few pupils as dogma. They do not and cannot in any adequate sense realize the reasoning process by which scientific conclusions are reached. They are taught not [v] only facts but classifications and laws, and causes in relation to their effect. These are not, in the majority of cases, elaborated by the pupil. The teaching of them accordingly degenerates into a statement of facts, and the learning of them into an act of memory." To obviate this condition, or to at least neutralize its effects somewhat, is one of the principal reasons for introducing Domestic Science into the Public School curriculum; a science which relates so closely to the daily life that it cannot be left to an act of memory; where cause and effect are so palpable that the pupil may readily arrive at an individual conclusion. The aim of this text-book is to assist the pupil in acquiring a knowledge of the fundamental principles of correct living, to co-ordinate the regular school studies so as to make a practical use of knowledge already acquired. Arithmetic plays an important part in the arranging of weights and measures, in the study of the analysis and relative value of various kinds of food, in estimating the cost of manufactured products in proportion to their market value, in the purchase of food material, etc. History and geography are closely allied to the study of the diet and customs of the different countries, with their variety of climate and products. Physiology and temperance principles permeate the whole course of study. In addition to these are the direct lessons, provided by the practice work, in neatness, promptness and cleanliness. It will therefore be necessary to have a wide general knowledge before entering upon a course in Domestic Science. Owing to the limited time allowed for this course in the Public Schools, it will be impossible to teach more than a few of the first principles governing each department of the work, viz., a knowledge of the constituent parts of the human body; the classification of food and the relation of each class to the sustenance and repair of the body; simple recipes illustrating the most wholesome and economical methods of preparing the various kinds of food; the science of nutrition, economy and hygiene; general hints on household management, laundry work, and care of the sick. To enter more fully into the chemistry of food, bacteriology, etc., would tend to cause confusion in the mind of the average school girl, and possibly create a distaste for knowledge containing so much abstract matter. This book is not a teacher's manual, nor is it intended to take the place of the teacher in any way. The normal training prescribed for teachers will enable them to supplement the information contained herein, by a much more general and comprehensive treatment of the various questions, than would be possible or judicious in a primary text-book. It has been found difficult for pupils to copy the recipes given with each lesson, or to write out the instructions carefully without infringing upon the time which should be devoted to practice work.[2] In order to meet this difficulty, also to enable the pupil to work at home under the same rules which govern the class work, simple recipes are given, beginning with a class requiring a knowledge of heat and its effect, going on to those requiring hand dexterity, before attempting the more difficult subjects. After the pupils have acquired a knowledge of the "why and wherefore" of the different processes required in cooking, they will have little difficulty in following the more elaborate recipes given in the numberless cook-books provided for household use. Once the art—and it is a fine art—of cookery is mastered, it becomes not only a pleasant occupation but provides excellent mental exercise, thereby preventing the reaction which frequently follows school life. The tables given are to be used for reference, and not to be memorized by the pupil. The writer is greatly indebted to Prof. Atwater for his kindly interest and assistance in providing much valuable information, which in some instances is given verbatim; also to Dr. Gilman Thompson for permission to give extracts from his valuable book, "Practical Dietetics"; to Prof. Kinne, Columbia University (Domestic Science Dept.), for review and suggestions; to Miss Watson, Principal Hamilton School of Domestic Science, for practical hints and schedule for school work. The Boston Cook Book (with Normal Instruction), by Mrs. M.J. Lincoln; and the Chemistry of Cooking and Cleaning, by Ellen H. Richards (Prof. of Sanitary Science, Boston Institute of Technology), and Miss Talbot, are recommended to students who desire further information on practical household matters. The publications of the U.S. Experiment Stations, by Prof. Atwater and other eminent chemists, contain much valuable information. [vi] [vii] [viii] To the school-girls, and future housekeepers of Ontario, this book is respectfully dedicated. ADELAIDE HOODLESS. "EASTCOURT," Hamilton, June, 1898. FOOTNOTES: [1] S.S. Laurie, A.M., LL.D., Prof. of the Institutes and History of Education, Edinburgh University. [2] Where time is allowed, much benefit may be derived from writing notes, as a study in composition, spelling, etc. SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHER. Owing to the limitations of a text-book, it will be necessary for the teacher to enter very carefully into all the details of the various questions; to explain the underlying principles so thoroughly