Putnam
468 Pages
English

Putnam's Word Book

-

Downloading requires you to have access to the YouScribe library
Learn all about the services we offer

Description

The Project Gutenberg EBook of Putnam's Word Book, by Louis A. Flemming This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: Putnam's Word Book Author: Louis A. Flemming Release Date: August 15, 2004 [EBook #13188] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK PUTNAM'S WORD BOOK *** Produced by the Distributed Proofreaders. PUTNAM'S WORD BOOK A PRACTICAL AID IN EXPRESSING IDEAS THROUGH THE USE OF AN EXACT AND VARIED VOCABULARY BY LOUIS A. FLEMMING Copyright, 1913 BY G. P. Putnam's Sons (Under the title Synonyms, Antonyms, and Associated Words) PREFACE The purpose of this book, as conceived by the author, is not to attempt to create or to influence usage by pointing out which words should or should not be used, nor to explain the meaning of terms, but simply to provide in a form convenient for reference and study the words that can be used, leaving it to those who consult its pages to determine for themselves, with the aid of a dictionary if necessary, which words supply the information they are looking for or express most accurately the thoughts in their minds. The questions, therefore, that were constantly in the author's mind while he was preparing the manuscript were not, is this word used? nor should it be used?

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 08 December 2010
Reads 41
Language English
Document size 2 MB

Exrait

The Project Gutenberg EBook of Putnam's Word Book, by Louis A. Flemming
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net
Title: Putnam's Word Book
Author: Louis A. Flemming
Release Date: August 15, 2004 [EBook #13188]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK PUTNAM'S WORD BOOK ***
Produced by the Distributed Proofreaders.
PUTNAM'S WORD BOOK
A PRACTICAL AID IN EXPRESSING IDEAS THROUGH THE USE OF AN EXACT AND VARIED VOCABULARY
BY
LOUIS A. FLEMMING
Copyright, 1913
BY
G. P. Putnam's Sons
(Under the title Synonyms, Antonyms, and Associated Words)
PREFACE
The purpose of this book, as conceived by the author, is not to attempt to create or to influence usage by pointing out which words
should or should not be used, nor to explain the meaning of terms, but simply to provide in a form convenient for reference and study
the words that can be used, leaving it to those who consult its pages to determine for themselves, with the aid of a dictionary if
necessary, which words supply the information they are looking for or express most accurately the thoughts in their minds. The
questions, therefore, that were constantly in the author's mind while he was preparing the manuscript were not, is this word used? nor
should it be used? but is it a word that some one may want to know as a matter of information or to use in giving expression to some
thought? When the word in question seemed to be one that would be of service it was given a place in the collection to which it
belongs. Believing the book would be consulted by students and workers in special fields, the author incorporated into it many words,
including some technical terms, that might, in the case of a work of more restricted usefulness, have been omitted.
It happens frequently that the word which one thinks of first does not express the exact shade of thought one desires to express and
some other word of similar meaning is necessary. For this reason there is, for those who want to write and speak with precision and
effectiveness, an important use for collections of synonyms. Throughout this book synonyms means words that are similar in meaning
or which express the same general idea with shades of difference. Those who use this work should bear in mind that all words that are
classified as synonyms cannot be used interchangeably; that there are differences in meaning between them; and that, before using
an unfamiliar word, they should ascertain its meaning and usage in a dictionary. Antonyms are words that are opposed to another
word in meaning. Such words are helpful when it is desired to express contrasted or conflicting ideas or thoughts. In many instances,
however, a list of antonyms is unnecessary. For example, no antonyms of good are found after the synonyms of that word because one
thinks of bad instantly when considering the opposite of good; and under bad numerous synonyms, which are also the antonyms of
good, are found.
It is not an infrequent occurrence for a word to be required that is neither a synonym nor an antonym of a familiar term but merely
associated with it in meaning and usage. Such a word cannot when unknown or momentarily forgotten be easily found in a dictionary.
In this volume collections of such words are found after the general terms with which they are associated. This feature of the book willbe of service as a memory-help when a word cannot be recalled and also, which is perhaps of greater importance, by enabling writers
and students to learn of words objectively or through their associations.
