Seasoning of Wood

Seasoning of Wood

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Seasoning of Wood, by Joseph B. WagnerThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.netTitle: Seasoning of WoodAuthor: Joseph B. WagnerRelease Date: September 12, 2008 [EBook #26598]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK SEASONING OF WOOD ***Produced by Jason Isbell, Irma Spehar and the OnlineDistributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.netSEASONING OF WOODA TREATISE ON THE NATURAL ANDARTIFICIAL PROCESSES EMPLOYEDIN THE PREPARATION OF LUMBERFOR MANUFACTURE, WITHDETAILED EXPLANATIONS OF ITSUSES, CHARACTERISTICS ANDPROPERTIESILLUSTRATIONSBYJOSEPH B. WAGNERAUTHOR OF "COOPERAGE"NEW YORKD. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY25 PARK PLACE1917COPYRIGHT, 1917, BYD. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANYTHE·PLIMPTON·PRESSNORWOOD·MASS·U·S·APREFACEThe seasoning and kiln-drying of wood is such an important process in the manufacture of woods that a need for fullerinformation regarding it, based upon scientific study of the behavior of various species at different mechanicaltemperatures, and under different drying processes is keenly felt. Everyone connected with the woodworking industry, orits use in manufactured products, is well aware of the difficulties encountered in properly seasoning or removing themoisture content without ...

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Seasoning of Wood,
by Joseph B. Wagner
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no
cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it,
give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg
License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net
Title: Seasoning of Wood
Author: Joseph B. Wagner
Release Date: September 12, 2008 [EBook #26598]
Language: English
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK
SEASONING OF WOOD ***
Produced by Jason Isbell, Irma Spehar and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.netSEASONING OF WOOD
A TREATISE ON THE NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL
PROCESSES EMPLOYED IN THE PREPARATION
OF LUMBER FOR MANUFACTURE, WITH DETAILED
EXPLANATIONS OF ITS USES, CHARACTERISTICS
AND PROPERTIES
ILLUSTRATIONS
BY
JOSEPH B. WAGNER
AUTHOR OF "COOPERAGE"
NEW YORK
D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY
25 PARK PLACE
1917
COPYRIGHT, 1917, BY
D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY
THE·PLIMPTON·PRESS
NORWOOD·MASS·U·S·A
PREFACE
The seasoning and kiln-drying of wood is such animportant process in the manufacture of woods that a
need for fuller information regarding it, based upon
scientific study of the behavior of various species at
different mechanical temperatures, and under different
drying processes is keenly felt. Everyone connected
with the woodworking industry, or its use in
manufactured products, is well aware of the difficulties
encountered in properly seasoning or removing the
moisture content without injury to the timber, and of its
susceptibility to atmospheric conditions after it has
been thoroughly seasoned. There is perhaps no
material or substance that gives up its moisture with
more resistance than wood does. It vigorously defies
the efforts of human ingenuity to take away from it,
without injury or destruction, that with which nature
has so generously supplied it.
In the past but little has been known of this matter
further than the fact that wood contained moisture
which had to be removed before the wood could be
made use of for commercial purposes. Within recent
years, however, considerable interest has been
awakened among wood-users in the operation of kiln-
drying. The losses occasioned in air-drying and
improper kiln-drying, and the necessity for getting the
material dry as quickly as possible after it has come
from the saw, in order to prepare it for manufacturing
purposes, are bringing about a realization of the
importance of a technical knowledge of the subject.
Since this particular subject has never before been
represented by any technical work, and appears to
have been neglected, it is hoped that the trade will
appreciate the endeavor in bringing this book beforethem, as well as the difficulties encountered in
compiling it, as it is the first of its kind in existence.
The author trusts that his efforts will present some
information that may be applied with advantage, or
serve at least as a matter of consideration or
investigation.
In every case the aim has been to give the facts, and
wherever a machine or appliance has been illustrated
or commented upon, or the name of the maker has
been mentioned, it has not been with the intention
either of recommending or disparaging his or their
work, but has been made use of merely to illustrate
the text.
The preparation of the following pages has been a
work of pleasure to the author. If they prove beneficial
and of service to his fellow-workmen he will have been
amply repaid.
THE AUTHOR.
September, 1917
CONTENTS
Section I
P
A
TIMBER G
E
S
1
Characteristics and Properties of Same—Structure
--
of Wood—Properties of Wood—Classes of Trees
7
Section II
CONIFEROUS TREES
Wood of Coniferous Trees—Bark and Pith—Sapwo 8
od and Heartwood—The Annual or Yearly Ring—Sp -
ring- and Summer-Wood—Anatomical Structure—L 3
ist of Important Coniferous Trees 0
Section III
BROAD-LEAVED TREES
Wood of Broad-leaved Trees—Minute Structure—Li
st of Most Important Broad-leaved Trees—Red Gu 3
m—Range of Red Gum—Form of Red Gum—Toler 1
ance of Red Gum—Its Demands upon Soil and Moi -
sture—Reproduction of Red Gum—Second-growth 8
Red Gum—Tupelo Gum—Uses of Tupelo Gum—R 5
ange of Tupelo Gum
Section IV
GRAIN, COLOR, ODOR, WEIGHT, AND FIGURE I