that "the why and the wherefore" of every action in the preparation of food will be clearly understood. She should endeavor to impress upon the pupils the value of thoroughly understanding the relation of food to the body. In practice lessons frequent reference should be made to the analysis of the various foods, as given in the tables and charts. The first practice lesson should be given on the making and care of a fire, regulating dampers, cleaning stove, etc. The pupils should then be taught the name and place of all the utensils. Special attention should be given to the explanation of weights and measures; the table of abbreviations should be memorized. Arrange the class work so that each pupil may in alternation share the duties of both kitchen work and cooking. Personal cleanliness must be insisted upon. Special attention should be given to the hands and nails. The hair should be carefully pinned back or confined in some way, and covered by a cap. A large clean apron and a holder should be worn while at work. Never allow the pupils to use a handkerchief or their aprons in place of a holder. Untidy habits must not be allowed in the classroom. Set an example of perfect order and neatness, and insist upon pupils following that example. Teach the pupils that cooking may be done without soiling either hands or clothes. The pupils should do all the work of the class-room, except scrubbing the floor. Everything must be left in perfect order at the close of each lesson. Frequent reviews are absolutely necessary. Urge the pupils to think for themselves, and not to rely upon the text-book. Where pupils are backward, or have not had previous practice in kitchen work, give special attention to their manner of holding a knife or spoon in preparing articles for use, and in beating or stirring mixtures. Encourage deftness and light handling of kitchen ware. Insist upon promptness and keeping within the time limit, both in preparing the food and in the cooking. Owing to the variety of climate and markets, it would be impossible to arrange the lessons in the text-book in regular order. A few sample menus are given at the back of the book, but each teacher must be governed by circumstances in arranging the lessons for her class. For instance, recipes without eggs should be given in mid-winter, when eggs are dear. Fruits and vegetables must be given in season. The recipes given in the text-book are suitable for class work; in some cases it may be necessary to divide them, as the quantities given are intended for home practice. The teacher should consider herself at liberty to substitute any recipe which she may consider valuable. The digestibility of food, the effect of stimulants—especially of tea and coffee, the value of fresh air, etc., should be carefully impressed upon the pupil. The teacher must keep the object of this instruction constantly before her: (1) to co-ordinate [ix] [x] other school studies, such as arithmetic, history, geography, physiology and temperance; (2) to develop the mental in conjunction with the manual powers of the children; (3) to enable pupils to understand the reason for doing certain things in a certain way; in other words, to work with an intelligent conception of the value, both physically and hygienically, of knowing how the daily duties should be performed. In order that material may not be needlessly destroyed, each class of food should be introduced by an experimental lesson. For instance, before giving a lesson in the preparation of starches, each pupil should be given an opportunity to learn how to mix and stir the mixture over the fire, so as to prevent it from burning or becoming lumpy; this may be done by using water and common laundry starch, or flour. The same test applies to sauces, etc. A few cheap apples and potatoes may be used in learning to pare these articles. The effect of cold and hot water on albumen and tissues may be illustrated by the cheaper pieces of meat. Although the more scientific studies are grouped together, it does not follow that they are to be studied in the order given. The teacher must arrange her lessons—from the beginning—so as to include a certain amount of the theory with the practice work. Frequent reference should be made during practice lessons to the various chapters bearing more directly upon the science of cooking, so as to interest the pupil in the theoretical study of the food question. The teacher should insist upon the pupils taking careful notes while she is demonstrating a lesson, so that they may not be entirely dependent upon the text-book, which from its limitations must simply serve as the key-note for further study. Special attention must be given to the chapter on "Digestion," page 58, in the Public School Physiology. This chapter should be studied—especially pages 71-75—in conjunction with "Food Classifications" (Chap. 2); also in dealing with the digestibility of starches, etc. [xi] COMPOSITION OF FOOD MATERIALS—(Atwater ) Nutritive Ingredients, Refuse, and Food Value. Protein Compounds, e.g., lean of meat, white of egg, casein (curd) of milk, and gluten of wheat, make muscle, blood, bone, etc. [xii] Fats, e.g., fat of meat, butter, and oil, Carbohydrates, e.g., starch and sugar, \ serve as fuel to yield heat and muscular / power. * Without bone. PECUNIARY ECONOMY OF FOOD—(Atwater ). Amounts of actually Nutritive Ingredients obtained in different Food Materials for 10 cents. Protein compounds, e.g., lean of meat, white of egg, casein (curd) of milk, and