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Sanders' Union Fourth Reader

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269 Pages
English

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Project Gutenberg's Sanders' Union Fourth Reader, by Charles W. Sanders
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Title: Sanders' Union Fourth Reader
Author: Charles W. Sanders
Release Date: October, 2005 [EBook #9078] [Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule] [This file was first posted on September 3, 2003]
Edition: 10
Language: English
Character set encoding: ASCII
*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK SANDERS' UNION FOURTH READER ***
Produced by David Garcia, Tonya Allen, Charles Franks, and the Distributed Proofreaders
SANDERS' UNION FOURTH READER:
EMBRACING A FULL EXPOSITION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF RHETORICAL READING; WITH NUMEROUS EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE, BOTH IN PROSE AND POETRY, VARIOUS IN STYLE, AND CAREFULLY ADAPTED TO THE PURPOSES OF TEACHING IN SCHOOLS OF EVERY GRADE. BY CHARLES W. SANDERS, A.M.
[Transcriber's Note: Advertising page of other Sanders' Readers removed.]
PREFACE.
THIS FOURTH READER is designed to pass the pupil from the comparatively easy ground occupied by the THIRD to the more difficult course embraced in THE UNION FIFTH READER, which is next higher in the series. It is, therefore, carefully graded to this intermediate position.
In one sense, however, it is the most important in the set; since the great mass of pupils, in our common schools, are drawn away from scholastic pursuits long before the proper time for entering upon any course of reading more advanced than that which is here presented. This consideration has had its full weight in the preparation of the following pages.
Every exercise will be found to bear the impress of that special adaptation to the purposes of teaching, without which no book of this kind can fully perform the office which it assumes. The labor expended in this direction, though all unseen by the casual observer, has been neither light nor brief. It can be duly appreciated by none but the experienced teacher.
All words in the exercises, requiring explanation, have been arranged, as regular lessons in spelling and definition. In these definitions, however, it must be kept in mind, that no attempt has been made to giveall the meanings of which a word is susceptible, but that only which it bears in the particular place in the exercise where it is found.There is a special educational advantage in thus leading the mind of the pupil definitely to fix upon theprecise importa of
word, in some particular use or application of it.
All proper names occurring in the text, and at all likely to embarrass the learner, have been explained in brief, comprehensive notes. These notes involve many matters, Geographical, Biographical, and Historical, which are not a little interesting in themselves, aside from the special purpose subserved by them in the present connection.
All this has been done, and more, in order to secure that kind of interest in the exercises which comes of reading what is clearly understood; and because no perfect reading is possible, where the reader himself fails to perceive the meaning of what he reads.
In the selection and adaptation of the pieces, the highest aim has been to make and to leave the best moral impression; and this, not by dull and formal teachings, but by the pleasanter, and, therefore, more powerful, means of incidental and unexpected suggestion. Admonition is then most likely to be heeded, when it comes through the channel of events and circumstances.
The direct and ostensible aim of the book, however, has been kept steadily in view; which is to furnish the best possible exercises for practice in Rhetorical reading. To this end, the greatest variety of style and sentiment has been sought. There is scarcely a tone or modulation, of which the human voice is capable, that finds not here some piece adapted precisely to its best expression. There is not an inflection, however delicate, not an emphasis, however slight, however strong, that does not here meet with something fitted well for its amplest illustration. No tenderness of pathos, no earnestness of thought, no play of wit, no burst of passion, is there, perhaps, of which the accomplished teacher of Elocution may not find the proper style of expression in these pages, and, consequently, the best examples for the illustration of his art.
The book, thus briefly described, is, therefore, given to the public with the same confidence that has hitherto inspired the author in similar efforts, and with the hope that it may reach even a higher measure of usefulness than that attained by any of its predecessors, in the long line of works which he has prepared for the use of schools.
NEW YORK, April, 1863.
CONTENTS.
PART FIRST.
SECTION I.—ARTICULATION
ELOCUTION.
