Rural Hygiene

Rural Hygiene

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Rural Hygiene, by Henry N. OgdenThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.orgTitle: Rural HygieneAuthor: Henry N. OgdenRelease Date: July 31, 2009 [EBook #29555]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK RURAL HYGIENE ***Produced by Tom Roch, Josephine Paolucci and the OnlineDistributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net. (Thisfile was produced from images produced by Core HistoricalLiterature in Agriculture (CHLA), Cornell University.)The Rural Science SeriesEDITED BY L. H. BAILEYRURAL HYGIENETHE MACMILLAN COMPANYNEW YORK · BOSTON · CHICAGOATLANTA · SAN FRANCISCOMACMILLAN & CO., LIMITEDLONDON · BOMBAY · CALCUTTAMELBOURNETHE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, LTD.TORONTORURAL HYGIENEBYHENRY N. OGDEN, C.E.PROFESSOR OF SANITARY ENGINEERING IN COLLEGE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, CORNELL UNIVERSITYSPECIAL ASSISTANT ENGINEER, NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHNew YorkTHE MACMILLAN COMPANY1911All rights reservedCopyright, 1911,By THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.Set up and electrotyped. Published January, 1911.Norwood PressJ. S. Cushing Co.—Berwick & Smith Co.Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.PREFACEThe following pages represent an attempt to put before the rural population a systematic treatment of those specialsubjects ...