N WOOD
8
Different Grains of Wood—Color and Odor of Wood 6
—Weight of Wood—Weight of Kiln-dried Wood of D -
ifferent Species—Figure in Wood 9
7
Section V
ENEMIES OF WOOD
General Remarks—Ambrosia or Timber Beetles—R
ound-headed Borers—Flat-headed Borers—Timber
Worms—Powder Post Borers—Conditions Favorabl 9
e for Insect Injury—Crude Products—Round Timbe 8
r with Bark on—How to Prevent Injury—Saplings— -Stave, Heading, and Shingle Bolts—Unseasoned Pr 1
oducts in the Rough—Seasoned Products in the Ro 1
ugh—Dry Cooperage Stock and Wooden Truss Ho 3
ops—Staves and Heads of Barrels Containing Alco
holic Liquids
Section VI
WATER IN WOOD
1
1
Distribution of Water in Wood—Seasonal Distributio
4
n of Water in Wood—Composition of Sap—Effects
-
of Moisture on Wood—The Fibre-Saturation Point i
1
n Wood
1
8
Section VII
WHAT SEASONING IS
1
What Seasoning Is—Difference Between Seasoned 1
and Unseasoned Wood—Manner of Evaporation of 9
Water—Absorption of Water by Dry Wood—Rapidit -
y of Evaporation—Physical Properties that Influenc 1
e Drying 2
7
Section VIII
ADVANTAGES OF SEASONING
1
2
Advantages of Seasoning—Prevention of Checking 8
and Splitting—Shrinkage of Wood—Expansion of W -
ood—Elimination of Stain and Mildew 1
3
7Section IX
DIFFICULTIES OF DRYING WOOD
1
3
Difficulties of Drying Wood—Changes Rendering Dr
8
ying Difficult—Losses Due to Improper Kiln-drying
-
—Properties of Wood that Effect Drying—Unsolved
1
Problems in Kiln-drying
4
4
Section X
HOW WOOD IS SEASONED
1
4
Methods of Drying—Drying at Atmospheric Pressur
5
e—Drying Under Pressure and Vacuum—Impregna
-
tion Methods—Preliminary Treatments—Out-of-doo
1
r Seasoning
5
5
Section XI
KILN-DRYING OF WOOD
Advantages of Kiln-drying over Air Drying—Physical
Conditions Governing the Drying of Wood—Theory
of Kiln-drying—Requirements in a Satisfactory Dry 1
Kiln—Kiln-drying—Remarks—Underlying Principles 5
—Objects of Kiln-drying—Conditions of Success— 6
Different Treatments According to Kind—Temperat -
ure Depends—Air Circulation—Humidity—Kiln-dryin 1
g—Pounds of Water Lost in Drying 100 Pounds of 8
Green Wood in the Kiln—Kiln-drying Gum—Prelimi 4
nary Steaming—Final Steaming—Kiln-drying of Gre
en Red Gum
Section XII TYPES OF DRY KILNS
Different types of Dry Kilns—The "Blower" or "Hot B
1
last" Dry Kiln—Operating the "Blower" or "Hot Blast"
8
Dry Kiln—The "Pipe" or "Moist-Air" Dry Kiln—Opera
5
ting the "Pipe" or "Moist-Air" Dry Kiln—Choice of Dr
-
ying Method—Kilns of Different Types—The "Progr
2
essive" Dry Kiln—The "Apartment" Dry Kiln—The "P
0
ocket" Dry Kiln—The "Tower" Dry Kiln—The "Box"
5
Dry Kiln
Section XIII
DRY KILN SPECIALTIES
Kiln Cars and Method of Loading Same—The "Cros
2
s-wise" Piling Method—The "End-wise" Piling Metho
0
d—The "Edge-wise" Piling Method—The Automatic
6
Lumber Stacker—The Unstacker Car—Stave Piling
-
—Shingle Piling—Stave Bolt Trucks—Different Typ
2
es of Kiln Cars—Different Types of Transfer Cars—
3
Dry Kiln Doors—Different Types of Kiln Door Carrie
6
rs
Section XIV
HELPFUL APPLIANCES IN KILN DRYING
The Humidity Diagram—Examples of Use—The Hy
2
grodeik—The Recording Hygrometer—The Register
3
ing Hygrometer—The Recording Thermometer—Th
7
e Registering Thermometer—The Recording Steam
-
Gauge—The Troemroid Scalometer—Test Samples
2
—Weighing—Examples of Use—Records of Moistu
5
re Content—Saw Mills—Factories—The Electric He
0
ater
Section XV
2
5
11
Bibliography—Glossary—Index of Latin Names—In
-
dex of Common Names
2
5
7
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
FI
PAGE
G.
1. Board of pine 13
2. Wood of spruce 14
3. Group of fibres from pine wood 15
4. Block of oak 31
5. Board of oak 32
6. Cross-section of oak highly magnified 32
7. Highly magnified fibres of wood 33
8. Isolated fibres and cells of wood 34
9. Cross-section of basswood 35
10
A large red gum 52
.
11
A tupelo gum slough 53
.
12
Second growth red gum 57
.
13
A cypress slough in dry season 58
.
14
A large cottonwood 78
.
15
Spiral grain in wood 87
.
16