The Bontoc Igorot
153 Pages
English

The Bontoc Igorot

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Published 08 December 2010
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Bontoc Igorot, by Albert Ernest Jenks This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Bontoc Igorot Author: Albert Ernest Jenks Release Date: March 18, 2005 [EBook #3308] Language: English Character set encoding: ASCII *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BONTOC IGOROT *** Produced by Jeroen Hellingman Page 2 Group of prominent men, Bontoc pueblo. Photo by Jenks. The Bontoc Igorot Albert Ernest Jenks Manila 1905 Page 3 Letter of Transmittal D EPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, THE ETHNOLOGICAL SURVEY, Manila, February 3, 1904. SIR : I have the honor to submit a study of the Bontoc Igorot made for this Survey during the year 1903. It is transmitted with the recommendation that it be published as Volume I of a series of scientific studies to be issued by The Ethnological Survey for the Philippine Islands. Respectfully, Albert Ernst Jenks, Chief of The Ethnological Survey. Hon. D EAN C. WORCESTER , Secretary of the Interior, Manila, P. I. Page 5 Table of Contents Letter of Transmittal Illustrations Preface Introduction The Igorot Culture Group Igorot land Igorot peoples The Bontoc Culture Group Bontoc culture area Marks of Bontoc culture The Bontoc man Introduction Historical sketch Somatology General Social Life The pueblo Ato The family Childbirth Twins Abortion Child Life in olag Marriage The aged Sickness, disease, and remedies Death and burial Economic Life Production Natural production Cultural production Division of labor Wages, and exchange of labor Distribution Theft Conquest Consumption Foods Beverages Salt Sugar Meals and mealtime Transportation Commerce Barter Sale Medium of exchange Measure of exchange value Standard of value Trade routes Trade languages and traders Stages of commerce Property right Personal property of individual Personal property of group Real property of individual Real property of group Public property Sale of property Rent, loan, and lease of property Inheritance and bequest Tribute, tax, and “rake off” Political Life and Control Crimes, detection and punishment War and Head-Hunting Æsthetic Life Dress Decoration Tattoo Music Instrumental music Vocal music Dancing Games Formalities Religion Spirit belief Exorcist Lumawig, the Supreme Being “Changers” in religion Priesthood Sacred days Ceremonials Ceremonies connected with agriculture Ceremonies connected with climate Ceremonies connected with head taking Ceremony connected with ato Mental Life Actual knowledge Mensuration Folk tales The sun man and moon woman; or, origin of headhunting Origin of coling, the serpent eagle Origin of tilin, the ricebird Origin of kaag, the monkey Origin of gayyang, the crow, and fanias, the large lizard Owug, the snake Who took my father’s head? Language Introduction Alphabet Linguistic inconsistencies Nouns Pronouns Verbs Comparative vocabularies Bontoc vocabulary English, with Bontoc equivalent Plates Page 9 Illustrations Group of prominent men, Bontoc pueblo Sketch map of the Philippine Archipelago Sketch map of northern Luzon Sketch map of Bontoc culture area Section of the last long climb from Cervantes to Bontoc Tilud pass, east side A glimpse of Igorot land Ba-lu′-gan pueblo surrounded by rice sementeras Pueblo of Sagada The entrance to Bontoc pueblo Ku-lo-ku′-lo of Mayinit pueblo O-gang′-ga of Samoki pueblo Ku-lo-ku′-lo of Mayinit pueblo Bon-gao′ of Alap pueblo Bo-da′-da of Samoki pueblo U-dao′ of Bontoc pueblo Young woman of Bontoc pueblo Zag-tag′-an of Bontoc pueblo Ka-nay′-u of Bontoc pueblo Lang′-sa of Bontoc pueblo Sĭt-li′-nĭn of Bontoc pueblo Pĭt-ta′-pĭt of Bontoc pueblo Girls of Bontoc pueblo Blind woman of Bontoc pueblo Blind Ta-u′-li of Samoki pueblo Deformed feet of Bontoc men Bontoc pueblo viewed from Samoki Samoki pueblo viewed from Bontoc Plat of Bontoc pueblo, showing ato divisions Plat of section of a′-to Si-pa′-at Pa-ba-fu′-nan of a′-to Fi′-lĭg Fa′-wi of a′-to Si-pa′-at Fa′-wi of a′-to Cho′-ko O′-lâg Bontoc dwelling, the fay′-ü Timbers for a building seasoning in the mountains Fay′-ü showing open door Bontoc dwelling, the Kat-yu′-fong, a widow's house, showing pigpens which extend beneath it “In the shade of the low, projecting roof” “The mother who has come down with her babe on her back for an olla of water” The baby tenders Sam-kad′s' death chair Pine coffins The burial of Som-kad′ Bûg-ti′ with his wild-cock snare Wire cock snare set, with lure cock in center Wild-cat caught in the snare kok-o′-lâng The bird snare Lĭng-ang′. (Snare set.) (Snare sprung.) Trap fishing Emptying the fish trap Fisherman examining his ob-o′-fu Rice sementeras at transplanting season Banawi rice sementeras A terrace wall Women weeding a terrace wall at soil-turning season Partial view of Bontoc irrigating works The main dam, showing irrigation troughs beyond River irrigation scheme Irrigating ditch which feeds the troughs secured to the mountain side shown at the left Turning the soil in a water-filed sementera, showing women transplanting rice Mud-spattered soil turners Soil turners tramping the turned soil smooth and soft Bontoc camote beds Men crossing the river with pig manure to fertilize the rice sementeras Woman digging her final camote crop and working dead grass beneath the soil for fertilizer The rice seed beds at transplanting time, with granaries immediately beyond Women transplanting rice The bird scarers, Ki′-lao, floating over a field of ripening rice An outlook to guard against wild hogs Harvesting the rice Two harvesters Camote harvest Rice granaries Bunches of palay curing on the roof of a dwelling Granaries Carrying home the camotes Philippine carabaos Bontoc pigpens Cage in which fowls are shut at night Hats and headband (a) The bag pocket carried in front; (b) The rain hat Cotton blankets woven by Igorot in the western part of the Bontoc area Kambulo bark-fiber blankets Woman spinning thread on her naked thigh Lepanto Igorot woman weaving Wooden “pig pails” Gourd and wooden spoons Samoki potters at the clay pit Transporting clay from the pit to the pueblo (a) Macerating the clays in a wooden mortar; (b) Beginning a pot Shaping the rim of a pot Expanding the bowl of a pot Smoothing and finishing a sun-dried pot Woman's large transportation basket and winnowing tray Household baskets (sûg-fi′, fa-lo′-ko, ki′-ûg, ko′-lûg) The traveling basket; so-called “head basket” Bontoc shields Bontoc shields The Kalinga shields Banawi shield, front and back Bontoc war spears (fal-fĕg′) Spears (fan′-kao and kay-yan′) Bontoc battle-axes, with bajuco ferrules Bontoc battle-axes, with steel ferrules The Balbelasan or northern battle-ax Agawa clay pipe maker Agawa clay pipes. (Those in the lower row are finished.) Finished Agawa clay pipes, with stems Roll of beeswax and three wax pipe models Metal pipe makers Metal pipes. (The lower row shows poorly the “anito” pipe.) Children paring camotes Women threshing rice Gourd for storing salt meats Bamboo tube for carrying basi Mayinit pueblo. (Long