South Africa and the Transvaal War, Vol. 1 (of 6) - From the Foundation of Cape Colony to the Boer Ultimatum - of 9th Oct. 1899
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South Africa and the Transvaal War, Vol. 1 (of 6) - From the Foundation of Cape Colony to the Boer Ultimatum - of 9th Oct. 1899


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The Project Gutenberg EBook of South Africa and the Transvaal War, Vol. 1(of 6), by Louis CreswickeThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.orgTitle: South Africa and the Transvaal War, Vol. 1 (of 6)From the Foundation of Cape Colony to the Boer Ultimatumof 9th Oct. 1899Author: Louis CreswickeRelease Date: December 3, 2007 [EBook #23692]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK SOUTH AFRICA ***Produced by Jonathan Ingram, Brownfox and the OnlineDistributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.netTRANSCRIBER'S NOTE: All images apart from the front cover are thumbnails linked to larger images, for faster loading.Images may have been moved to allow the text to flow in the HTML version.Front Cover. South Africa and the Transvaal War.LIEUTENANTS MELVILL and COGHILL (24th REGIMENT) DYING TO SAVE THE QUEEN'S COLOURS. An Incident atthe Battle of Isandlwana. Painting by C. E. Fripp.LIEUTENANTS MELVILL and COGHILL (24th REGIMENT) DYING TO SAVE THE QUEEN'S COLOURS.An Incident at the Battle of Isandlwana.Painting by C. E. Fripp.SOUTH AFRICA AND THE TRANSVAAL WARBYLOUIS CRESWICKEAUTHOR OF "ROXANE," ETC.WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPSIN SIX VOLUMEST HVOL. I.—FROM THE FOUNDATION OF CAPE COLONY TO THE BOER ULTIMATUM OF 9 OCT. ...



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The Project Gutenberg EBook of South Africa and the Transvaal War, Vol. 1 (of 6), by Louis Creswicke This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: South Africa and the Transvaal War, Vol. 1 (of 6) From the Foundation of Cape Colony to the Boer Ultimatum of 9th Oct. 1899 Author: Louis Creswicke Release Date: December 3, 2007 [EBook #23692] Language: English *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK SOUTH AFRICA *** Produced by Jonathan Ingram, Brownfox and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE: All images apart from the front cover are thumbnails linked to larger images, for faster loading. Images may have been moved to allow the text to flow in the HTML version. Front Cover. South Africa and the Transvaal War. LIEUTENANTS MELVILL and COGHILL (24th REGIMENT) DYING TO SAVE THE QUEEN'S COLOURS. An Incident at the Battle of Isandlwana. Painting by C. E. Fripp. LIEUTENANTS MELVILL and COGHILL (24th REGIMENT) DYING TO SAVE THE QUEEN'S COLOURS. An Incident at the Battle of Isandlwana. Painting by C. E. Fripp. South Africa and the Transvaal War BY LOUIS CRESWICKE AUTHOR OF "ROXANE," ETC. WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS IN SIX VOLUMES VOL. I.—FROM THE FOUNDATION OF CAPE COLONY TO THE BOER ULTIMATUM OF 9TH OCT. 1899 EDINBURGH: T. C. & E. C. JACK 1900 PREFATORY NOTE In writing this volume my aim has been to present an unvarnished tale of the circumstances—extending over nearly half a century—which have brought about the present crisis in South Africa. Consequently, it has been necessary to collate the opinions of the best authorities on the subject. My acknowledgments are due to the distinguished authors herein quoted for much valuable information, throwing light on the complications that have been accumulating so long, and that owe their origin to political blundering and cosmopolitan scheming rather than to the racial antagonism between Briton and Boer. L. C. CONTENTS—VOL. I. PAGE CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE ix INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I PAGE The Growth of the Transvaal 13 The Boer Character 15 Some Domestic Traits 18 CHAPTER II PAGE The Orange Free State 24 The Grondwet 26 Transvaal Dissensions 29 Zulu Disturbances 30 The Political Web 33 The Web Thickening 36 The Zulu War 38 Isandlwana 40 Affairs at Home 43 Towards Ulundi 49 The Victory 57 CHAPTER III PAGE Sir Garnet Wolseley at Pretoria 62 Gladstone out of Office and in Office 65 Commencement of Rebellion 69 The Fate of Captain