Rulers of India: Akbar
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Rulers of India: Akbar

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Project Gutenberg's Rulers of India: Akbar, by George Bruce Malleson
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org
Title: Rulers of India: Akbar
Author: George Bruce Malleson
Release Date: March 9, 2010 [EBook #31572]
Language: English
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK RULERS OF INDIA: AKBAR ***
Produced by Ron Swanson
RULERS OF INDIA
EDITED BY
SIR WILLIAM WILSON HUNTER, K.C.S.I., C.I.E.
M.A. (OXFORD): LL.D. (CAMBRIDGE)
AKBAR
London
HENRY FROWDE
logo
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE
AMEN CORNER, E.C.
[All rights reserved]
Click here for a map of 19th century British India. RULERS OF INDIA
AKBAR
BY COLONEL G. B. MALLESON, C.S.I.
OXFORD
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS: 1890
CONTENTS
CHAP.
I. THE ARGUMENT
II. THE FAMILY AND EARLY DAYS OF BÁBAR
III. BÁBAR CONQUERS KÁBUL
IV. BÁBAR'S INVASIONS OF INDIA
V. THE POSITION OF BÁBAR IN HINDUSTÁN
VI. HUMÁYÚN AND THE EARLY DAYS OF AKBAR
VII. HUMÁYÚN INVADES INDIA. HIS DEATH
VIII. AKBAR'S FIGHT FOR HIS FATHER'S THRONE
IX. GENERAL CONDITION OF INDIA IN THE MIDDLE OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY
X. THE TUTELAGE UNDER BAIRÁM KHÁN
XI. CHRONICLE OF THE REIGN
XII. THE PRINCIPLES AND INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION OF AKBAR
INDEX
NOTE
The orthography of proper names follows the system adopted by the Indian Government for the Imperial Gazetteer of India. ...

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Project Gutenberg's Rulers of India: Akbar, by George Bruce Malleson This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org
Title: Rulers of India: Akbar Author: George Bruce Malleson Release Date: March 9, 2010 [EBook #31572] Language: English
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK RULERS OF INDIA: AKBAR ***
Produced by Ron Swanson
RULERS OF INDIA
EDITED BY SIR WILLIAM WILSON HUNTER, K.C.S.I., C.I.E. M.A. (OXFORD): LL.D. (CARIMBEDG)
AKBAR
London HENRY FROWDE logo OXFORDUNSITYIVERPRESSWESUOHERA AMENCORNER, E.C.
[All rights reserved]
Click here for a map of 19th century British India.
IDA FNI ORSLERUam neroplool fespargohtrrp fo yhd byopte Ind theehs swt  mdasyetThe ovef  wryliel onglp nseca-llewonkhering t whileadupal rps oht eopnd Iofr eettzeGa,metsys tahT .aint frnmeGoveian ai lpmreehI rot uos :sdn ,ai sawon n:ma,  á iasovewslw ti hht efollowinguniformsyolpme  lla ni car heote ths sehca  ,usjnba suPckno, Lutc.,w, e
AKBAR
BY COLONEL G. B. MALLESON, C.S.I.