By turning to the word that is thought of first or to the word with which the term that is wanted is associated and reading the collections
there presented, any word that may be desired will be found.
The author spared no effort to make his work as complete as possible; and he believes that it will be appreciated for its
comprehensiveness, modernity, and practical usefulness. He will be pleased to receive from those who use his book any suggestions
relative to changes, corrections, or additions that might make the work more useful. He may be addressed in care of the publishers.
L. A. P.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS BOOK
a. stands for adjective.
adv. " " adverb.
Amer. Ind. " " American Indian.
Astron. " " Astronomy.
Bot. " " Botany.
Cen. Amer. " " Central America.
Chem. " " Chemistry.
Civ. Law. " " Civil Law.
Colloq. " " Colloquial.
conj. " " conjunction.
Eccl. " " Ecclesiastical.
Fr. " " French.
Ger. " " German.
Gram. " " Grammar.
Gr. Antiq. " " Greek Antiquity.
Heb. " " Hebrew.
Med. " " Medicine.
Mil. " " Military.
Mus. " " Music.
n. " " noun.
pl. " " plural.
p.p. " " past participle.
prep. " " stands for preposition.
R.R. " " Railroad.
sing. " " singular.
Sp. " " Spanish.
Sp. Amer. " " Spanish America.
Theol. " " Theology.
v. " " verb.
Note.--A number of words with their synonyms and related terms that are not found in the body of the book will be found in the
Addenda beginning on page 615.
PUTNAM'S WORD BOOK
A
Abandon, v. desert, forsake, forego, discard, relinquish, repudiate, waive, renounce, abdicate. Antonyms: retain, maintain,
continue, cherish.
abandon, n. unrestraint, wantonness.
abandoned, a. forsaken, deserted, derelict, castaway, rejected; depraved, reprobate, incorrigible, arrant, graceless,
irreformable.
abandonment, n. desertion, relinquishment, dereliction, reprobation, surrender, evacuation, rejection, abdication. Antonyms:retention, continuance, maintenance, persistence.
abase, v. humble, degrade, dishonor, reduce, humiliate.
abasement, n. humiliation, reduction, dishonor, degradation, ignominy.
abash, v. disconcert, confuse, discomfit, discompose, chagrin, mortify, embarrass.
abashment, n. discomfiture, confusion, mortification, chagrin, embarrassment.
abate, v. moderate, assuage, subside, diminish, intermit. Antonyms: See increase.
abatement, n. moderation, diminution, reduction, subsidence, decrease.
a b c. alphabet, symbols; rudiments, elements, first principles.
a b c book. primer, hornbook.
abdomen, n. belly, paunch. Associated words: abdominal, ventral, paunchy, abdominous, peritoneum, peritonitis, celiac,
laparotomy, groin, eventration, abdominoscopy, hypogastric, hypogastrium.
abduction, n. kidnapping, child-stealing, man-stealing, defiliation. Associated words: abduct, abductor.
aberration, n. wandering, deviation; abnormity, irregularity; madness, mania.
abet, v. instigate, encourage, incite, egg on, foment, uphold.
abetment, n. instigation, incitement, encouragement.
abeyance, n. suspension, indetermination.
abhor, v. abominate, loathe, hate, detest.
abhorrence, n. detestation, loathing, repugnance, abomination.
abhorrent, a. repugnant, detestable, loathsome, repulsive.
abide, v. dwell, stay, sojourn, continue, remain; acquiesce, conform to.
abiding, a. continuing, lasting, stable.
ability, n. competence, efficiency, aptitude, capacity, skill, proficiency, capability. Antonyms: inability, incapability.
abject, a. degraded, groveling, servile, ignoble, contemptible base. Antonyms: noble, lofty, dignified, exalted.
able, a. competent, qualified, capable, talented, clever, gifted, efficient; effective, cogent, telling, potent. Antonyms:
unable, incompetent, incapable, inefficient ineffective, impotent.
able-bodied, a. stalwart, brawny, robust, sturdy, strapping muscular.
abnormal, a. anomalous, irregular, exceptional, aberrant, erratic, unusual. Antonyms: See normal.