Elliot 73 Laing's Nek 77 Ingogo 84 Majuba 86 The Siege of Pretoria 95 Retrocession 99 The Betrayed Loyalists 101 CHAPTER IV PAGE The Conventions 106 Mr. Kruger 110 Germans and Uitlanders 114 CHAPTER V PAGE Mr. Rhodes 118 Rhodesia—Uncivilised 120 Rhodesia—Civilised 124 Gold 127 Diamonds 131 CHAPTER VI PAGE The Transvaal of To-day 136 Accumulated Aggravations 138 Monopolies and Abuses 143 The Franchise 146 The Reform Movement 149 The Critical Moment 153 The Raid 156 After Doornkop 172 The Fate of the Miscreants 177 The Ultimatum 178 APPENDIX—Conventions of 1881 and 1884 191, 197 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS—Vol. I. 1. COLOURED PLATES PAGE Fron Dying to Save the Queen's Colours. An Incident tispi of the Battle of Isandlwana. By C. E. Fripp ece Colonel of the 10th Hussars (H.R.H. the Prince 16 of Wales) 2nd Dragoons (Royal Scots Greys) 32 Officer of the 16th Lancers 64 Drum-Major and Drummers, Coldstream Guard 80 s Colour-Sergeant and Private, the Scots Guards 104 Sergeant and Bugler, 1st Argyle and Sutherland 140 140 Highlanders Colour-Sergeant and Private (in khaki), Glouces 172 ter Regiment 2. FULL-PAGE PLATES PAGE Cape Town, Devil's Peak, Table Mountain, and 10 Lion's Head, from Table Bay A Kaffir Kraal in the Transvaal 20 Bloemfontein, from the South 26 The Defence of Rorke's Drift. By Alphonse de N 42 euville The Battle of Ulundi: the Final Rush of the Zulus 58 . By R. Caton Woodville The Orange River at Norval's Pont 74 The Battle of Majuba Hill. By R. Caton Woodvill 90 e Where Colley Fell. Rough Cairn of Stones on M 92 ajuba Hill The Matabele War—Defending a Laager. By R. 118 Caton Woodville "To the Memory of Brave Men." The Last Stand of Major Wilson on the Shangani River, 1893. B 124 y Allan Stewart A Matabele Raid in Mashonaland By W. Small 128 Kimberley, as seen from the Rock Shaft 132 Pretoria, from the East 138 South African Natives—Bound for the Goldfields 148 Jameson's Last Stand—the Battle of Doornkop, 160 2nd January 1896. By R. Caton Woodville Johannesburg, from the North 166 3. FULL-PAGE PORTRAITS PAGE Sir Henry Bartle Frere, Bart 48 General Sir Evelyn Wood, G.C.B., V.C. 96 Paul Kruger, President of the Transvaal Republi 112 c Right Hon. Cecil John Rhodes, P.C. 144 Dr. Leander Starr Jameson 152 Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, M.P., Secretar 176 y for the Colonies Sir Alfred Milner, K.C.B., High Commissioner for 184 South Africa Viscount Wolseley, Commander-in-chief of the 188 British Army 4. MAPS PAGE At F Map of British South Africa ront Map of the Boer Republics " Map of Zululand and the Adjoining Portions of N 41 atal Map of Country round Laing's Nek and Majuba 81 Hill Plan of Disposition of Forces on Top of Majuba 89 Hill Map of Matabeleland 121 Map Illustrating the Jameson Raid 163 CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE—Vol. I. 1851.—First Basuto war. 1852.—Sand River Convention, granting independence to Transvaal Boers. 1853.—Province of British Kaffraria created. Introduction of representative government in Cape Colony. 1854.—Convention of Bloemfontein and Treaty of Aliwal, granting independence to Orange Free State. Free State abandoned to Dutch. 1855.—Establishment of a Constitution for South African Republic; not completed till 1858. 1856.—Natal created a separate Colony. 2000 German legion and 2000 German labourers arrived. 1858.—War between Orange Free State and Basutos. 1859.—First railway constructed. 1865.—British Kaffraria incorporated with Cape Colony. War between Free State and Basutos. 1867.—First discovery of diamonds near Orange River. First discovery of gold in Transvaal. 1868.—Annexation of Basutoland. 1869.—Discovery of diamonds near Lower Vaal River, where Kimberley now stands. Commercial Treaty concluded between Portuguese Government and the South African Republic, which led to British claims to Delagoa Bay. 1871.—Annexation of Griqualand West (Diamond Fields). Basutoland added to Cape. 1872.—Responsible Government granted to Cape Colony. Cetchwayo succeeds his father, Panda, as king in Zululand. 1872-75.—Delagoa Bay arbitration. 1874.—Ichaboe and Penguin Islands annexed. 1875.—Delagoa Bay award. 1875-80.