NOTE
CHAP.  I.THEARGUMENT II.THEFAMILYANDEARLYDOFS AYBÁBAR III.BÁBAR CONQUERSKÁBUL IV.BÁBAR'SINVASIONS OFINDIA V.THEPOSITION OFBNI RABÁHINDUSTÁN VI.HUMÁYÚN AND THEEARLYDAO SYFAKBAR VII.HSEÁYUM IÚNADNVINDIA. HISDEATH VIII.AKBAR'SFIGHT FOR HISFATHER'STHRONE IX.GENERALCONDITION OFINDIAIN THEMIDDLE OF THESIXTEENTHCENTURY X.THETUTELAGE UNDERBAIRÁMKHÁN XI.CHRONICLE OF THEREIGN XII.THEPRINCIPLES ANDINTERNALADMINISTRATION OFAKBAR  INDEX
CONTENTS
OXFORD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS: 1890
s ni.eruú,: s  an  illbu ,sa:du c lo snio, aue: trign ini sa ,í :ecilop ins  ai,: ndlan 
THE EMPEROR AKBAR
CHAPTER I THEARGUMENT
I crave the indulgence of the reader whilst I explain as briefly as possible the plan upon which I have written this short life of the great sovereign who firmly established the Mughal dynasty in India.1 1 For the purposes of this sketch I have referred to the following authorities:Memoirs of Bábar,written by himself, and translated by Leyden and Erskine; Erskine'sBábar and Humáyún; The Ain-í-Akbarí(Blochmann's translation);The History of India, as told by its own Historians,edited from the posthumous papers of Sir H. M. Elliot, K.C.B., by Professor Dowson; Dow'sFerishta;s lEhp no'enitsHistory of India;Tod'sAnnals of Rajast'han, and various other works. The original conception of such an empire was not Akbar's own. His grandfather, Bábar, had conquered a great portion of India, but during the five years which elapsed between the conquest and his death, Bábar enjoyed but few opportunities of donning the robe of the administrator. By the rivals whom he had overthrown and by the children of the soil, Bábar was alike regarded as a conqueror, and as nothing more. A man of remarkable ability, who had spent all his life in arms, he was really an adventurer, though a brilliant adventurer, who, soaring above his contemporaries in genius, taught in the rough school of adversity, had beheld from his eyrie at Kábul the distracted condition of fertile Hindustán, and had dashed down upon her plains with a force that was irresistible. Such was Bábar, a man greatly in advance of his age, generous, affectionate, lofty in his views, yet, in his connection with Hindustán, but little more than a conqueror. He had no time to think of any other system of administration than the system with which he had been familiar all his life, and which had been the system introduced by his Afghán predecessors into India, the system of governing by means of large camps, each commanded by a general devoted to himself, and each occupying a central position in a province. It is a question whether the central idea of Bábar's policy was not the creation of an empire in Central Asia rather than of an empire in India. Into this system the welfare of the children of the soil did not enter. Possibly, if Bábar had lived, and had lived in the enjoyment of his great abilities, he might have come to see, as his grandson saw, that such a system was practically unsound; that it was wanting in the great principle of cohesion, of uniting the interests of the conquering and the conquered; that it secured no attachment, and conciliated no prejudices; that it remained, without roots, exposed to all the storms of fortune. We, who know Bábar by his memoirs, in which he unfolds the secrets of his heart, confesses all his faults, and details all his ambitions, may think that he might have done this if he had had the opportunity. But the opportunity was denied to him. The time between the first battle of Pánípat, which gave him the north-western provinces of India, and his death, was too short to allow him to think of much more than the securing of his conquests, and the adding to them of additional provinces. He entered India a conqueror. He remained a conqueror, and nothing more, during the five years he ruled at Agra. His son, Humáyún, was not qualified by nature to perform the task which Bábar had been obliged to neglect. His character, flighty and unstable, and his abilities, wanting in the constructive faculty, alike unfitted him for the duty. He ruled eight years in India without contributing a single stone to the foundation of an empire that was to remain. When, at the end of that period, his empire fell, as had fallen the kingdoms of his Afghán predecessors, and from the same cause, the absence of any roots in the soil, the result of a single defeat in the field, he lost at one blow all that Bábar had gained south of the Indus. India disappeared, apparently for ever, from the grasp of the Mughal. The son of Bábar had succumbed to an abler general, and that abler general had at once completely supplanted him. Fortunately for the Mughal, more fortunately still for the people of India, that abler general, though a man of great ability, had inherited views not differing in any one degree from those of the Afghán chiefs who had preceded him in the art of establishing a dynasty. The conciliation of the millions of Hindustán did not enter into his system. He, too, was content to govern by camps located in the districts he had conquered. The consequence was that when he died other men rose to compete for the empire. The confusion rose in the course of a few years to such a height, that in 1554, just fourteen years after he had fled from the field of Kanauj, Humáyún recrossed the Indus, and recovered Northern India. He was still young, but still as incapable of founding a stable empire as when he succeeded his father. He left behind him writings which prove that, had his life been spared, he would still have tried to govern on the old plan which had broken in the hands of so many conquerors who had gone before him, and in his own. Just before his death he drew up a system for the administration of India. It was the old system of separate camps in a fixed centre, each independent of the other, but all supervised by the Emperor. It was an excellent plan, doubtless, for securing conquered provinces, but it was absolutely deficient in any scheme for welding the several provinces and their people into one harmonious whole.