abnormality, n. variation, irregularity, anomaly, abnormity. Antonyms: regularity, naturalness.
abnormity, n. irregularity, abnormality, monstrosity, anomaly.
abode, n. residence, habitation, dwelling, domicile, sojourn.
abolish, v. annul, nullify, abrogate, invalidate, repeal, revoke, rescind, disannul, set aside, destroy. Antonyms: confirm,
establish.abolition, n. annulling, abrogation, destruction, abolishment, disestablishment, cancellation, extinction, nullification,
rescission, revocation.
abominable, a. odious, execrable, detestable, loathsome, abhorrent, offensive.
abomination, n. detestation, execration, abhorrence, loathing, aversion, odiousness.
abortion, n. miscarriage, failure, frustration; castling, mooncalf, monster.
abortive, a. unsuccessful, unavailing, miscarrying, frustrate, ineffectual; rudimentary, undeveloped, sterile, imperfect.
abound, v. be plentiful, teem, swarm.
abounding, a. rife, plentiful, abundant, galore.
about, prep. concerning, anent, relative to, with regard to.
abridge, v. shorten, diminish, curtail; epitomize, condense.
abridgment, n. diminution, lessening, reduction, curtailment, condensation; epitome, compend, synopsis, digest, summary,
breviary.
abrogate, v. annul, repeal, revoke, abolish, rescind, nullify, invalidate.
abrogation, n. repeal, abolition, revocation, annulment, defeasance.
abrupt, a. precipitous, steep, craggy, jagged, rugged; unceremonious, hasty, brusque, rough, rude, curt, discourteous;
unconnected.
abscess, n. aposteme, imposthume, ulcer, fester.
absence, n. nonattendance; want, destitution, privation, lack; inattention, absent-mindedness. Associated words: furlough,
parole.
absent-minded, a. preoccupied, distrait, inattentive, unmindful, abstracted.
absent- preoccupation, abstraction, inattention.
mindedness, n.
absolute, a. unconditional, unrestricted, uncontrolled, supreme; consummate, faultless, ideal; actual, real; self-existent,
selfsufficing; autocratic, despotic.
absolution, n. forgiveness, remission, discharge, pardon.
absolutism, n. autocracy, despotism.
absolve, v. release, remit, pardon, exonerate, acquit, exculpate.
absorb, v. engulf, overwhelm, swallow up; imbibe, suck up, assimilate; engross, occupy, monopolize.
absorbent, a. absorbtive, absorbing, bibulous.
absorbing, a. engrossing, engaging, fascinating.
absorption, n. imbibition; engrossment. Associated word: sorbefacient.
absquatulate, v. (Jocular) decamp, go away, depart.
abstain, v. forbear, refrain, withhold, deny one's self. Antonym: indulge.
abstaining, n. abstention, abstinence.abstemious, a. abstinent, temperate, self-denying, frugal.
abstinence, n. forbearance, temperance, self-denial, abstemiousness.
abstinent, a. abstemious, temperate, continent. Antonyms: sensual, wanton, self-indulgent, intemperate.
abstract, n. summary, epitome, compendium, synopsis, brief, compend.
abstracted, a. separated, disconnected, withdrawn; absent-minded, preoccupied.
abstraction, n. separation, disconnection, withdrawal; inattention, absent-mindedness, preoccupation, musing; defiliation;
purloining, seizure, stealing.
abstruse, a. recondite, obscure, incomprehensible.
absurd, a. ridiculous, preposterous, nonsensical, incongruous, foolish, irrational, inconsistent.
absurdity, n. inconsistency, fallacy, irrationality, ineptitude, foolishness.
abundance, n. sufficiency, plenty, profusion, copiousness, exuberance, plenteousness, overflow. Antonyms: deficiency,
dearth, scarcity, poverty.
abundant, a. plentiful, copious, exuberant, galore, ample, lavish, plenteous, teeming, bountiful. Antonyms: deficient,
inadequate, insufficient.
abuse, v. misapply, misuse, pervert, desecrate, violate, profane; maltreat, mistreat; revile, reproach, vilify, vituperate,
malign, traduce; violate, ravish, rape.