—Lord Carnarvon's scheme for making the different colonies and states of South Africa into a confederation with common administration and common legislation in national matters. 1876.—Fingoland, Idutywa Reserve, and No-Man's- Land annexed. Acceptance by Free State of £90,000 for Griqualand West. Khama, Chief of Bamangwato, seeks British protection against Boer aggressions. 1877.—Annexation of Transvaal by Sir T. Shepstone, after the country had been reduced to a state of anarchy by misgovernment. 1877-78.—Gaika and Gealika rebellion. 1878.—Walfish Bay proclaimed a British possession. 1879.—Zulu war. Transvaal declared a Crown Colony. 1880.—Basuto war. Sekukuni campaign. Boer protest against British rule at a mass meeting held in December at Paardekraal (now Krugersdorp). They seize Heidelberg. South African Republic established. December 16.—Kruger, Joubert, and Pretorius proclaimed South African Republic by hoisting flag on Dingaan's Day. Kruger made President on December 17. British treacherously surrounded at Bronkhurst Spruit, December 20, when about 250 of 94th Regiment, after losing nearly all their men, surrendered. Colonel Bellairs besieged in Potchefstroom, but Boers retire when shelled. December 29.—Captain Elliot treacherously murdered while fording the Vaal. 1880-81.—Reinforcements sent out December and January. Griqualand West incorporated with the Cape. 1881.—Transvaal rebellion. Pretoria Convention, creating "Transvaal State" under British suzerainty. Sir George Colley takes command of our troops, January. His attack on Laing's Nek repulsed with heavy loss. Colonel Deane and Majors Poole and Hingiston killed. 1881.—Severe engagement near Ingogo River, Feb. 8. British repulsed after 12 hours under fire. Sir E. Wood joined Colley with reinforcements. Orange Free State neutrality declared. Colley and Majuba Hill, Feb. 27; Colley killed with 3 officers and 82 men; 122 men taken prisoners. Sir F. (now Lord) Roberts sent out, Feb. 28. Armistice proposed by Boers, March 5; accepted March 23. Peace proclaimed, March 21. Potchefstroom surrendered with honours of war in ignorance of armistice, April. Commission appointed to carry out Treaty of Peace, April 5. Convention agreed to, ceding all territory to Transvaal, with the Queen as suzerain, and a British resident at Pretoria, Aug. 8. Convention ratified, Oct. 25. Evacuation of Transvaal by British troops began on Nov. 18. 1884.—London Convention restoring to the Transvaal the title of "South African Republic." Annexation of Damaraland by Germany. Boer Republics of Stellaland and Goshen set up in Bechuanaland. Boers seize and annex Montsioaland; sanctioned by proclamation; withdrawn on remonstrance. Ultimatum by Sir H. Robinson, requiring protection of frontiers. British annexation of Southern, and protectorate of Northern Bechuanaland. Basutoland made independent. Port St. John annexed. British flag hoisted in Lucia Bay, Zululand (ceded to England in 1843, by Panda). 1884-85.—Sir Charles Warren's expedition. 1885.—Annexation of Bechuanaland to Cape Colony. 1885.—British protectorate over Khama's country proclaimed as far as Matabeleland. Discovery of great goldfields in Witwatersrandt, Transvaal. 1886.—Opening of principal goldfields in Transvaal. British Government put a stop to Boer raids into Zululand, and confined them to a territory of nearly 3000 square miles; to be known as the "New Republic." 1887.—British annexation of the rest of Zululand. British treaty with Tonga chiefs, in which they undertook not to make treaties with any other power. 1888.—"New Republic" annexed to South African Republic. Treaty concluded between British and Lo Bengula, the Matabele king, in which he undertook not to cede territory to, or treat with, any foreign power without British consent. 1889.—Charter granted to British South Africa Company. 1890.—First Swaziland Convention, giving Boers certain rights to a railway to the coast. British and German "spheres of influence" defined by formal agreement. 1891.—Southern boundary of Portuguese territory fixed by treaty with Great Britain. 1893.—Responsible government granted to Natal. Matabele war. 1894.