truction. Duringt ehf weeyra shtatreal ttsenth, eg esuin fo snocver,howesess posmadide ,reg o htr heat f pis hofhT .lipu ,yob siredee avh daerdnall the nescent o yl rev derpeed weschhie thusca nihnri ogevt  oondehe pme, s naih dewolla eh taaleren gusmofas ht kog enrevtnem pisnslahe, oo th  eahmdtarudeh n the soil. Whennikat moi toor gedntverefrm he tw ihei,sdap hch edinprecnastg dynl owhy  dtoayeceb h nag dnacihwsystem,  to his athdredeno gsai  lsod heisurlo fhcihw ytsanyd a nded fou andnds, nah swo oihi tnseabg onis he,ncey ynam s fo sraing triv forwith ,ahutenratn del in,evn y ernssef ,eutroetanrof  Hindustán.Humáynú ,udirgnh sil  hguohtla ,ohw ds,aryer deen tofh daaeyda rlh daentu advmany as dna dah ton gnih nenhiotor fttgoyow ohs gnT.ehb  him, anucceededam,nra yu tnw sa of liferdinan oh yb dee edis siHe. edrind iad hamynv cisiisutedres, had seen asuow f dl lli ehtofs or fnetuas, een ad bng hernig vo efom doohesheft oolhosch ugor eht ni demrofe greateeemed thwosae ts aam nhw bd, wut patioero laht fg tsrenel th soi theinto hothwcito s eorangre ths wat  I kcurts ohw nosd rich anand boretnf urti dbanuadol hofd  aokrmfi gnu ,pu,ti rps t eh tfouqrec noacesed rs is.Thi eht ni senippahcod ans entmennto  fhwci h Iahev devoted the foleht gra nemuot the tev dopelntmetni flesti ediviod tlyalurat nmet  oeesmkos  eob. Thagesng plowieht vni edi fo aofr he tvedepeloa  sht e oáBab,rparts. To three ar pstirwae  Ht.oved evaf ehtdetf Inst o I hdia, nnasaoiqneu docblkaine ny age avah eb er neramean, and he would s aeramkrbaelm rtpa fed iendet i fom st mor enociples, ain priniclp efoht erpni cnd aontiraletort I.noitailicnothe  in thatust mmra gusdenirpce I yevahdam ti ele c tartho ree daret ah thwlits, in a certain sáB ,esne saw rabndouefththf  oerhgla euMsaytd nyIndi in e tra, hroo ln ys cuecssd to hisansmittereuq .roeremnoc f  oe the theaidln ydeo retii hnáyúnyHumainlCertiw ti gnitaicoss and aa,de iattht what his fathehtn  otoeh,rl soru tthe  hatule ah row dI .nsi torti a pf iton oetylitamnideeragcoe er mr.rouenqts tub ,a sa lli subjectided the eusdbvi,nI h vae eraiagBu.  ht,A otrabkig n nev beehaveook he bfot dr st-iht owngniaiem rhe.TiadnI morf thgilf irgnt ehafhtres'born in Sind, duob e ,ko ohw sawthf hee  orothf aelrht esyo  yadto dand ibe escrih fo es ,llaf sterastluau che tht fer esab o sihe tn-Airdcoofs p iatnt uoer dotFrom thehe man. tpahc tsal eht navdeene av h Iernest lveitacopiln. Ireigthe  of arorMuy mmhaanadsih irot,snaeht  and on the authroti yfoc noetpme av h Iedatrrnat morf ,segap eh the. Instof firt owt ehdr,st-ihradesion c atevoed ot yrassecen  theh assmuc inah mi eotpscalb ehcnttuenin neeet fo sihtc ehesolthe mored to me sas eeemyr .tIh eb yam hiw daer ec r aimicwhd ortie rpfotat ev nnterth iand est t tae ehylraega Wh.  hendie , edehl fe tebihdnh of forty-eight, w irahev , Iaptr onlmuch as ttenm ot demees sa yiltoy arsscenee re .fOuHardnafhthose lifmáyún, wb ylnolerp erepofie t rs tgstho  spi theand rit yga