abuse, n. misuse, misapplication, perversion, profanation, desecration; injury, maltreatment, mistreatment, outrage,
offense; invective, contumely, reproach, scurrility, opprobrium, tirade, billingsgate, vilification; violation, rape.
abusive, a. reviling, scurrilous, opprobrious, reproachful, vituperative, insulting, rffensive, contumelious, outrageous.
abut, v. project, terminate, be contiguous, meet;—with on, upon, or against.
accent, n. stress, ictus; modulation, accentuation.
accent, v. emphasize, accentuate.
acceptance, n. approval, favorable reception; acceptableness. Antonyms: rejection, refusal.
accessory, a. accompanying, accessary, contributory, subservient, subsidiary.
accident, n. casualty, mishap, contretemps, mischance, contingency.
accidental, a. casual, fortuitous; incidental, nonessential, adventitious.
accidentally, adv. unintentionally, casually, fortuitously. Antonyms: intentionally, advisedly, deliberately.
acclimate, v. acclimatize.
acclimation, n. acclimatization.
accommodate, v. adapt, conform, adjust; oblige, favor.
accommodating, obliging, complaisant.
a.
accommodation, adaptation, adjustment; complaisance; favor, kindness.
n.
accompaniment, concomitant.
n.accompany, v. escort, attend, convoy; chaperon.
accomplice, n. abettor, ally, accessory, confederate, particeps criminis.
accomplish, v. achieve, effectuate, execute, complete, effect.
accomplished, a. completed, effected; practised, proficient.
accomplishment, completion, fulfillment, execution, effectuation; attainment, acquirement, acquisition, grace.
n.
accord, n. agreement, concurrence, harmony, sympathy. Antonyms: variance, disagreement, inharmony.
accordance, n. conformity, unanimity, harmony, accord, rapport, concurrence.
according to. agreeably to, in accordance with, in conformity with, pursuant.
accost, v. greet, address, salute, hail.
accoucheur, n. obstetrician.
accoucheuse, n. midwife.
account, n. reckoning, computation, calculation, record, tab; registry, register; recital, relation, narrative, report, delineation,
description, portrayal, explanation; reason, ground, consideration, motive, sake; estimate, valuation, judgment,
estimation, opinion; importance, consequence, value, worth, reputation.
accountability, n. amenability, liability.
accountable, a. answerable, liable, amenable, responsible. Antonyms: unaccountable, irresponsible, exempt.
accumulation, n. accretion, hoard, aggregation, accrument, collection.
accumulative, a. cumulative.
accuracy, n. exactness, fidelity, correctness, precision. Antonyms: inaccuracy, incorrectness, error.
accurate, a. correct, exact, just, true, literal. Antonyms: inaccurate, incorrect, erroneous.
accusation, n. crimination, charge, indictment, impeachment, arraignment, allegation, incrimination.
accusative, a. incriminatory, inculpatory, accusatory.
accuse, v. indict, charge, impeach, incriminate, arraign, criminate.
accuser, n. complainant, plaintiff, informant, prosecutor.
accustom, v. habituate, familiarize, inure.
accustomed, a. customary, wonted, habitual, usual. Antonyms: unaccustomed, unfamiliar, unwonted.
achieve, v. accomplish, effectuate, realize, effect, attain.
achievement, n. accomplishment, attainment, effectuation feat, exploit.
acknowledge, v. admit, avow, concede, own, confess. Antonyms: repudiate, deny, disavow.
acknowledgment, admittance, avowal, concession, recognition.
n.
acme, n. culmination, top, zenith, climax, apex, pinnacle.acorns, n. pl. mast. Associated words: balaniferous, balanoid, cupule, cupuliferous, quercite, racahout.
acquaint, v. familiarize, inform, tell, apprise, notify.
acquaintance, n. familiarity; kith. Antonyms: ignorance, unfamiliarity, unacquaintance.
acquirement, n. acquisition, attainment.
acquit, v. discharge, release, exculpate, exonerate.
acquittal, n. release, discharge, exoneration, exculpation.
acrid, a. pungent, biting, corrosive, caustic.
acridity, n. pungency, bitterness, causticity, acrimony.