 ELEMENTARY SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS  SUBSTITUTES FOR THE VOWEL ELEMENTS  SUBSTITUTES FOR THE CONSONANT ELEMENTS  ERRORS IN ARTICULATION  COMBINATIONS OF CONSONANTS  EXAMPLES TO ILLUSTRATE INDISTINCT ARTICULATION  MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES
SECTION II—ACCENT AND EMPHASIS
 EXAMPLES OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY ACCENT  EXAMPLES OF INTENSIVE EMPHASIS  EXAMPLES OF ABSOLUTE EMPHASIS  EXAMPLES OF ANTITHETIC EMPHASIS
SECTION III.—INFLECTIONS
 MONOTONE  RISING AND FALLING INFLECTIONS  RULES FOR THE USE OF INFLECTIONS  THE CIRCUMFLEX
SECTION IV.—MODULATION
 PITCH OF VOICE  QUANTITY  RULES FOR QUANTITY  QUALITY  RULES FOR QUALITY
NOTATION IN MODULATION
 EXAMPLES FOR EXERCISE IN MODULATION  SECTION V.—THE RHETORICAL PAUSE
PART SECOND.
1.TRUE HEROISM,Adapted. Osborne
2.YOU AND I,Charles Mackay
3.LIFE'S WORK
4.THE YOUNG CAPTIVES
5.MY MOTHER'S LAST KISS,Mrs. E. Oakes Smith
6.THE DEAD CHILD'S FORD,Mrs. E. Oakes Smith
7.LAME AND LAZY—A Fable
8.FAITHFULNESS IN LITTLE THINGS,Adapted, Eliza A. Chase
9.THE AMERICAN BOY
10.THE SAILOR BOY'S SONG
11.CHASE OF THE PET FAWN,Adapted. Miss Cooper
12.KINDNESS
13.CARELESS WORDS
14.WEBSTER AND THE WOODCHUCK,Adapted. Boston Traveler
15.DO IT YOURSELF
16.BETTER LATE THAN NEVER
17.THE ADOPTED CHILD,Mrs. Hemans
18.THE OLD EAGLE TREE,Rev. John Todd
19.THE LIGHT OF KNOWLEDGE,Elihu Burritt
20.NIGHT'S LESSONS,L.H. Sigourney
21.NATURE'S TEACHINGS,Chambers' Journal
22.SOWING AND HARVESTING,Anon.
23.A THRILLING INCIDENT,Adapted. Anon.
24.THE TRUTHFUL KING
25.WHEN SHALL I ANSWER, NO,J.N. McElligott
26.TO MASTER ROBERT AND JOHN,Davis
27.WHANG, THE MILLER,Goldsmith
28.CHIMNEY-SWALLOWS,Henry Ward Beecher
29.THE DOUBTING HEART,Adelaide Procter
30.THE COMING OF WINTER,T.B. Read
31.CHILD TIRED OF PLAY,N.P. Willis
32.THE RESCUE,By a Sea Captain
33.ROBERT BRUCE AND THE SCOTCH WOMAN
34.ROBERT BRUCE AND THE SPIDER,Bernard Barton
35.WEALTH AND FASHION
36.MY FIRST JACK-KNIFE
37.THE PINE-TREE SHILLINGS,Nathaniel Hawthorne
38.HIAWATHA'S HUNTING,Longfellow
39.DESPERATE ENCOUNTER WITH A PANTHER,Bk. of Adventures
40.THE POWER OF HABIT,John B. Gough
41.THE DRUNKARD'S DAUGHTER
42.THE TWO YOUNG TRAVELERS,Adapted. Merry's Museum
43.HIGHER!
44.LABOR,Caroline F. Orne
45.THE AMBITIOUS APPRENTICE
46.SO WAS FRANKLIN,Anon.
47.NOW AND THEN,Jane Taylor
48.AN INGENIOUS STRATAGEM,Days of Washington
49.FRANCES SLOCUM, THE YOUNG CAPTIVE,B.J. Lossing
50.THE RAIN-DROPS,Delia Louise Colton
51.SMALL THINGS,F. Bennoch
52.MURDERER'S CREEK,James K. Paulding
53.NAPOLEON'S ARMY CROSSING THE ALPS,Adapted. Anon.