gluten of wheat, make muscle, blood, bone, etc. [xiii] Fats, e.g., fat of meat, butter, and oil, Carbohydrates, e.g., starch and sugar, \ serve as fuel to yield heat and muscular / power. CONTENTS. PAGE. Preface Suggestions to Teachers Composition of Food Materials (Atwater) Pecuniary Economy of Food (Atwater) CHAPTER I. The Relation of Food to the Body CHAPTER II. Food Classification CHAPTER III. Nutrition CHAPTER IV. Food and Economy 12 10 6 1 v ix xii xiii [xv] CHAPTER V. Foods containing Protein or Nitrogenous Matter CHAPTER VI. Fats and Oils CHAPTER VII. Carbohydrate Foods CHAPTER VIII. Fruits CHAPTER IX. Preparing Food RECIPES: Batters, Biscuits and Bread Bread Sauces and Milk Soups Eggs Fruit Vegetables Salads Macaroni Cheese Beverages Soups Fish Meat Poultry Hot Puddings Plain Sauces Pastry Miscellaneous General Hints Suggestions for Young Housekeepers Caring for Invalids General Hints for School Children Suggestions for School Children's Diet Infants' Diet Planning and Serving Meals Consideration of Menus Suggestive Questions Schedule of Lessons for Public School Classes Appendix 60 65 66 69 72 74 80 85 86 87 89 94 96 104 109 115 121 122 126 128 142 150 153 156 170 173 188 191 193 [1] [xvi] 22 34 37 50 54 PUBLIC SCHOOL DOMESTIC SCIENCE CHAPTER I. The Relation of Food to the Body. In order to understand the relation of food to the sustenance and repairing of the body, it will be necessary to learn, first, of what the body is composed, and the corresponding elements contained in the food required to build and keep the body in a healthy condition. The following table gives the approximate analysis of a man weighing 148 pounds:— Oxygen Hydrogen Carbon Nitrogen Phosphorus Calcium Sulphur Chlorine Sodium Iron Potassium Magnesium Silica Fluorine 92.1 pounds. 14.6 31.6 4.6 1.4 2.8 0.24 0.12 0.12 0.02 0.34 0.04 ? 0.02 ——— Total 148.00 pounds. " " " " " " " " " " " " " As food contains all these elements, and as there is constant wearing and repair going on in the body, it will be readily seen how necessary some knowledge of the relation of food to the body is, in order to preserve health. Hydrogen and oxygen combined form water, hence we find from the above calculation that about three-fifths of the body is composed of water. Carbon is a solid: diamonds are nearly pure carbon; "lead" of lead pencils, anthracite coal and coke are impure forms of carbon. Carbon combined with other elements in the body makes about one-fifth of the whole weight. Carbon with oxygen will burn. In this way the carbon taken into the body as food, when combined with the oxygen of the inhaled air, yields heat to keep the body warm, and force —muscular strength—for work. The carbonic acid (or carbon dioxide) is given out through the lungs and skin. In the further study of carbonaceous foods, their relation to the body as fuel will be more clearly understood, as carbon is the most important fuel element. Phosphorus is a solid. According to the table, about one pound six ounces would be found in a body weighing 148 pounds. United with oxygen, phosphorus forms what is known as phosphoric acid; this, with lime, makes phosphate of lime, in which form it is found in the bones and teeth; it is found also in the brain and nerves, flesh and blood. Hydrogen is a gas, and like carbon unites with the oxygen of the inhaled air in the body, thus serving as fuel. The water produced is given off in the respiration through the lungs and as perspiration through the skin.[3] Calcium is a metal. The table given allows three pounds of calcium; united with oxygen, calcium forms lime. This with phosphoric acid makes phosphate of lime, the basis of the bones and teeth, in which nearly all the calcium of the body is found. The elements which bear no direct relation to the force production of the body, but which enter [2] [3] into tissue formation, are chlorine, sulphur, iron, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium. Bone tissue contains about 50 per cent. of lime phosphate, hence the need of this substance in the food of a growing infant, in order that the bones may become firm and strong. Lack of iron salts in the food impoverishes the coloring matter of the red blood corpuscles on which they depend for their power of carrying oxygen to the tissues; anæmia and other disorders of deficient oxidation result. The lack of sufficient potash salts is a factor in producing scurvy, a condition aggravated by the use of common salt. A diet of salt meat and starches may cause it, with absence of fresh fruit and vegetables. Such illustrations show the need of a wellbalanced diet. In order to understand the value of the various classes of food and their relation to the body as force producers, tissue builders, etc., the following table may prove helpful:— C.H. Combustibles Nitrogen. Calculated as Carbon Beef, uncooked Roast beef Calf's liver Foie-gras Sheep's kidneys Skate Cod, salted Herring, salted Herring, fresh Whiting Mackerel Sole Salmon Carp Oysters Lobster, uncooked Eggs Milk (cows') Cheese (Brie) Cheese (Gruyere) Cheese (Roquefort) Chocolate Wheat (hard Southern, variable average) Wheat (soft Southern, variable average) Flour, white (Paris) Rye flour Winter barley Maize 3.00 3.53 3.09 2.12 2.66 3.83 5.02 3.11 1.83 2.41 3.74 1.91 2.09 3.49 2.13 2.93 1.90 0.66 2.93 5.00 4.21 1.52 3.00 1.81 1.64 1.75 1.90 1.70 11.00 17.76 15.68 65.58 12.13 12.25 16.00 23.00 21.00 9.00 19.26 12.25 16.00 12.10 7.18 10.96 13.50 8.00 35.00 38.00 44.44 58.00 41.00 39.00 38.50 41.00 40.00 44.00 [4]