acrimonious, a. caustic, sarcastic, censorious, virulent, rancorous.
acrimony, n. asperity, bitterness, virulence, causticity, rancor, sharpness.
acrobat, n. equilibrist, tumbler, funambulist, vaulter.
across, prep. and athwart, crosswise, traverse transversely.
adv.
act, n. performance, feat, stunt (Colloq.), exploit, achievement, deed, action, procedure, turn; decree, edict, law,
statute, enactment, ordinance.
act, v. behave, deport one's self; play, personate, impersonate, mimic; feign, counterfeit, simulate, dissemble.
acting, n. personation, impersonation, simulation, feigning, stage-playing, histrionicism, histrionism, affectation mimicry,
pantomime (acting without speaking).
action, n. agency, operation, movement, activity; pl. conduct, behavior, deportment, deeds; (Law) lawsuit, litigation, suit.
Antonyms: inaction, stagnation, inactivity, inertia.
active, a. brisk, nimble, agile, sprightly, spirited; strenuous, diligent, enterprising; operative, efficacious, drastic;
effective; transitive. Antonyms: inactive, passive, latent, quiescent, sedentary.
activity, n. operation, action; liveliness, briskness, agility, sprightliness, strenuousness. Antonyms: inactivity,
passiveness, quiescence.
actor, n. doer, participant, performer; comedian; tragedian; thespian; impersonator, personator, mime, mimic;
pantomimist; barnstormer; hamfatter; supernumerary.
actress, n. tragedienne; comedienne; ingenue, soubrette, understudy; star.
actual, a. real, veritable. Antonyms: potential, nominal, hypothetical.
actuality, n. reality, veritableness.
actuate, v. instigate, impel, incite.
actuation, n. instigation, incitement, animation.
acumen, n. astuteness, shrewdness, discernment, sharpness. Antonyms: dullness, stupidity, short-sightedness.
adage, n. See saying.
Adam, n. Associated words: Adamic, adamite, preadamic, preadamite, preadamitic.
adapt, v. adjust, conform.adaptable, a. conformable, adjustable.
adaptation, n. adjustment, conformability.
add, v. sum up, foot up; append, supplement, subjoin, affix, adjoin, superadd, annex. Antonyms: subtract, deduct,
detract, remove.
addict, v. habituate, accustom.
addition, n. annexation, annex, appendage, supplement, appendix, postscript, wing, augmentation, adjunct, rider.
Antonyms: subtraction, deduction, detraction.
additional, a. supplemental, adscititious, supplementary.
addle, v. muddle, confuse; spoil, rot.
address, n. discourse, speech, lecture, oration, allocution; direction, superscription, delivery. Associated word: vocative.
address, v. accost, speak to; direct, superscribe.
adept, n. See expert.
adequacy, n. sufficiency. Antonyms: inadequacy, insufficiency.
adequate, a. sufficient, commensurate, equal, proportionate. Antonyms: inadequate, insufficient.
adjacent, a. adjoining, contiguous.
adjoining, a. contiguous, adjacent, neighboring.
adjustment, n. adaptation, regulation, settlement.
admissible, a. allowable, permissible. Antonym: inadmissible.
admit, v. acknowledge, confess, concede; allow, permit. Antonyms: repulse, reject, refuse.
admittance, n. admission.
ado, n. fuss, bustle, stir, excitement, pother.
adolescence, n. nonage, juniority, minority, youth.
adopt, v. father, affiliate; espouse, support, maintain.
adoption, n. affiliation, fathering; espousal.
adorn, v. decorate, beautify, embellish, deck, ornament, grace, garnish, bedizen, bedeck, bestud, beset, emblazon.