—Malaboch war. Question of "commandeering" British subjects raised in South African Republic. Second Swaziland Convention, placing Swaziland under Boer control. Annexation of Amatongaland. Annexation of Pondoland. British subjects exempted from military service by Transvaal Government, June 24. Protest by British Government against closing the Vaal Drifts, as contrary to Convention; Nov. 3. Agreed to Nov. 8. 1895.—Crown Colony of Bechuanaland annexed to Cape Colony. Proclamation of Reform movement by Uitlanders in Johannesburg (National Union), Dec. 26. Jameson Raid—he crossed the frontier with a force from Pitsani Pitlogo, Dec. 29. Sir H. Robinson telegraphed to Jameson to retire, Dec. 30. Mr. Chamberlain and Sir H. Robinson sent order to stop hostilities, Dec. 31. 1896.—Dr. Jameson's party, outnumbered and without resources, defeated by Boers near Krugersdorp, Jan. 1. Fight at Vlakfontein, and surrender of Jameson, Jan. 2. Johannesburg surrendered unconditionally by advice of British Government, Jan. 2. Dr. Jameson and other prisoners handed over to Sir H. Robinson, Jan. 7. 1897.—Judicial Crisis in South African Republic. Annexation of Zululand to Natal. 1899.— Petition of Uitlanders to the Queen, May 24. Conference, at Bloemfontein, between Sir A. Milner and Kruger, May 30. Terminated without result, June 6. British Despatch to Transvaal, setting forth demands for immediate acceptance, Sept. 8. Unsatisfactory reply, Sept. 16. Troops despatched to Natal, Sept. and Oct. Insulting Boer Ultimatum, making war inevitable, Oct. 9. Orange Free State joins with the Transvaal. GENERAL MAP OF BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA Map of the Boer Republics. SOUTH AFRICA AND THE TRANSVAAL WAR INTRODUCTION The Transvaal War—like a gigantic picture—cannot be considered at close quarters. To fully appreciate the situation, and all that it embraces, the critic must stand at a suitable distance. He must gaze not merely with the eye of to-day, or even of the whole nineteenth century, but with his mind educated to the strange conditions of earlier civilisation. For in these conditions will be found the root of the widespread mischief—the answer to many a riddle which superficial observers have been unable to comprehend. The racial hatred between Boer and Briton is not a thing of new growth; it has expanded with the expansion of the Boer settlers themselves. In fact, on the Boer side, it is the only thing independent of British enterprise which has grown and expanded since the Dutch first set foot in the Cape. This took place in 1652. Then, Jan Van Riebeck, of the Dutch East India Company, first established an European settlement, and a few years later the burghers began life as cattle-breeders, agriculturists, and itinerant traders. These original Cape Colonists were descendants of Dutchmen of the lower classes, men of peasant stamp, who were joined in 1689 by a contingent of Huguenot refugees. The Boers, or peasants, of that day were men of fine type, a blend between the gipsy and the evangelist. They were nomadic in their taste, lawless, and impatient of restrictions, bigoted though devout, and inspired in all and through all by an unconquerable love of independence. With manners they had nothing to do, with progress still less. Isolation from the civilised world, and contact with Bushmen, Hottentots, and Kaffirs, kept them from advancing with the times. Their slaves outnumbered themselves, and their treatment of these makes anything but enlivening reading. From all accounts the Boer went about with the Bible in one hand and the sjambok in the other, instructing himself assiduously with the Word, while asserting himself liberally with the deed. Yet he was a first-rate sporting man, a shrewd trafficker, and at times an energetic tiller of the soil. The early settlements were Rondebosch, Stellenbosch, and Drakenstein, in the valley of the Berg River. Here the Dutch community laboured, and smoked, and married, multiplying itself with amazing rapidity, and expanding well beyond the original limits. Dutch domination at the Cape lasted for 143 years after the landing of Van Riebeck, but gradually internal dissensions among the settlers resulted in absolute revolt. Meanwhile the Dutch in Europe had lost their political prestige, and the country was overrun by a Prussian army commissioned to support the House of Orange. In 1793, in a war against allied England and