South America
116 Pages
English

South America

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Published 08 December 2010
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of South America, by W. H. Koebel This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org Title: South America Author: W. H. Koebel Release Date: February 27, 2006 [EBook #17877] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK SOUTH AMERICA *** Produced by Dave Morgan, Taavi Kalju and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. From the portrait in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. The gift of Mr. Pierpont Morgan. The painting bears the words "Sebastian Venetus, fecit 1519". A. Rischgitz. THE MAKING OF THE NATIONS SOUTH AMERICA BY W.H. KOEBEL AUTHOR OF "SOUTH AMERICA" IN BLACK'S SERIES OF COLOUR BOOKS, "MODERN ARGENTINA," "MODERN CHILE," ETC. WITH THIRTY-TWO FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS FROM PHOTOGRAPHS, ETC., AND MAPS AND PLANS IN THE TEXT ADAM & CHARLES BLACK LONDON MCMXIII [Pg v] PREFACE The history of a continent such as South America, confined to the limits of a single volume of moderate size, must of necessity contain some elements of mere survey. Nevertheless, since in no other but a condensed form could the respective strides achieved by the various nations of this continent be satisfactorily judged and compared, the author is encouraged to hope that this small work may fill in one of the most obvious of the many gaps in the English versions of South American history. He has endeavoured to lay stress on the trend of the authorities and peoples in question rather than to emphasize the rigid succession of Governors and Presidents. In the same way, since space has had to be considered, it was thought desirable to introduce at any length only those personalities notable for their actions and intrinsic influence, leaving in the background those others whose only claim to the interest of posterity lies in the weight of the office they held. [Pg vii] CONTENTS CHAPTER I. THE CONTINENT IN PRE-SPANISH DAYS II. COLUMBUS III. THE SPANISH CONQUISTADORES IV. THE DISCOVERY AND EARLY HISTORY OF BRAZIL V. THE CONQUEST OF PERU VI. SPANIARD AND NATIVE VII. THE COLONIZATION OF THE SOUTH VIII. THE GOVERNMENT OF THE SOUTH AMERICAN COLONIES IX. FOREIGN RAIDS ON THE SPANISH COLONIES X. FOREIGN RAIDS ON PORTUGUESE COLONIES XI. THE COLONY OF PERU XII. THE COLONY OF CHILE XIII. THE COLONIES OF PARAGUAY AND THE RIVER PLATE XIV. THE NORTHERN COLONIES XV. THE LAST DAYS OF EMPIRE XVI. THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE—I XVII. THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE—II XVIII. BRAZIL: FROM COLONY TO EMPIRE XIX. THE EMPIRE OF BRAZIL XX. FROM EMPIRE TO REPUBLIC XXI. MODERN BRAZIL XXII. THE INDEPENDENCE OF SPANISH AMERICA PAGE 1 14 26 36 47 56 64 74 83 95 110 121 130 142 151 159 176 185 201 211 220 228 [Pg viii] XXIII. THE REPUBLIC OF PERU XXIV. THE REPUBLIC OF PARAGUAY XXV. THE PARAGUAYAN WAR XXVI. THE REPUBLIC OF CHILE XXVII. THE REPUBLICS OF THE RIVER PLATE XXVIII. THE NORTHERN REPUBLICS INDEX 237 245 255 264 272 283 295 [Pg ix] LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PRINTED SEPARATELY FROM THE TEXT. CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS MANCO-CAPAC COLLECTING HIS PEOPLE FOR THE WORK OF BUILDING THE CITY OF CUZCO DIEGO DE ALMAGRO JORGE CABRAL COLUMBUS LANDING IN AMERICA VASCO DA GAMA THE DEFEAT OF THE PERUVIANS OUTSIDE CUZCO PIZARRO AND ATAHUALPA DEATH OF ATAHUALPA ATAHUALPA SUGAR-MAKING BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS CASAS FRANCISCO PIZARRO SECTIONS OF A SLAVE-SHIP OLINDA DE PERNAMBUCO FERDINAND MAGELLAN DUTCH VESSELS SAILING THROUGH THE STRAITS OF MAGELLAN DUTCH AND SPANISH VESSELS ENGAGED OFF CALLAO ACAPULCO AN ISLAND PASSAGE OF THE RIVER AMAZON POTOSI BRITISH WARSHIPS UNDER ANSON'S COMMAND PLUNDERING PAYTA SIMON BOLIVAR DON FRANCISCO SOLANO LOPEZ PEDRO I., EMPEROR OF BRAZIL THE OPENING OF THE SENATE HOUSE, RIO DE JANEIRO PALACE AND GREAT SQUARE IN RIO DE JANEIRO PEDRO II., EMPEROR OF BRAZIL THOMAS, TENTH EARL OF DUNDONALD, G.C.B. BERNARDO O'HIGGINS STATUE OF GENERAL MANUEL BELGRANO BRIGADIER-GENERAL BARTOLOMÉ MITRE Frontispiece TO FACE PAGE 5 12 16 37 44 49 53 60 65 69 76 80 85 92 101 108 116 125 144 149 156 164 173 193 196 205 208 261 268 277 284 [Pg x] PRINTED IN THE TEXT. PAGE MAP OF SOUTH AMERICA, SHOWING THE DISTRICTS OF THE ABORIGINAL TRIBES AT THE TIME OF THE SPANISH CONQUEST 9 A PERUVIAN CASSE-TÊTE AND A PIPE OF PEACE THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN, CUZCO INDIAN HUTS ON THE RIVER CHIPURANA THE STRAITS OF MAGELLAN, AS KNOWN AT THE TIME OF CORDOVA'S VOYAGE PEASANTS OF ST. MICHAEL PROCEEDING TO DEL GADO ARMS OF THE EMPIRE OF BRAZIL ARMS OF UNITED KINGDOMS OF PORTUGAL, THE ALGARVES, AND BRAZIL CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES, RIO DE JANEIRO SKETCH-MAP OF SOUTH AMERICA 50 53 54 91 158 192 192 197 293 [Pg 1] SOUTH AMERICA CHAPTER I THE CONTINENT IN PRE-SPANISH DAYS The discovery of South America stands as one of the most dramatic events in history. From the time of its occurrence until the present so deeply has this event impressed itself on men's minds that the previous state of the Continent has been a somewhat neglected topic. The Incas and their civilization, it is true, have attracted no small share of attention to themselves, and the subject has become more or less familiar to the average English reader through the medium of the work of Prescott, who has been followed by a number of later writers, many of whom have dealt very exhaustively with this subject. Yet, after all, the Incas, for all their historical importance, occupied but a very small portion of the territories of the Southern Continent. Beyond the western fringe of the Continent which was theirs by heritage, or by conquest, were other lands —mountainous in parts, level in others, where the great river basins extended themselves—which were the chosen hunting and fishing grounds of an almost innumerable number of tribes. The degree of civilization, or, more accurately speaking, of savagery which characterized these as a whole necessarily varied to a great extent in the case of each particular tribe. Nevertheless, from the comparatively high culture of the Incas down to the most intellectually submerged people of the forests and swamps, there were certain characteristics held in common by all. This applied not only to a marked physical likeness which stamped every dweller in the great Continent, but to customs, religious ceremonies, and government as well. Concerning the origin of the South American Indians interminable disputes have now raged for generations, but that in the case of all the various tribes the origin was the same has never, I think, been controverted. The most common theory concerning the origin of the South Americans is that this was