Antonyms: disfigure, mar, deform.
adornment, n. ornamentation, decoration. Antonyms: disfigurement, defacement.
adrift, a. and adv. drifting, derelict, lost.
adulterate, v. sophisticate.
adulterated, a. adulterate, impure, sophisticated.
adulteration, n. sophistication.adultery, n. infidelity, criminal conversation.
advance, n. progress, progression, march, advancement, promotion, preferment, elevation, appreciation, enhancement;
overture, tender, proposal, proffer, offer. Antonyms: retreat, retrogression, decline, retrogradation,
deterioration.
advance, v. progress, increase; promote, elevate; enhance, augment. Antonyms: retreat, retrograde, decline, deteriorate.
advance guard. vanguard, van.
advancement, n. progress, progression; promotion, preferment, exaltation, aggrandizement, furtherance.
advantage, n. vantage-ground; superiority, mastery, ascendency; benefit, avail, profit. Antonym: disadvantage.
adventurous, a. adventuresome, temerarious, venturous.
adversary, n. enemy, foe, antagonist, opponent.
adversity, n. misfortune, buffeting, disaster, affliction, reverses, trouble.
advertise, v. announce, publish, proclaim, trumpet.
advertisement, n. announcement.
advice, n. counsel, admonition, monition, recommendation; information, tidings, report. Associated words: admonitory,
mentorial, monitorial.
advisable, a. expedient, desirable, befitting. Antonym: inadvisable.
advise, v. counsel, admonish, warn; apprise, inform, notify, acquaint, tell; advise with, consult, confer.
advisedly, adv. purposely, intentionally, designedly, deliberately, knowingly.
advisement, n. consideration, deliberation, consultation.
adviser, n. counselor, mentor, monitor, admonitor.
advocate, n. defender, apologist, vindicator, propagandist, upholder, promoter.
aërial, a. atmospheric; aëriform, vaporous, ethereal, empyreal, empyrean.
affability, n. courteousness, civility, complaisance, sociability, graciousness.
affable, a. courteous, sociable, gracious, cordial, benign, complaisant, accessible. Antonyms: inaffable, discourteous.
affect, v. act upon, move, touch, influence, melt; concern, bear upon, interest; dispose, turn, incline.
affectation, n. mannerism, pretension, puppetry, simulation.
affected, a. assumed, feigned, simulated, unnatural. Antonyms: unaffected, sincere, natural, unfeigned.
affecting, a. touching, moving, pathetic, piteous.
affectionate, a. devoted, fond, loving, ardent.
affidavit, n. deposition. Associated words: affiant, deponent, jurant, depose.
affiliation, n. adoption, connection, association.
affirm, v. assert (positively), aver, asseverate, state.affirmation, n. assertion, averment, asseveration.
affirmative, a. confirmative, ratifying, approving.
affix, v. subjoin, annex, append.
afflict, v. persecute, distress, scourge, trouble, harass.
affliction, n. tribulation, adversity, trouble, buffeting, bereavement, hardship, visitation, scourge, distress, misfortune.
affront, n. indignity, insult, outrage, contumely, offense.
aflutter, a. agitated, perturbed, discomposed, excited. Antonyms: calm, composed.
aforethought, a. designed, prepense, premeditated, deliberate, intentional.
aforethought, n. premeditation.
afraid, a. alarmed, fearful, timid, timorous, apprehensive, scared, diffident. Antonyms: fearless, unafraid, intrepid, bold,
undaunted, temerarious.
afresh, adv. again, anew, de novo, newly.
after, a. next, subsequent, succeeding, following, later.
after all. nevertheless.
afterbirth, n. secundines; heam (afterbirth of a beast).
after-birth, a. post-natal.
after-death, a. post-mortem, posthumous.
after-dinner, a. post-prandial.
after-marriage, a. post-nuptial, post-connubial.
aftermath, n. rowen, eddish, lattermath, eagrass, etch rowett.
afternoon, a. post-meridian.
after the flood. post-diluvian, post-diluvial.
after the war. post-bellum.
age, n. maturity, seniority; epoch, period, time; century; eon; climacteric; old age, dotage, senescence, senility,
decrepitude, superannuation; longevity. Associated words: nostology, geratology, geromorphism, coetaneous,
coeval, contemporaneous.
agency, n. instrumentality, operation, action, mediation, means.
agent, n. representative, canvasser, substitute, deputy, factor, procurator, syndic, go-between, commissioner, proctor,
emissary, envoy, solicitor, negotiator. Antonyms: principal, chief.
aggrandize, v. exalt.
aggrandizement, exaltation.
n.
aggravate, v. intensify, heighten, enhance, increase; exasperate, irritate, provoke.