54.WHERE THERE'S A WILL THERE'S A WAY,Eliza Cook
55."I CAN"
56.NOW, TO-DAY,Adelaide A. Procter
57.CAPTURE OF MAJOR ANDRE
58.BENEDICT ARNOLD
59.BEHIND TIME,Freeman Hunt
60.HOW HAPPY I'LL BE
61.THE SWORD OF BUNKER HILL,William R. Wallace
62.BIBLE LEGEND OF THE WISSAHIKON,Lippard
63.ADVICE TO THE YOUNG,E.H. Chapin
64.THE INTREPID YOUTH
65.THE FOUR MISFORTUNES,John G. Saxe
66.MRS. CREDULOUS AND THE FORTUNE-TELLER
67.FAITH, HOPE, AND CHARITYAn Allegory
68.NOT TO MYSELF ALONE,S.W. Partridge
69.THE WORLD WOULD BE THE BETTER FOR IT,W.H. Cobb
70.SELECT PROVERBS OF SOLOMON,Bible
71.WINTER BEAUTY,Henry Ward Beecher
72.FROSTED TREES
73.THE MOUNTAINS OF LIFE,James G. Clark
74.IMAGINARY EVILS,Chas. Swain
75.SIR WALTER AND THE LION,A. Walchner
76.CHOICE EXTRACTS
 I. WHAT REALLY BENEFITS US.  II. GOD'S LOVE.  III. LIFE-WORK.  IV. HUMILITY.  V. BENEFITS OF ADVERSITY.  VI. OUR MOUNTAIN HOMES.  VII. MAKE A BEGINNING.  VIII. INFLUENCE.  IX. PLEASURE IN ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE.  X. WHAT IS FAME?  XI. CULTIVATED INTELLECT.  XII. GOD'S WORKS ATTEST HIS GREATNESS.
77.CAPTURE OF THE WHALE
78.LEAVES FROM AN AERONAUT,Willis Gaylord Clark
79.THE DAPPLE MARE,John G. Saxe
80.A LEAP FOR LIFE,George P. Morris
81.THE INDIAN BRIDE'S REVENGE,Adapted. L.M. Stowell
82.A MOTHER'S LOVE,Albert Barnes
83.THE LIFE-BOOK,Home Journal
84.ODE ON SOLITUDE,Pope
85.GETTING THE RIGHT START,J.G. Holland
86.THE PRESUMPTION OF YOUTH,Rollin
87.SONG OF THE AMERICAN EAGLE
89.LAST CRUISE OF THE MONITOR,Adapted. Grenville M. Weeks
90.DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF WOMEN,Gail Hamilton
91.SCENE FROM WILLIAM TELL,J. Sheridan Knowles
92.THE RICH MAN AND THE POOR MAN,Khemnitzer
93.GRANDEUR OF THE OCEAN,Walter Colton
94.A BURIAL AT SEA,Walter Colton
95.THE TREASURES OF THE DEEP,Mrs. Hemans
96.THE BRIDGE OF SIGHS,Thomas Hood
97.A REQUIEM
98.VISIT TO MOUNT VERNON,A.C. Ritchie
99.LA FAYETTE,Charles Sprague
100.THE MYSTIC WEAVER,Rev. Dr. Harbaugh
101.WORK AWAY,Harpers' Magazine
102.QUEEN ISABELLA'S RESOLVE,Vinet
103.DISCOVERY OF THE NEW WORLD,Lamartine
104.THE RETURN OF COLUMBUS,Vinet
105.TWO HUNDRED YEARS AGO,Grenville Mellen
106.PRESS ON,Park Benjamin
107.THE THREE FORMS OF NATURE,From the French of Michelet
108.THE WHALE AND THE WHALER,From the French of Michelet
109.RIENZI'S ADDRESS TO THE ROMANS,Miss Mitford
110.SONG OF THE FORGE
111.CHOICE EXTRACTS
 I. SWIFTNESS OF TIME.  II. THE SHIP OF STATE.  III. THE TRUE HERO.  IV. HEART ESSENTIAL TO GENIUS.  V. EDUCATION.  VI. VANITY OF WEALTH.  VII. CONSOLATION OF THE GOSPEL.  VIII. THE LIGHT OF HOPE.  IX. PAMPERING THE BODY AND STARVING THE SOUL.
112.WE ALL DO FADE AS A LEAF,Gail Hamilton
113.TEACHINGS OF NATURE,Pollok
114.PASSING UNDER THE ROD,Mary S.B. Dana
115.THE PETULANT MAN,Osborne
116.THE BRAHMIN AND THE ROGUES,Versified by J.N. McElligott
117.LIVING WITHIN OUR MEANS,S.W. Partridge
118.GRANDEUR OF THE UNIVERSE,O.M. Mitchel
119."WHOM HAVE I IN HEAVEN BUT THEE?",Pamelia S. Vining
120.THE MEMORY OF WASHINGTON,Kossuth
121.THE LOST ONE'S LAMENT
EXPLANATION OF THE PAUSES.
. ThePeriodthe longest pause—a full stop. It marks the end of a sentence, is and shows the sense complete; as, The sky is blue`. Pause the time of counting six, and let the voice fall.