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Rural Hygiene, by
Henry N. Ogden
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no
cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it,
give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg
License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org
Title: Rural Hygiene
Author: Henry N. Ogden
Release Date: July 31, 2009 [EBook #29555]
Language: English
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK
RURAL HYGIENE ***
Produced by Tom Roch, Josephine Paolucci and the
Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net.
(This
file was produced from images produced by Corefile was produced from images produced by Core
Historical
Literature in Agriculture (CHLA), Cornell University.)
The Rural Science Series
Edited by L. H. BAILEY
RURAL HYGIENE
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
NEW YORK · BOSTON · CHICAGO
ATLANTA · SAN FRANCISCO
MACMILLAN & CO., LIMITED
LONDON · BOMBAY · CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE
THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, LTD.
TORONTO
RURAL HYGIENE
BYHENRY N. OGDEN, C.E.
PROFESSOR OF SANITARY ENGINEERING IN
COLLEGE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, CORNELL
UNIVERSITY SPECIAL ASSISTANT ENGINEER,
NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
New York
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1911
All rights reserved
Copyright, 1911,
By THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.
Set up and electrotyped. Published January, 1911.
Norwood Press
J. S. Cushing Co.—Berwick & Smith Co.
Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.
PREFACE
The following pages represent an attempt to put
before the rural population a systematic treatment of
those special subjects included in what is popularly
known as Hygiene as well as those broader subjects
that concern the general health of the community at
large.Usually the term "hygiene" has been limited in its
application to a study of the health of the individual,
and treatises on hygiene have concerned themselves
almost entirely with discussing such topics as food,
clothing, exercise, and other questions relating to the
daily life of a person. Of late years, however, it has
become more and more evident that it is not possible
for man to live to himself alone, but that his actions
must react on those living in his vicinity and that the
methods of living of his neighbors must react on his
own well-being. This interdependence of individuals
being once appreciated, it follows that a book on
hygiene must deal, not only with the question of
individual living, but also with those broader questions
having to do with the cause and spread of disease,
with the transmission of bacteria from one community
to another, and with those natural influences which,
more or less under the control of man, may affect a
large area if their natural destructive tendencies are
allowed to develop.
Being written by an engineer, the following pages deal
rather with the structural side of public hygiene than
with the medical side, and in the chapters dealing with
contagious diseases emphasis is attached to
quarantine, disinfection, and prevention, rather than to
etiology and treatment. The book is not, therefore, a
medical treatise in any sense, and is not intended to
eliminate the physician or to give professional advice,
although the suggestions, if followed out, undoubtedly
will have the effect of lessening the need of a
physician, since the contagious diseases referred to
may then be confined to single individuals or to single
houses.It has not been possible, within the limits of this one
book, to describe at length the various engineering
methods, and while it is hoped that enough has been
said to point the way towards a proper selection of
methods and to a right choice between processes, the
details of construction will have to be worked out in all
cases, either by the ingenuity of the householder or by
the aid of some mechanic or engineer.
Finally, it may be said that two distinct purposes have
been in mind throughout,—to promote the comfort and
convenience of those living in the rural part of the
community who, unfortunately, while most happily
situated from the standpoint of health in many ways,
have failed to give themselves those comforts that
might so easily be added to their life; and in the
second place, to emphasize the interdependence of
the rural community and the urban community in the
matter of food products and contagious diseases, an
interdependence growing daily as interurban
communications by trolley and automobile become
easy.
Cities are learning to protect themselves against the
selfishness of the individual, and city Boards of Health
have large powers for the purpose of guarding the
health of the individuals within their boundaries. The
scattered populations of the open country are not yet
educated to the point at which self-protection has
made such authority seem to be necessary, and it is
left largely to an exalted sense of duty towards their
fellow-men so to move members of a rural community
as to order their lives and ways to avoid sinningagainst public hygiene. In order to develop such a
sense of honor, it is primarily necessary that the
relation of cause and effect in matters of health shall
be plainly understood and that the dangers to others
of the neglect of preventive measures be appreciated.
As a single example, the transmission of disease at
school may be cited. Measles, scarlet fever, whooping
cough, and diphtheria are all children's diseases,
easily carried and transmitted, and held in check only
by preventing a sick child from coming in contact with
children not sick. No law is sufficient. The matter must
be left to the mother, who will retain children at home
at the least suspicion of sickness and keep them there
until after all traces of the disease have passed away.
The health conditions in the open country, judged by
the standard of statistics, are quite as good as those
of the city. The comforts of country life are as yet
inferior, and it is hoped that this book may do
something to advance the standard of living in the
families into which it may enter.
H. N. OGDEN.
Ithaca, New York,
November 1, 1910.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER I
Vital Statistics of Rural LifePAGES
Death-rate. Ideal death-rates. Death-rates in New
York State. Accuracy of records. Effect of children.
Death-rates of children. Small cities. Tuberculosis.
Diphtheria, Influenza. Pneumonia. Old age 1-24
CHAPTER II
Location of a House—Soil and Surroundings
Damp soils. Location of house. Objections to trees.
Space between houses. Composition of soils. Cancer
and soil conditions. Topography. Effects of cultivation.
Made ground. Water in soil. Drainage. Ground water
25-48
CHAPTER III
Construction of Houses and Barns With Reference to
Healthfulness
Shutting out soil air. Position of outfall for drains.
Dampness of cellar walls. Use of tar or asphalt. Dry
masonry for cellar walls. Damp courses. The cellar
floor. Cellar ventilation. The old-fashioned privy. Cow
stables. Use of concrete 49-67
CHAPTER IV
VentilationEffects of bad air. Modifying circumstances. Dangers
of polluted air. Effect of changes in air. Composition of
air. Organic matter in air. Fresh-air inlet. Position of
inlet. Foul-air outlet. Size of openings. Ventilation of
stables. Cost of ventilation. Relation of heating to
ventilation 68-89
CHAPTER V
Quantity of Water Required for Domestic Use
Modern tendencies. Quantity of water needed per
person. Quantity used in stables. Maximum rate of
consumption. Variation in maximum rate. Fire stream
requirements. Rain-water supply. Computation for
rain-water storage. Computation for storage reservoir
on brook. Deficiency from well supplies 90-107
CHAPTER VI
Sources of Water-supply
Underground waters. Ordinary dug well. Construction
of dug wells. Deep wells. Springs. Extensions of
springs. Supply from brooks. Storage reservoirs.
Ponds or lakes. Pressure or head 108-130
CHAPTER VII
Quality of WaterMineral matter. Loss of soap. Vegetable pollution.
Animal pollution. Well water. Danger of polluted water
131-152
CHAPTER VIII
Water-works Construction
Methods of collection. Spring reservoirs. Stream
supplies. Dams. Waste weirs. Gate house. Pipe lines.
Pumping. Windmills. Hydraulic rams. Hot-air engines.
Gas engines. Steam pumps. Air lifts. Tanks. Pressure
tanks 153-188
CHAPTER IX
Plumbing
Installation. Supply tank. Main supply pipe. Hot-water
circulation. Kitchen sinks. Laundry tubs. Hot-water
boiler. Water-back, wash-basin, bath-tub. Cost of
plumbing installation. House drainage. Trap-vents.
Water-closets 189-207
CHAPTER X
Sewage Disposal
Definition of sewage. Stream pollution. Treatment of
sewage on land. Surface application. Artificial sewage