nerenntadni libinoe chf  oty retcarag eht fo reader will notaflit  oidcsre,nn  ie thtiacs ont fog ehdnar,nospard to e foon m kht tsadare eer iofe akus m It,F .koob s eht rorpcedesei .thin thm whath icni rcilfgnitopu  Imare ,ahtpsic . Thlectntelis ih fo sgnihcaet ethn  octduon cis nfot eh goptroiterestinemost inetutht soc ,itsnon cssfere ftoe ron eht aS fo htd,anrkma, on s a thS,na eSzbhe-rrty ,this tomile ,yo ohw sawllac Tedmuai ar, wndht eleedtso  fihs family. This b33 1l,riApf  othrob saw ereht ,6eh9 nOt he tur pibtrofe o laigir tsehguM chief on to thebrsá , a fht eiBe av atore g eat hciE ewilgnh hs as a conciliatotxne tniehiret,d hchhi wteas ladfid fo rsecnerefd yendre of ars,orgu dhtevuh hifh I  evaw reskrond ath oAkí-ríba ssaa  ntah  eaw show whtried to ,resinagro na s ar,torastnimiad mhwsyetafs roo lgatromuhe pas tcutaoi nbauodnnig in the inculcanoit fo tsohtilitoy ll aho wif d drfefermi ,moh  hisgaveelle intrfeht tcuoc tseend ae,rs hedas bes whichprejudicdef roa h dal vi h Ie av tlle.imih dsa mcsedebiras and, usba a h aama  seh,rf ta otepies,dho wn,de suoigiler a fng north of the  ,htceuotnyrl iye thxaJaesrtth, ewoloc resru fo  nor theand th,  deM sna ,otrknáin; thorakchip K airebiSn eht ot fhtso e daptro olga, anon and W deridnIoc eeuqninux he; ton Ehena ,saipehC dnt l, a Araa ofe seDeht no sdnal hcrie thg inudclineht xaJ etraT .sn heenhereteupd not ah tacerreo f conquest which eht dnatupsidnuerul redl alf  oocnuht eebwtrt ythe een  andOxusn,tárt oghMuisalb yrewtec ehtnuoibet mouen the Tht enIudtniasn ,lyond tenamier t .efil sih htiw ed hlishstabHe ei  niryttuohsia hi tenthurfoy-rt.tuo dei ,rumiaTt li thaad dne hehf ,0t  ynimalih,otnd ain, 37 1lbeesenena sls dally sunk into f eilenh dag arudkramaS ta flesmi hedshliabstdeandn , rahpuepte eomplhe ce, trtuno seof fssicdutian mviy  ad,erft,tg iaentades ae the vac, seizednebaci hm naela cont to is frolhutan yb  htiw eralque thwhs ieitenf or mhCneig zKhán, was giftedw ohedsanecs ded tin fhealemlie engif Chrs oessom lat eh nniKzáhdv astbee tho  tccus ehT .egatnao employchance tauilitset ohesq  Fn.tuorloelmew  mih ehtg en evasremU ,eseht fo as wá,rzMih ikha erp dhtgiena ssghánfFerce oovinsla f ,ok ,ánwonmenaf  om roe that,la  sti sacip
CHAPTER II THEFAMILYANDEARLYDAYS FOBÁBAR
Khokand.grt-dsans hieagrdetu yb nocetitspartly r it was lahtuohgpu ,na dn  iedisprur senhw ,9641 ni ecnis pr thih ofdeatt ehiá,dbAsuno ,d ehaefefo tsih Arr bide al, tndehm uotniasnn aethe defiles of tt oT .sndriht ehonamn iosos hig f erdea visihsd y,pr armitatecipebwtee ntiroei snelles atheDardaecroht da ,af dnf  orrtepee leopehd eh n.yW meca18ththe  on ied,nkca ot ihleD dnprsus hie dgleowhim oneof the graeettse pmriset eb Farru 1y,5,40 eh tfelheb  dnith h deampiris eipld earko e yrbldor wheve eas hA.nees rsih retfy bo fofrtoun,eeeht cus ssec noito the empire ofB bára ,aw,st ehat bndco Pofe tlh tapínáotseb dauponwed  you theab,rgnkA n at ehdicc tneTa ehivpr Hedicwhdeh  fih silmuyánúo e the sefe befor