? TheInterrogationis used at the end of a question; as, Is the sky blue´? If the question can be answered byyes orno, the voice rises; if not, it falls; as, Where is your map`;? Pause the time of countingsix.
! TheExclamationdenotes wonder, surprise, pain, or joy; as, O´! what a sweet rose`! Pause the time of countingone, after a single word, and let the voice rise; but after a complete sentence, pause the time of countingsix, and let the voice fall.
: TheColon is a pause shorter than the Period; as, The sky is clear`: the sun shines. Pause the time of countingfour, and let the voice fall.
; TheSemicolonis a pause shorter than the Colon; as, The rose is fair`; but it soon fades. Pause the time of countingtwo, and let the voice fall. Sometimes the voice should rise, as the sense may require.
, TheCommais the shortest pause; as, Jane goes to school´, and learns to read. Pause the time of countingone, and keep the voice up.
TheDasha sudden pause or change of subject; as, I saw him—but denotes what a sight! When the dash is used after any other pause, the time of that pause is doubled.
EXPLANATION OF OTHER MARKS.
' TheApostrophethe form of the comma. It denotes  has the possessive case; as, John's book; also, that one or more letters have been left out of a word; as,
lov'd for loved.
" " T h eQuotation includes some other author ora passage that is taken from speaker; as, John said: "See my kite."
( ) TheParenthesisincludes words not properly a part of the main sentence; as, I like these people (who would not?) very much. The words within the parenthesis should be read in a lower tone of voice.
[ ] T h eBracketspreceding word orwords that serve to explain the  inclose sentence; as, James [the truthful boy] went home.
^ T h eCaretbeen omitted by shows where words are to be put in that have in mistake; as, Live peace. ^
¨ TheDiæresisis placed over the latter of two vowels, to show that they belong to two distinct syllables; as, aërial.
-TheHyphenis used to connect compound words; as, Well-doing; or the parts of a word separated at the end of a line.
TheIndexpoints to something special or remarkable; as,Important News!
*** ....or—— TheEllipsisshows that certain words or letters have been purposely omitted; as, K**g, k..g, or k--g, for king.
TheParagraphIt is chiefly used indenotes the beginning of a new subject. the Bible; as, ¶ The same day came to him, etc.
§ TheSectionis used to divide a book or chapter into parts; as, §45.
* † ‡ TheAsterisk, theObelisk, theDouble Dagger, and sometimes other marks, [Footnote: For instance: the Section mark, §, and the Parallel, ||.] refer to notes in the margin.
APPLICATIONS OF THE MARKS USED IN WRITING.
LINE  1 My Young Friends´, never tell a falsehood`; but always  2 speak the truth`; this is pleasing to your Maker.  3 Do you read His holy word—the Bible´? O! remem- 4 ber, that He has there said: "He that speaketh lies, shall
 5 not escape: he shall perish."* Remember, too, that the  6 All-seeing God knows all that we say or do.  7 ¶ Tho' wisdom's voice is seldom heard in k--g's  8 palaces,—there have beenwisekings, (e.g.Solomon,) who  9 were lov'd and obey'd by their subjects.†  10 Here, [i.e. in the U.S.,] we can not boast of our kings,  11 princes, lords, &c.; yet we have had a PRESIDENT, who,  12 in true greatness, surpass'ed them all; viz., the great  13 WASHINGTON.—— ⇒ Washington feared and hon- 14 ored God.  15 § Section, ‡ Double Dagger, and || Parallel, are also used  16 for reference to the margin.
 * Proverbs xix. 5 and 9. † 1 Kings.
PART FIRST. ELOCUTION.
Elocution is the art of delivering written or extemporaneous composition with force, propriety, and ease.
It deals, therefore, with words, not only as individuals, but as members of a sentence, and parts of a connected discourse: including every thing necessary to the just expression of the sense. Accordingly, it demands, in aspecial manner, attention to the following particulars; viz., ARTICULATION, ACCENT, EMPHASIS, INFLECTION, MODULATION, and PAUSES.
SECTION I. ARTICULATION.
Articulation is the art of uttering distinctly and justly the letters and syllables constituting a word.
It deals, therefore, with the elements of words, just as elocution deals with the elements of sentences: the one securing the true enunciation of each letter, or combination of letters, the other giving to each word, or combination of words, such a delivery as best expresses the meaning of the author. It is the basis of all good reading, and should be carefully practiced by the learner.
VOWEL SOUNDS. TONICS.
Element. 1 1.— A
Power. as inApe.
ELEMENTARY SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS.